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PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

SCOTTISH HISTORY SOCIETY 

VOLUME XXXII 



THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

VOL. I 



JANUARY 1899 




PAPERS 

ILLUSTRATING THE HISTORY OF 

THE SCOTS BRIGADE 

IN THE SERVICE OF THE 
UNITED NETHERLANDS 

1572-1782 

Extracted by permission from the Government 

Archives at The Hague, and edited by 

JAMES FERGUSON 



VOL. I 

1572-1697 




EDINBURGH 

Printed at the University Press by T. and A. CONSTABLE 

for the Scottish History Society 

1899 



DR 
ISO 
25 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

GENERAL INTRODUCTION, ix 

List of the Successive Colonels of the Scots Brigade, . . xxxiv 

DIVISION I 

The War of Independence, 1572-1609. 

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE, . . . , * 3 

(1.) Preliminary Extracts from the Archives of Holland. 

1573-1587, . .36 

(2.) States of War. 1579-1609,. . . . . .43 

(3.) Commissions granted by the Council at the East side 
of the Meuse, the Governor-General, the Earl of 
Leicester, and the Council of State. 1581-1595, . 76 

(4.) Extracts relating to the claims of Colonel Bartholomew 
Balfour and the position of the Scottish Officers. 
1586-1594, 96 

(5.) Papers relating to the Claims and Embassies of 
Colonel Sir William Stewart of Houston, Sir 
William Murray, and Others, and Reports of the 
Dutch Embassies to England and Scotland in 
1588, 1589, and 1594. 1588-1595, . . .115 

(6.) Extracts from Resolutions of the [States-General, 
Letters of Recommendation, and Requests and 
Petitions sent to the Council of State. 1 594-1 609, 177 



vi THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

DIVISION II 

The Time of the Twelve Years Truce, 1609-1621. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE, : . . . . . .221 

(1.) States of War. 1610-1618, 226 

(2.) Extracts from Correspondence, Recommendations, 

Resolutions, Reports, and Requests. 1 609-1 611, . 234 

(3.) Extracts relating to the Services and Claims of Sir 
^ William Balfour and Captain Henry Balfour. 

1611-1615, . 250 

(4.) Extracts relating to the Services and Claims of 
Colonel Lord Buccleuch and his Son the first 
I. Earl of Buccleuch. 1611-1620, ... . 256 

(5.) Resolutions, Reports, Requests, Recommendations, 

etc. 1612-1620, . 270 

DIVISION III 

The Thirty Years War, 1621-1648. 

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE, ....... 307 

(1.) States of War. 1621-1648, .318 

(2.) Resolutions, Reports, Requests, Recommendations, 

, etc. 1621-1629, . . . .... 335 

(3.) Resolutions relating to Captain William Douglas. 

1626-1629, . . . ... .358 

(4.) Further Extracts relating to the Services and Claims 

of Sir William Balfour. 1627-1 634, . . .369 

(5.) Extracts relating to the Claims and Services of the 

Earl of Buccleuch. 1623-1635, . . . .378 

(6.) Papers relating to the Earl of Morton's Regiment, 

commanded by Lord Kinfauns. 1629-1630, . . 396 



CONTENTS vii 

PACE 

(7.) Resolutions, Despatches, etc., relative to recruiting in 

England and Scotland. 1632-1 638, . . . 406 

(8.) Resolutions, Reports, Requests, Recommendations, 

etc. 1630-1645, . . . 438 



DIVISION IV 

The Age of William of Orange and the 
British Revolution, 1649-1697. 

INTRODUCTORY NARRATIVE, ....... 465 

(1.) States of War. 1 649-1689, . . . ' . . .489 

(2.) Papers illustrating the Position of the Brigade 
during the War with the English Commonwealth. 
1652-1653, 519 

(3.) Papers illustrating the Position of the Brigade during 

the War with Great Britain. 1664-1668, . . 521 

(4.) Papers relating to the Despatch of the Brigade to 
England on the occasion of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth's Rebellion. 1685, 536 

(5.) Papers relating to the Recall of the Brigade by 

King James in 1688. 1688, 542 

(6.) The Revolution of 1688, and the period in British 

Service to the Peace of Ryswick. 1689-1697, . 566 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

THE papers embraced in this and the subsequent volumes 
consist of documents, transcribed in Holland, illustrating the 
services of the Scots regiments to the United Netherlands 
during the long period of more than two hundred years for 
which the Scots Brigade formed part of the permanent military 
establishment of the Dutch Republic, except for an interregnum 
of about ten years between the Revolution of 1688 and the 
Peace of Ryswick, when these troops were in British pay, and 
in the direct service of Great Britain under King William in. 
They consist of two classes : (a) Documents from the archives 
of the United Netherlands at the Hague, relating to part of 
the sixteenth, the seventeenth, and the eighteenth centuries ; 
and (b) the Rotterdam Papers, a collection of regimental 
papers which were kept in the regiments, and afterwards pre- 
served among the records of the Scots Church at Rotterdam, 
from which they were removed to the municipal archives at the 
Town Hall, where they still remain. In the first volume are 
embraced the documents from the Dutch Government archives 
relating to the period prior to the service of the Brigade in 
Great Britain after the Revolution of 1688 : in the second it is 
proposed to include the further documents from the State 
archives for the period from 1697 to the final merging of the 
Brigade among the Dutch national troops, and the departure 
of the British officers : and in the third, the Rotterdam Papers, 
which form a separate series, will be printed. 

The sources from which the papers contained in the first 
two volumes are drawn consist of several series of records 
preserved in the 'Rijks Archief at the Hague. They include 



x THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

extracts from the Resolutions of the States-General, from the 
secret resolutions of the same, from the * Instruction Books,' 
the files of the incoming documents, and separate portfolios 
of requests, from the diplomatic correspondence, the secret 
diplomatic correspondence, and the reports of the ambassadors 
given to the States-General on their return to the Hague. 
They also include extracts from the resolutions of the Council 
of State, from the collection of letters sent to the Council of 
State, from the commission books of the Land Council at the 
east side of the Meuse, which preceded the Council of State 
(1581-84) and of the Council of State, and from the portfolios 
marked Military Affairs. The names of the officers are taken 
from the States of War, which are documents made up with the 
object of showing the military establishment for the time 
being, and the proportion in which its expenses fell to be 
defrayed by the separate provinces which constituted the 
United Netherlands. 

It will be noted that the archives of the United Netherlands 
at the Hague do not furnish illustrations of the earlier history 
of the Scottish troops, the reason being that it was only after 
the Union of Utrecht, and the reconciliation of the Walloon 
Provinces with the King of Spain, that the permanent central 
government of the outstanding provinces took shape. Previous 
to this the Scottish troops were either in the service of Holland 
and Zealand alone, or in that of the States- General of the 
whole associated provinces of the Low Countries during the 
campaigns against Don John of Austria. As, however, special 
interest attaches to the early services of the Scots in the war 
of independence, there are prefixed to the papers which form 
the proper subject of the volume, a series of extracts from the 
Resolutions and Pay Lists of Holland which supply the blank. 
With this exception the mass of material has rendered it 
necessary to confine the reproduction to the archives of the 
United Netherlands. To search for and publish the whole 
documents relating to the Brigade in the Low Countries 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xi 

would involve ransacking not only the independent archives 
of Holland, but those also of Zealand, Guelderland, and pro- 
bably other provinces, and certainly those of the great garrison 
towns like Breda, Bois-le-Duc, and Maestricht. But a con- 
siderable amount of material has been obtained from the 
Records of Holland, which has been found valuable for pur- 
poses of illustration and explanation, while the annotation in 
regard to the personnel of the officers has been much assisted 
by extracts from the Oath Books and Commission Books. 

The extent of time covered by the subject, and the clear- 
marked character of the periods into which the history divides 
itself, indicated the method which has been adopted in the 
arrangement of the materials. The papers have been collected 
in sections corresponding to distinct historical developments, 
and a short historical introduction, noting the services of the 
Scots regiments, as far as they can be traced, prefixed to each 
section. The documents have themselves been arranged, 
irrespective of the series of Dutch records from which they 
come, in chronological order, subject, however, to the collecting 
together, where this seemed advisable, of those relating to a 
particular subject or the claims of a particular individual. 

THE SUCCESSION OF THE REGIMENTS 

The Scots Brigade in Holland began by the enlistment of 
separate companies, each complete under its own captain. At 
what time these were embodied into a distinct regiment it is 
difficult to say, but they underwent the experience afterwards 
undergone by the Black Watch, and by every administrative 
battalion of rifle volunteers. Colonel Ormiston is referred to in 
1573. In 1586 the Scots companies were divided into two 
regiments under Colonels Balfour and Patten, and by the time 
of the Spanish Armada, if not indeed before, the elder regiment 
seems to have had its complete regimental organisation. The 
second regiment was brought over complete by Lord Buccleuch 
in 1603. The third was formed on a readjustment in 1628, and 



xii THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

although from 1655 to 1660 the three were again converted into 
two, and between 1665 and 1672 the third regiment became 
completely Hollandised, and its place was taken, in 1673, by a 
newly raised one, the two older regiments had an unbroken 
existence from 1588, if not from 1572, and from 1603 
respectively, while the third, dating from 1673, substantially 
represented the one formed in 1628. 1 

But while from 1628 onwards there were substantially three 
permanent regiments in service, on special occasions the number 
was increased. Thus in the campaign against Don John of 
Austria, Stuart's regiment also served, and from the allusion 
to other colonels, it would seem that there were others in the 
pay of other provinces. In 1629 the Earl of Morton's regiment, 
commanded by Lord Hay of Kinfauns, served at the siege of 
Bois-le-Duc. In 1697-98 three additional Scottish regiments, 
Ferguson's, Lord Strathnaver's, and Hamilton's, were tempo- 
rarily employed, replacing the English Brigade, and again 
during the time of Marlborough three regiments (Lord 
Portmore's, Lord Strathnaver's, and Hamilton's) were em- 
ployed, and reduced after the Peace of Utrecht. Again a 
fourth regiment, commanded by the Earl of Drumlanrig, 
was in service from 1747 to 1753. 

CAVALRY, ETC. 

The services of the Scots were not confined to the infantry arm. 
During the earlier period there seem to have been at least two 
companies (squadrons or troops) of Scottish cavalry and some- 
times more in the service of the States. Captain Wishart received 
a commission as captain of horse-arquebusiers in March 1586, 
and served until 1615 or 1616, when his company appears to 
have been transferred to Sir William Balfour, who commanded 
it till 1628. William Edmond received a commission as 
captain of lancers in 1588, and led his squadron at least 



See List of Colonels, pp. xxxiv-xxxv. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xiii 

until his succession to the command of the infantry regiment 
in 1699 ; and his son Thomas came from the infantry to a 
cavalry command in 1625. Patrick Bruce was commissioned 
as captain of a hundred lancers in 1593, and Thomas Erskine 
and Henry Bruce appear as cavalry captains in 1599. Captain 
Hamilton, a gallant Scottish cavalry captain, fell in the decisive 
charge at Nieuport in 1600. In 1604, after much deliberation 
and some remonstrance, the States accepted the offer of Archi- 
bald Erskine to raise a company of cuirassiers ; and the troubles 
of a cavalry captain, the anxieties of the magistrates of Zwolle 
in connection with his troop, and the questions that arose on 
his death in 1608, will be found illustrated in the papers. 1 In 
1617 and 1620 Robert Irving and William Balfour appear as 
cavalry captains, the former probably being succeeded by the 
younger Edmond, and at the close of the Thirty Years' 
War, William Hay and Sir Robert Hume occupy a similar 
position. 

The papers also disclose the names of artillerymen and 
engineers, while of the infantry officers some, such as William 
Douglas and Henry Bruce, distinguished themselves as inventors 
and scientific sbldiers. John Cunningham won reputation 
as an artillery officer at Haarlem, nor was he the only Scot 
who commanded the artillery. On 30th June 1608, James 
Bruce's request to succeed Peter Stuart was refused. Breda 
also requested that James Lawson, a Scot, should be appointed 
cannoneer of the city. Samuel Prop, engineer, appears in the 
States of War. 

MILITARY ORGANISATION, PAY, ETC. 

The numbers of the companies varied. Originally the 
ordinary strength appears to have been one hundred and fifty 
for each ordinary company, and two hundred for the colonel's 
(or life) company. Of the one hundred and fifty, one hundred 



Pp. 196, 204, 215, and 275. 






xiv THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

were musketeers (or harquebusiers) and fifty pikemen. In 1598 
the companies were temporarily reduced to one hundred and 
twenty heads. 1 How long the pikemen were continued is 
not certain, but General Mackay's Memoirs show that 'old 
pikemen ' served in the Scottish campaign of 1689-90. (See 
documents showing establishment under William the Silent, 
p. 43, Commissions, pp. 82-93.) The sergeant-major and the 
provost-marshal appear in 1587, the 'minister 1 in 1597, and 
the lieutenant-colonel and quartermaster in 1599. The 
establishment of a company will be found detailed in the com- 
missions printed on pp. 76-95. It will be noted that in some 
cases one or two pipers are mentioned, and in others none. In 
1607 the colonels remonstrated against the English and Scots 
companies being reduced to seventy rank and file, 'pesle-mesle 
avec la reste de rarmee. 12 In 1621 it was resolved to increase 
the foreign companies to one hundred and twenty. 

The number of companies in a regiment seems to have varied, 
but in the reorganisation into three regiments in 1628 it was 
fixed at ten companies. 3 The difficulties that attended the 
supply of men for the regiments, and the competition of foreign 
states in the British recruiting field, are illustrated by a series 
of documents relating to the recruiting in England and Scot- 
land between the years 1632 and 1638. 4 

The rates of pay for the different ranks in the time of William 
the Silent are shown by a document from the archives of the 
Council of State, prefixed to the States of War of 1579-1609. 5 
The commissions of 1586 and subsequent years also show the 
agreed-on pay, and indicate a method of payment which led to 
many questions. Thus for Colonel Balfour's company of two 
hundred men, he was entitled to .2200 of forty Flemish 
grotten (or groats ?) per pound per month, each month being 
calculated as consisting of thirty-two days, but the monthly 

1 Meteren, fol. 311. 2 P. 241. 3 MS. of Holland. 

4 Pp. 406-437. In 1641 there was presented to the Scottish Parliament a 
letter from the Prince of Orange in favour of officers sent over ' for re-enforcing 
their regiments, which are greatly decayed and diminished . ' Scots Acts. 

5 P. 43- 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xv 

payment was only made each forty-eighth day, and the balance 
of one- third of the pay thus retained constituted the arrears 
which led to so many claims on the part of the Scottish officers, 
to the issue of letters of marque by the King of Scotland in the 
case of Colonel Stuart, and to the compromises for slump sums 
or annual pensions, in his, Sir William Murray's, Colonel Bal- 
four's, and other cases. In 1588 the objections of the Scottish 
captains to this system, and their insistence on obtaining some 
security for the settlement of their arrears, led to the dismissal 
of some of them by the States- General, and to the others being 
required to sign a declaration expressly stating their acquies- 
cence in the practice. 1 In 1596, however, the states of Holland 
improved the position somewhat by paying the troops for 
which they were responsible every forty-second, instead of 
every forty-eighth day. 

When in 1678 the Brigade had been fully established on 
its reorganised basis, the capitulation of that year expressly 
stipulated, that the pay of the soldiers was to be increased 
' d'un sous de plus par jour. 1 In 1774 the men had 6 twopence 
a week more pay than the Dutch troops/ 2 At that time a 
captain's pay came to at most ^140 sterling yearly, a colonel's 
was not above 350, and a lieutenant's about ^40, while that 
of the Swiss companies was much higher. 

The appointments of subaltern officers seem originally to 
have been made by the captains, who raised and brought over 
the companies. Later on they seem to have been made by the 
Prince of Orange, who also filled any vacancy in the higher 
ranks occurring in the field, commissions being subsequently 
issued by the States- General confirming his appointment. 3 In 

1 Pp. 97-105 See also Meteren, fol. 311. 

2 StrictU) es on Military Discipline. 

3 See terms of subalterns' commissions, printed in Two Scottish Soldiers (D. 
Wyllie and Sons, Aberdeen), and also the commissions printed in the appendix 
to Major Bernardi's Memoirs. The commissions thus granted by the prince were 
registered by the states of the province on whose ' repartition' the company was. 
In 1688 the captains received commissions on separate parchments from the 
Prince of Orange and from the States-General (Two Scottish Soldiers}. 



xvi THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

1608 the states of Holland resolved that the captains on their 
repartition should not be allowed to fill vacancies in their 
lieutenancies and ensigncies without the previous consent of the 
states or of the committee, who reserved the right of appoint- 
ment, and this right appears also to have been exercised by 
other provincial states. 

In 1588, after the departure of the Earl of Leicester, the 
States revised and reformed their whole military establishment, 
and instituted the system of allocating regiments or companies 
to be directly paid and supported by the different provinces, 
which is referred to when they are described as ' on the Re- 
partition ' of Holland, of Zealand, of Guelderland, or of any 
other province. ' Us en firenV says Meteren, * les repartissions 
sur chasque province selon qu'elles estoyent quotisees et 
qu'elles contribuoyent ens charges de la guerre, selon aussi que 
chasque Province le pouvoit porter, ce que causa des bons et 
remarquables effets. Les gens de guerre, 1 he adds, ' pouvoyent 
asseurement scavoir en quelle Province ils pouvoyent aller 
poursuiyvre leur payement, tellement que s'il y avoit quelque 
faute en cela on le pouvoit incontinent scavoir et le conseil 
d'Etat y pouvoit remedier. 1 In addition to the ordinary con- 
tributions of the provinces, extraordinary contributions were 
levied on the more wealthy provinces, and the revenue derived 
from them was administered by the Council of State. At the 
end of each year the central authority settled accounts with 
the respective provinces, in regard both to the ordinary and 
to the extraordinary contributions. 

One result of this somewhat complicated system was that 
the regiments were frequently divided between two provinces, 
and indeed in 1655 the states of Holland resolved, in view of 
the fact that of several regiments one portion stood on their 
repartition and another on that of other provinces, to bring 
all the forces on the Repartition of Holland together in com- 
plete ' Holland regiments ' ; but it seems doubtful whether this 
was ever fully carried out, although the two Scots regiments 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xvii 

in 1655, and the three in 1662, are described as Holland 
regiments. Certainly in the latter part of the century Mackay's 
regiment was on the Repartition of Guelderland, and in 1698 
one regiment at least was on the repartition of more than one 
province. 

UNIFORM, ARMS, AND EQUIPMENT 

The appearance of the Scottish soldiers in the early years 
of their service can be gathered from occasional indications in 
the papers. In carrying the pike in the Low Countries, they 
found themselves armed with a weapon similar to that which 
in the hands of the Scottish spearmen had often repelled the 
charges of England's chivalry. The Spaniards regarded the 
pike as la senora y reyna de los armas^ but at 4 push of pike ' 
they found their match in the sturdy English infantry, and the 
4 sure men ' of the Scots Foot. The arquebuse gave place to 
the musket, and in 1689 one at least of the regiments was in 
whole or in part fusiliers. 

In 1559, Prince Maurice prescribed a uniform equipment 
for the troops in the service of the States ; 1 and the approved 
weapons seem to have been strictly insisted on. 2 Thus it is 



1 'Parmy 1'Infanterie ceux qui portoyent des Picques debvoyent avoir un Heaulme, 
tin Gorgerin avec la Angrasse devant et derriere, et une Espee. La picque devoit 
estre longue de dix-huict pieds, et tout cela sur certaines peines establies. II 
falloit pareillement que la quatriesme partie de ceux qui portoyent des Picques 
fussent armes de garde bas jusques au coulde, et au bas de larges tassettes. Les 
Mousquetaires debvoyent avoir un Heaulme, une Espee, un Mousquet portant une 
balle de dix en la Livre, et une Fourchette. Les Harquebusiers debvoyent avoir 
un Heaulme, une Espee, une bonne Harquebuse d'un calibre qui debvoit porter 
une balle de vingt en la Livre, mais en tirant une balle de 24 en la Livre, et 
chacun avoit ses gages et sa solde a 1'advenant. Nous avons trouve bon de dire 
cecy, afin que nos successeurs puissent S9avoir de quelles armes on s'est servy en 
ce temps en Pays-Bas en ceste guerre' (Meteren, fol. 451, where the cavalry 
equipment is also described. See also fol. 416. The fourth part of the pikemen 
were to be picked and seasoned soldiers, of whom Mackay records that they 
stood by and were cut down with his brother, their colonel, at Killiecrankie, 
when the * shot ' men broke and fled). 

2 Resolutions of Holland. ' 1605, Dec. 28th. Circular Letter to all Colonels 
and Cap ns of Foot. The States-Gen, requiring strengthening of the forces 

b 



xviii THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

noted that new levies were good men, but ' armed after the 
fashion of their country.'' l It has been thought that the High- 
land dress was worn by some at least of the Scots who fought 
at Reminant in 1578, and it would seem that at various 
periods a considerable number of recruits were drawn from the 
Highlands. In 1576 an ' interpreter for the Scottish language ' 
was appointed in connection with ' the affair and fault of certain 
Scotsmen,' 2 and in 1747, the orders had to be explained to 
some of the men of Lord Drumlanrig's regiment in their own 
language, 3 because they did not understand English. 

Even in the days of Queen Elizabeth, 'the red casaques' of the 
English soldiers had attracted attention in the Low Countries. 
From at least the time of the reorganisation in 1674, the Scots 
Brigade was clothed in the national scarlet. In 1691, Mackay's 
regiment wore red, lined with red, and Ramsay's red, lined 
with white. Lander's being then in Scotland, the colour of 
its facings has not been recorded, but from a picture of an 
officer serving in it in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
it would appear that then at least its facings were yellow. 
Curious evidence as to the uniform of the Brigade in 1690 is 
preserved by a Highland tradition. It is said that before 
Major Ferguson's expedition to the Western Isles in 1690, 
the people of Egg were warned of its coming by a man who 



without delay, all companies to be brought to their full number of men, conform 
the state of war, and this on or before March 1st, certainly before March loth, 
new style : and though this ought to be done at the expense of the Cap 118 , the 
States-Gen. , H. Exy, and the Council of State have resolved that for this once 
for the cost of transportation shall be allowed : to the French, English and Scots, 

8 guilders for each soldier and that of this transportation-money 3/4 th 

shall be paid out to the said cap ns , viz. : half down and the balance on arrival of 
the recruits, who must be able-bodied men of arms, properly armed, conform to 
regulations, also with side-arms, and the musketeers with muskets ; the muskets 
to be of full length and 4 feet long, shooting balls of 12 in the pound ; no boys 
or elderly men shall pass muster, and the servants and boys of the Colonels 
shall no longer be counted as belonging to the Companies, for them they have to 
provide from their pay as Colonel.' 

1 P. 272. 2 P. 39. 

3 Order Book of Lord Drumlanrig's regiment. Kinmundy Papers. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xix 

had the gift of ' second-sight, 1 and that those who were taken 
prisoners testified to the accuracy of his description, seeing the 
troops, ' some being clad with red coats, some with white coats 
and grenadier caps, some armed with sword and pike, and 
some with sword and musket/ l The author of Strictures on 
Military Discipline, comparing the position of the Scots with 
that of the Swiss, observed, ' They enjoy no privilege as British 
troops, except the trifling distinction of being dressed in red, 
taking the right of the army when encamped or on a march, 
and having twopence a week more pay for the private men 
than the Dutch troops have.' 

' The question of rank,' says the author of the e Historical 
Account,' ' which in military affairs is a serious matter, seems 
to have been decided between the English and Scots by the 
antiquity of the regiments, perhaps rather by the seniority of 
the colonels, but as royal troops, both always ranked before 
the troops of the United Provinces or those belonging to 
German princes, which right never was contested with regard 
to the Scots Brigade until the year 1783.' Dr. Porteous the 
chaplain, in his ' Short Account,' takes higher ground and says : 
' Being royal troops, they claimed, they demanded, and would 
not be refused the post of honour and the precedence of all 
the troops in the service of the States. Even the English 
regiments yielded it to the seniority of the Scots Brigade. 
This station they occupied on every occasion for two hundred 
years, and in no instance did they appear unworthy of it. 
They never lost a stand of colours ; even when whole battalions 
seemed to fall, the few that remained gloried in preserving 
these emblems of their country.' 2 



1 Lord Archibald Campbell's Records of Argyll. 

2 Vol. ii. will contain illustrations of two occasions on which the matter 
of precedency was raised in questions with allied or temporarily serving troops, 
one being with Danish and one with electoral troops. 



xx THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

RELATIONS OF THE REGIMENTS TO THE DUTCH GOVERNMENT 
AND THE BRITISH MONARCH 

There were always elements of difficulty and delicacy in an 
arrangement by which the subjects of one state served in a 
body as soldiers of another. The Netherlands looked to 
Austria, to France, and to England in succession for a ruler 
whom they might substitute for the King of Spain. Queen 
Elizabeth was too astute to accept the sovereignty ; but through 
the substantial aid she afforded, the impignoration to her of 
the cautionary towns, and the appointment of her favourite as 
Governor- General and Cap tain -General, she as nearly as possible 
in fact annexed the Netherlands after the death of William 
the Silent. But the rule of the Earl of Leicester, ineffective 
in the field, and productive of heartburnings and jealousies in 
the council and the camp, rendered the States very suspicious 
of further foreign interference. Thus when, in 1592, King 
James asserted his position as equivalent to that of his haughty 
cousin of England whose idiosyncrasies he is found palliating 
to the representatives of the States, as weaknesses of her sex 
by granting a commission to Colonel Balfour to command all 
the Scots troops in the Dutch service, the States refused to 
recognise it, and affirmed their determination that none could 
serve in their lands on any other commission than that of the 
States- General. 1 In 1604 they again refused to receive Lord 
Buccleuch as ' general of his nation ' as recommended by King 
James, although it was pressed as due to Scotland, and appro- 
priate, there having been a general of the English troops, and 
the Scots being raised to an equal strength with the English. 2 
In 1653 the complete conversion of the British troops inta 
' national Dutch ' was canvassed, and in 1665 it was carried out ; 
but after the reorganisation under William Henry of Orange, 
when the new English Brigade was formed, and the old Scots 
was increased and resumed its own national character, the 
combined British Brigade was definitely placed under the com- 

1 Pp. 106-113. 2 Pp. 188-193. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxi 

mand of a British officer, whose rank, pay, and precedence were 
clearly fixed by the capitulation of January 1678, entered into 
by the Prince of Orange as Captain-General and the Earl of 
Ossory. It was expressly stipulated that the general should be 
a natural subject of the King of Great Britain, and that, should 
his Majesty call the regiments to his service at home, the States 
should allow them to be embarked at a port to be selected. 
When, however, the critical occasion arrived and the king 
sought to exercise the right of recall in 1688, the States refused 
to let the regiments go, or to recognise the binding character 
of the capitulation, founding with some special pleading on 
what appears to have been a failure on the part of the Dutch 
government to fully carry out its terms in reference to the 
increase of the pay. But the troops were recognised in Britain 
as a part of the British army, and the officers'* commissions sub- 
sisted in spite of a change from the one establishment to the 
other. 'While, 1 says the 'Historical Account,' 'the British 
regiments were in the pay of Holland, the officers 1 commissions 
were in the name of the States, and it was not thought necessary 
they should have other commissions, even when they were 
upon the establishment of their own country, until vacancies 
happened, in which case the new commissions were in the 
king's name. Thus when Colonel Hugh Mackay came over to 
England on the recall of the Brigade in 1685, King James 
promoted him to the rank of major-general, not considering 
him the less as a colonel in his army that his former commission 
was in the name of the States. And when the same General 
Mackay, who held his regiment by a Dutch commission, was 
killed, the regiment was given a few days after to Colonel 
./Eneas Mackay, whose commission 1 is English, and in the 
name of King William and Queen Mary. 1 

1 This commission is said in a note to be no w ( 1 794) in possession of his grandson, 
Colonel /Eneas Mackay, with several other commissions of officers of the Brigade 
in the same form and style. 

Colonel Hugh Mackay, who had received a commission as Major-General 



xxii THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

The officers of the Brigade had to take an oath on receiving 
their commissions as captains or in higher rank. In 1588, 
they were also required to sign a declaration stating their 
acquiescence in the system of pay. In 1653, during the war 
with the English Commonwealth, a new form of oath was 
devised, and again in 1664 in the war with Great Britain, 
when the regiments were temporarily converted into ' national 
Dutch,' the officers were required ' in addition to the usual 
military oath," 1 to take one to the effect that they were under 
no obligation to obey, and would not obey any commands 
except those of the States-General, and the States their pay- 
masters, or others indicated in the said oath of fealty, and that 
they acknowledged none but the States as their sovereign rulers. 
It is also noted that the new commissions then issued were in 
Dutch. 

Upon the reorganisation of the Brigade under William 
Henry of Orange, and General Mack ay, it was placed on a 
more distinctive footing as British troops than ever before. 
The British standing army was in its infancy, and the Scots 
and English Brigades in Holland formed a very large pro- 
portion of its strength. Their position in the Netherlands 
was analogous to that of Douglas's (the Earl of Dumbarton's) 
regiment, now the Royal Scots, and of others in the service of 
France. As Douglas's regiment became the 1st of the Line, 
and two of the English-Dutch regiments that were formed in 
1674 and came over in 1688, the 5th and 6th, so the three 
Scottish regiments, had they remained in British pay after 
1697, would have ranked very high in the British army list. 



from King James in 1685, took oath on Feb. 9th, 1686 on a commission as 
Major-General of Infantry before the President of T. H. M. For the terms of 
the commission at this period, see Two Scottish Soldiers (App.), where three of 
General Ferguson's are printed. While he commanded the Cameronians, to which 
he was transferred from the Scots-Dutch in 1692, in virtue of a commission in, 
English form granted by William and Mary in 1693, he received one in Dutch 
in 1698 as captain of a company, that regiment being temporarily in Dutch pay 
in 1697-99. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxiii 

It may indeed be questioned whether the old regiment dating 
from the days of William the Silent might not have claimed 
precedence even over the Royal Scots, on the ground that 
while that regiment's descent is clear and continuous from the 
union of a Scots regiment in France with the survivors of 
Gustavus Adolphus's Scots troops, its earlier traditions, though 
august and ancient, are more or less mythical. Certainly the 
old and the second regiments would have been at least on an 
equal footing with the 3rd Buffs formerly the old English 
Holland regiment while the third was entitled to rank along 
with the fifth and sixth. 

In the eighteenth century the position of those serving in 
the Brigade as entitled to all the privileges of British subjects 
was emphatically recognised. 'Even the children,' says Dr. 
Porteous the chaplain, in his ' Short Account,' ' born in the 
Brigade were British subjects without naturalisation or any 
other legal act. The men always swore the same oaths with 
other British soldiers, and by an Act of Parliament, 27 Geo. n. 
the officers were obliged as members of the British state 
serving under the Crown to take the same oaths with officers 
serving in the British dominions. The beating orders issued 
by the War Office were in the same terms with those for other 
regiments : " To serve His Majesty King George in the regiment 

of foot commanded by " accordingly all the men were 

enlisted to serve His Majesty, not the States. Their colours, 
their uniform, even the sash and the gorget were those of their 
country, and the word of command was always given in the 
language of Scotland.' 

Such was their footing, until in 1782 the States-General 
resolved, ' That after the first of January 1783, these regiments 
shall be put on the same footing in every respect with the 
national troops of Holland, and the officers are required to 
take an oath of allegiance to the states of Holland and renounce 
their allegiance to Great Britain for ever on or before the above- 
mentioned day. Their colours, which are now British, are to 



xxiv THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

be taken from them and replaced with Dutch ones, and they 
are to wear the uniform of the Provinces ; the word of command 
is to be given in Dutch ; the officers are to wear orange sashes, 
and carry the same sort of spontoons as the officers of other 
Dutch regiments.' By the oath prescribed for the officers they 
were bound to affirm that during their service they would 'not 
acknowledge any one out of these Provinces as their sovereign.' 
This time there was no recovery for the Brigade. Fifty-five of 
the officers refused to take the oath, resigned their commissions 
in March 1783, and came over to Britain. They were placed 
on half-pay without delay, and in 1793 His Majesty King 
George in. ' being pleased to revive the Scots Brigade,' a 
regiment of three battalions, 'the Scotch Brigade' of the 
British service, subsequently numbered as the old 94th regi- 
ment of the line, was raised, to which they were appointed. 

RECURRENCE OF SAME NAMES AMONG THE OFFICERS 

In one respect the Scots Brigade was peculiarly Scottish. 
Probably no military body ever existed in which members of 
the same families were so constantly employed for generations. 
' The officers,' says Dr. Porteous, ' entered into the service very 
early ; they were trained up under their fathers and grand- 
fathers who had grown old in the service ; they expected a slow, 
certain, and unpurchased promotion, but almost always in the 
same corps, and before they attained to command they were 
qualified for it. Though they served a foreign state, yet not 
in a distant country, they were still under the eye of their 
own, and considered themselves as the depositaries of her 
military fame. Hence their remarkable attachment to one 
another, and to the country whose name they bore and from 
whence they came ; hence that high degree of ambition for 
supporting the renown of Scotland and the glory of the 
Scots Brigade.' The discipline of the Brigade, enforced with 
far less severity than was customary in the German and 
Swiss regiments in the same service, was acknowledged, and the 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxv 

author of the ' Historical Account ' observes that ' the rule 
observed in the Brigade of giving commissions only to persons 
of those families whom the more numerous class of the people 
in Scotland have from time immemorial respected as their 
superiors, made it easy to maintain authority without such 
severity.' The Scots officers also took care to let the foreigners 
under whom they served know that the methods of enforcing 
discipline in vogue in Continental armies would not do with 
Scottish soldiery, 1 for ' Scotsmen would not easily be brought 
to bear German punishments. 1 ' Gentlemen of the families, 1 
says the writer of the Strictures, ' of Balfour Lord Burley, Scott 
Earl of Buccleuch, Preston of Seton, Halkett of Pitfirran, and 
many of different families of the name of Stewart, Hay, 
Sinclair, Douglas, Graham, Hamilton, etc., were among the 
first who went over, 1 and a glance through the States of War 
shows how repeatedly many of these names recurred in the 
Brigade throughout its service. These lists indicate that the 
counties on the shores of the Forth, and in particular Fife, 
had the closest connection with the brigade, but Perthshire, 
Forfar, Aberdeenshire, and the Highlands, more especially after 
General Mackay entered it, and other parts of Scotland had 
their representatives under its colours. No name was more 
honourably or more intimately associated with its fortunes 
than that of Balfour, which in the first century of its existence 
supplied at least seventeen or eighteen captains, among whom 
were Sir Henry Balfour and Barthold Balfour, both colonels 
of the old regiment in the sixteenth century, Sir David Balfour 
and Sir Philip Balfour (son of Colonel Barthold), both colonels 
of the second and third regiments during part of the Thirty 
Years' War, and another Barthold Balfour, who fell in command 
of the second regiment at Killiecrankie. In the later years 
four Mackays, Major-General Hugh of Scourie, killed at Stein- 
kirk ; Brigadier-General ^Eneas, his nephew, who died, as the 
result of wounds received at Namur ; Colonel Donald killed at 

1 Strictures on Military Discipline. 



xxvi THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

Fontenoy, 1 son of the Brigadier ; and Colonel Hugh Mackay, 
held at different times the command of the same regiment. 
The second regiment had three colonels of the name of 
Halkett, and the third one. Two Hendersons, brothers, in 
succession commanded the second regiment, and another, a 
generation later, the third. The names of Erskine, Graham, 
and Murray occur twice, and those of Douglas, Stewart, 
Scott, Colyear, and Cunningham thrice among the command- 
ing officers. To enumerate the other members of these 
and other families, such as Coutts, Livingstone, Sandilands, 
L'Amy, Lauder, who held commissions, would be endless, but 
at one time the colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major of one 
regiment were all Kirkpatricks, being probably a father and 
his two sons. Twice the colonel and lieutenant-colonel of one 
regiment were both brothers of the name of Mackay. That 
this family character was not confined to the old regiments, but 
extended to those temporarily in service in 1697-98, is shown by 
the fact that when Colonel Ferguson's regiment left the Dutch 
service in 1699, there were five of his name among its officers, 2 
while another was, in 1694, promoted a captain in Lander's. 

THE BRIGADE AS A MILITARY SCHOOL 

Scarcely less remarkable was the Brigade as a training 
ground for officers who gained reputation in after-life in the 
service of Great Britain and of foreign countries. Some of the 
Dutch officers served in the civil wars ; several of Marlborough's 
major-generals and brigadiers came over as captains and 
field-officers in 1688, and it is remarkable what a proportion 
of those serving under the colours in that fateful year after- 
wards attained to high commands. 3 But the phenomenon was 
marked in later years. Writing in 1774 the author of the 
Strictures enumerates Colonel Cunningham of Entricken, 

1 Or Tournay. 

2 List of Officers in 'Abstract of the Money due to Colonel Ferguson's 
Regiment on the Establishment from the I4'.h April 1699 to the 1st December 
1700.' Kinmundy Papers. 3 Pp. 479-481. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxvii 

' whose behaviour at Minorca and on other occasions did him 
much honour,' General James Murray, brother of Lord 
Elibank, Governor of Quebec after the death of Wolfe, and 
known as ' Old Minorca,' from his gallant defence of that 
island, Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, General Graham of 
the Venetian service, Colonel (then Lieutenant-General) 
Graham, secretary to the Queen of Great Britain, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Francis M'Lean, Lieutenant-General in the Portuguese 
service, Simon Fraser, Lieutenant- Colonel of the 24th regiment 
and Quarter-Master-General in Ireland, who fell as a General 
at Saratoga, Thomas Stirling, Lieu tenant-Colonel of the 42nd, 
the Honourable Alexander Leslie, Lieutenant- Colonel of the 
64th, James Bruce, David Hepburn, the Honourable John 
Maitland, brother of the Earl of Lauderdale, James Stewart, 
son-in-law of the Earl of Marchmont and Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the 90th, Major Brown of the 70th, James Dundas of Dundas, 
Sir Henry Seton, Bart., and Colonel Sir Robert Murray Keith. 
To these should be added Robert Murray of Melgum, after- 
wards General Count Murray l in the Imperial service. 

INCIDENTAL FEATURES OF THE DOCUMENTS 

The general character of the service, and the conditions 
under which the Scots lived, fought, and were paid in the Low 
Countries can only be gathered from a perusal of the papers 
themselves. It has been shrewdly said that the Dutch were 
more careful to record matters of money than feats of arms, and 
to the actual services in the field the official papers contain 
only few direct references. But here and there such references 
occur, and the date of a widow's petition, or a marked change 
in the personnel of a State of War, dots the i's and strokes the 
t's of a dry allusion in an old folio to some forgotten skirmish ' 
or the carnage of a great battle. The pension lists, and the 
applications of widows (among whom those of Sir Robert 



1 Count Murray was either Robert Murray or his son. The son was certainly 
in the Austrian service. Whether the father was is uncertain. 



xxviii THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

Henderson and Lieutenant-Colonel Allan Coutts were most 
importunate), also illustrate how the Scottish officers inter- 
married with the people among whom they lived, and occa- 
sionally with Italian and Spanish gentlewomen and noble 
ladies of Brabant and Flanders. Specially interesting also are 
the letters of the Scottish sovereigns, particularly that of 
King James on the battle of Nieuport in 1600, 1 and King 
Charles's solicitude for the ransom of the Scottish prisoners 
taken at Calloo in 1638. 2 The appointment by the States- 
General of two of their number to attend the funeral of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson, ' with the short mantle,' in 
the same year, indicates exceptional gallantry on the part of 
one of a family which had already shed its blood and given 
its life for the cause of which Holland was the guardian. 3 Now 
and then a flash of humour enlivens the story of eager spirits 
and niggard paymasters, as when ' to this suppliant the 
answer must for the present be "Patience."' A pleasant 
feature is the occasional recommendations by some of the 
provincial municipal authorities of the Scottish captains 
stationed in their cities, and although there are occasional 
complaints of the conduct of the troops, owing generally to 
the pay being in arrears, and a warning by an English com- 
mander, in 1615, as to the feeling getting up between a Scots 
and a Dutch company, two of whose soldiers had had a fracas, 4 
the general relations of the Scots with the Dutch population 
seem to have been consistently friendly and cordial. Indeed, 
during the Twelve Years' Truce one of the complaints of the 
inspecting officers was the extent to which the soldiers left 
their garrisons to work for the country-people ; while another 
subject of animadversion was the occasional enlistment of 
Dutchmen to fill vacancies in the companies. A frequent 
offence was the passing off of outsiders to bring up the 
numbers of the company, in order to pass review at full 
strength on a sudden inspection, and one unfortunate, Robert 

1 P. 1 80. 2 P. 449. 3 P. 449. 4 p. 279. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxix 

Stuart, was sentenced to be hung in 1602 for too successfully 
thus passing off six sailors in the ranks of an infantry com- 
pany. 1 The absence of officers in Scotland for too long a time 
is also commented on, and the result of John de Witt's report 
on Captain Gordon's company in 1609 was its being disbanded. a 
A melancholy account is given of the state of Erskine's 
cavalry squadron in 1606, 3 and among the papers is an apology 
for insubordination by some of Wisharfs troopers tendered to 
a court-martial. 4 The proceedings of the court-martial on 
Sergeant Geddie, charged with murder in 1619, are also 
interesting ; 5 and the spirit of the old Scottish family feud is 
illustrated by David Ramsay's energetic protest, in 1607, 
against the slayer of his relative ' coming in his sight, 1 6 as well 
as by Lord Buccleuch's claim for justice in respect of the 
slaughter of Captain Hamilton. 7 The experiences of the 
surgeon are indicated by Dr. Balcanqual's petition in 1618 ; 8 
and the regard of the troops for their chaplain is shown by 
the Reverend Andrew Hunter's long service, his receipt of an 
increase of pay in 1604, his Latin memorials of 1611 and 1618, 
and the interesting and honourable letter of the colonels in 
1630, in which they ask a further allowance for his widow, and 
state their readiness ' to provide for our own minister.' 9 The 
divorce of Captain Scott, 10 the marriage of Captain Lindsay 
with the released lady, 11 and the lawsuit of Captain Waddell 
with the Countess of Megen 12 and the pupil-heir of the great 
house of Croy, recalling as it does the happier experiences of 
Quentin Durward, all find their way into the national archives. 
The claims presented by Scottish officers on account of the 
arrears of their pay, or of that due to relatives whom they repre- 
sented, and the deliberations of the States upon such claims 
constitute a very large amount of the documents preserved. 
The main question appears to have been to what extent the 
United Netherlands, as constituted by the Union of Utrecht, 
were responsible for services rendered to the whole of the 

1 P. 185. 2 P. 236. 3 P. 204. 4 P. 272. 5 P. 299. p. 208. 
7 P. 199. 8 P. 292. 9 P. 438. 10 P. 291. n P. 351. J 2 p 4 357 



xxx THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

Netherlands before the separation of the reconciled provinces. 
This is the substantial question raised in Colonel Stuart's 
claims, and in those of Sir William Balfour as the heir of his 
father. Sir Henry. It required the issue of letters of marque, 
authorising Colonel Stuart to recoup himself at the expense of 
Dutch shipping, to bring the States- General to a serious con- 
sideration of his claims for services, which, whether technically 
rendered to the ' nobles, Prelates, and burgesses sitting at 
Antwerp,' to ' the nearer union,' or to the States of Holland 
and Zealand, were equally instrumental in securing the liberty 
and independence of the Dutch Republic. His claims and 
those of Sir William Balfour alike ended in a compromise; 
and the system of liquidating liabilities and securing fidelity 
by a large balance of deferred pay was fruitful of similar 
claims and compromises with others, such as the heir of Lord 
Buccleuch, who compounded his father's arrears, as to the 
liability for which there had been no question, for a pension, 
the promise of a regiment, and at least temporary freedom 
from the maintenance of a near though unacknowledged 
relative, who ultimately took her place among the Scott clan 
as ' Holland's Jean.' Among the papers relating to Colonel 
Stuart's claims will be found two most interesting reports by 
Dutch ambassadors of their visits to England and Scotland, 
containing passages delightfully illustrative of the character of 
4 Queen Bess,' of the court and conduct of King James, and of 
the general relations between the Protestant powers. 1 One of 
the most valuable documents in a historical sense, and most 
interesting to the student of character and manners, is the 
graphic narrative of the Dutch ambassadors who attended the 
baptism of King James's son, Prince Henry. 2 

AUTHORITIES FOR HISTORY OF THE BRIGADE 

A word should be added as to the special authorities for th 
History of the Brigade, which are frequently referred to in 
1 Pp. 121 and 132. 2 P. 154. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxxi 

this and the narratives prefixed to each period into which the 
papers have been assorted. In 1774 there was published 
* Strictures on Military Discipline, in a series of letters, with a 
Military Discourse : in which is interspersed some account of 
the Scotch Brigade in the Dutch Service, by an Officer. 1 This 
officer is said to have been Colonel James Cunningham ; x and 
the book advocates reforms in the equipment and pay of the 
Brigade, the restoration of complete recruiting in Scotland, 
and, indeed, the enlargement of the force and the association 
with its infantry battalions of a proportion of the other arms. 

In 1794, this was followed by ' An Historical Account of 
the British Regiments employed since the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth and King James i. in the Formation and Defence of 
the Dutch Republic, particularly of the Scotch Brigade.' It 
was written just at the time when King George 'had been 
pleased to order that these regiments should be embodied 
anew,' and gives, in about a hundred pages, a concise and 
fairly complete account of the services of the Brigade. The 
information contained in the Dutch papers, however, corrects 
it in some points, and the writer has fallen into the common 
mistake of not observing that King William handed over six 
and not merely three Scots regiments to the Dutch Govern- 
ment in 1697, and of confounding the three old regiments with 
the three temporarily in the Dutch service at that time and 
during the war of the Spanish Succession. The error is a 
, natural one, for when the Brigade returned at the Peace of 
Ryswick Walter Philip Colyear commanded one of the old 
regiments, while his brother Sir David Colyear, raised to the 
peerage as Lord Portmore, was colonel of one of the addi- 
tional ones, taken into service in 1701. 

In 1795 there was also published 'An Exhortation to the 
Officers and Men of the First Battalion of the Scotch Brigade. 
Delivered at the Castle of Edinburgh on the 7th of June 1795, 



1 See Steven's History of the Scotch Church at Rotterdam, p. 261. 



xxxii THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 

a few days before the battalion received their colours, to which 
is added a Short Account of the Brigade by William Porteous,. 
D.D., chaplain to the battalion. 1 The author of the ' Historical 
Account' had compared the* position of the officers of the 
Brigade in Holland after the war with Great Britain began 
to that of officers who had, in the execution of their duty and 
without any fault or error on their part, fallen into the hands 
of the enemy, and had contended that ' whatever the means 
may have been by which a British regiment has fallen into the 
enemy's hands, it cannot be in the power of that enemy to- 
extinguish or abolish it. 1 In addressing the newly-formed 
battalion, the chaplain used words which indicate that its- 
embodiment was regarded in Great Britain not as the creation 
of a new but as the resurrection of an old regiment. ' Our 
ears, 1 said Dr. Porteous, ' have been accustomed to hear of the 
fame of the Scotch Brigade ; of the moderation, sobriety, and 
honesty, as well as of the courage and patience of this corps ; 
you have not to erect a new fabric, but to build on the reputa- 
tion of your predecessors, and I am confident you will not 
disgrace them. 1 His ' Short Account, 1 while covering much the 
same ground as the ' Historical Account, 1 contains some ad- 
ditional particulars. There is also a short notice of the Brigade 
appended to Grose^ Military Antiquities, and a note upon it 
in Steven's History of the Scotch Church at Rotterdam. 

Among the papers of Mrs. Stopford Sackville, at Drayton- 
House, Nottinghamshire, is a copy of a document (after 1772) r 
6 Facts relative to the Scotch Brigade in the Service of Holland.' 

There are of course allusions to the services of the Scots in 
the many English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Italian histories 
of the War of Independence. For the time of Prince Maurice r 
the best authority is Orler's Lauriers de Nassau, and for that 
of his brother the Memoires de Frederick Henry Prince 
d? Orange. For the campaigns of William Henry, the Memoirs 
of Bernardi and of Carleton, the Life of William III., and the 
History of Holland supply a limited amount of information. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

The Editor has to record his sense of the assistance he has 
received from Dr. Mendels and M. d'Engelbronner who tran- 
scribed the documents at the Hague, and whose intelligent 
researches have greatly aided the work of annotation, and par- 
ticularly from Colonel de Bas, the keeper of the Archives of the 
Royal House of Orange at the Hague, who supplied valuable 
information as to the succession of the regiments in the 
eighteenth century ; and also to express his grateful thanks 
to many friends and correspondents in Scotland and elsewhere, 
too numerous to enumerate, who, by supplying particulars as 
to their ancestors who served in the Brigade, or otherwise, 
have enabled him in many cases to identify the individuals 
whose names appear in the States of War. Similar acknow- 
ledgments are due to Mr. J. Rudolff Hugo, and to the 
Rev. J. Ballingall, Rhynd, Perthshire, who have undertaken 
the labours of carrying out and revising the translation of 
the Dutch documents. 

It had originally been intended to print the Dutch text as 
well as the English translation of the Dutch documents, but 
the volume of material was so great that on careful considera- 
tion the Council were satisfied that they must confine them- 
selves to printing the English translation of Dutch originals, 
and the French text alone of documents in French. For the 
convenience of scholars the complete transcripts of the original 
Dutch here translated, and of other documents, including the 
lists from the Commission and Oath Books, which the Editor 
has used in the preparation and annotation of these volumes, 
will be deposited and preserved in the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh. J. F. 

KINMUNDY, ABERDEENSHIRE, 
nth Novr. 1898. 



XXXIV 



THE SCOTS BRIGADE IN HOLLAND 



LISTS OF THE COLONELS OF THE REGIMENTS OF THE 
SCOTS BRIGADE 

A THE THREE OLD REGIMENTS OF THE SCOTS BRIGADE 
I. 1572-1688. i 



1573 
1574-1580 

1585 


[Ormiston] 2 
Sir Henry Balfour 3 
[Cunningham] 4 


1586 


Barthold Balfour 5 


1594 


Alexander Murray 


1599 


Sir William Edmond 


1603 




1606 


Sir William Brog 


1612 




1622 




1628 




1629 




1633 




1636 
1639 


Sir James Sandilands 
James Erskine 


I) 




1640 




1646 




'655 

1660 


Walter Scott 


1UUU 

1662 




1673 


Henry Graham 


1675 




1677 


Hugh Mackay 


1680 




1684 




1685 
1688 





Lord Buccleuch 

Sir Robert Henderson 
Sir Francis Henderson 
Sir John Halkett 
Sir David Balfour 



Sir Archibald Douglas 
John Kirkpatrick 



Barthold Balfour 



Earl of Buccleuch 
Sir James Livingstone, 
Lord Almond 



Sir Philip Balfour 

Sir William Drummond 



John Henderson 
Louis Erskine 



Sir Alex. Colyear 
James Douglas 

John Wauchope 
George Ramsay 



1689 
1692 



/Eneas JVTackay 



II. 1688-1697. 

i George Lauder 



Sir Charles Graham 



1 The dates from 1594 are those of the commissions, and the lines below the names of 
Sir William Drummond (Earl of Roxburgh) and Louis Erskine denote a break in the con- 
tinuity of the regiments, which otherwise is complete. In 1655 the three regiments were 
formed into two. In 1675 Colyear was appointed first colonel of a new regiment raised 
during the preceding year to replace Louis Erskine's, which under de Fariaux had be- 
come wholly Dutch. 

2 Appears as colonel in the Pay Lists of Holland. 

3 Appears in Pay Lists of Holland. 

4 Referred to in the Resolutions of Holland. 

5 The date 1586 is that of the first mention as colonel. 



LISTS OF THE COLONELS 



XXXV 



III. 1698-1782. ] 



1698 


Robert Murray 


George Lauder 


Walter Philip Colyear. 


1716 




A. Halkett 




1719 


John Cunninghame. 






1730 


James Cunninghame 






J 733 


Lamy 






1741 




Villegas 




1742 


D. Mackay 






1745 


Marjori banks 






1746 




Charles Wm. Stewart 




1747 






C. Halkett. 


1754 
1758 




J. Stuart 


J. Gordon. 


1773 


H. Mackay 






1775 


J. Houston 






1776 






R. Dundas. 



157 
1586 



1629 



B REGIMENTS TEMPORARILY IN THE SERVICE OF THE STATES 



William Stuart 
Aristotle Fatten. 



Earl of Morton's 
(commanded by Lord 
Hay of Kinfauns) 



1697-99 



1701 

1704 
1706 

1709 
1710 
171 
1717 

1747-1753 



James Ferguson 


John, Lord Strathnaver 


George Hamilton. 


Sir David Colyear, 
Lord Portmore 2 
John Dalrymple 4 
William Borthwick 
John Hepburn 
James Douglas 


John, Lord Strathnaver 3 

John, Marquis of Lorn 5 
John, Marquis of Tulli- 
bardine 

James Wood 


George Hamilton. 


Henry Douglas, Earl 
of Drumlanrig 



1 From a list kindly supplied by Colonel F. de Bas, and compared with one made by 
M. d'Engelbronner. 

The three regiments were subsequently (1786-89) respectively numbered 22, 23, and 
24. Twenty-two being the regiment commanded by Sir Henry Balfour, Sir 'William 
Brog, and General Mackay ; 23 Lord Buccleuch's, and 24 the Earl of Buccleuch's and 
Lord Almond's. 

2 Lord Portmore 1699, Earl of Portmore 1703. Cf. p. 507, n. 4. 

3 Afterwards igth Earl of Sutherland. 

4 Afterwards Earl of Stair. 5 Afterwards Duke of Argyll. 



DIVISION I 
THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

1572-1609 



INTRODUCTORY 

IN the year 1572 the landing of the Sea Gueux at the Brill 
proved that the Netherlands, though lying crushed and bleed- 
ing under the iron heel of the Duke of Alva, had been stunned 
but not conquered. It was followed by a widespread uprising, 
and by the influx of English aid. At what precise moment 
the first Scottish company disembarked upon Dutch soil it is 
impossible to say, but it would seem that the Scots were not 
behind their southern neighbours. Count Louis of Nassau was 
beleaguered in Mons by the veterans of Alva, Kirkcaldy of 
Grange was holding Edinburgh for Queen Mary. ' Le Prince 
d'Orange, 1 says Le Petit, c pour venir seconder le Comte 
Ludovic son frere estant dans Mons en Hainaut ne manquoit 
de devoir a lever gens de toutes partes tant en Allemagne, 
Angleterre qu' Ecosse et France/ On the 21st of June, the 
Scottish Privy Council, on account of the famine in Edinburgh, 
* detenit aganis our Sovereign Lord, 1 and in order that ' the idle 
men and soldiers be not drawn to any desperate necessity, but 
may have commodity to serve and live either within the realm, 
or to pass to the wars in Flanders or other foreign countries,"* 
issued a proclamation ordering all such to quit the city by the 
evening of the 23rd. Before the first year of the long struggle 
that was to be crowned with success closed, Scots were fighting 
side by side with the Dutch burghers on the ramparts of 
beleaguered Haarlem. 

After the first assault on 20th December, the Prince of 
Orange threw reliefs with supplies into the town, including 
some Scots. 1 Again, in the end of January 1573, the Scots, 
under the command of Balfour, 2 were among the force of 

1 Mendoza and Meteren. 

2 On i6th September 1572, the Regent Mar, in the name of King James, had 
granted a passport and recommendation to ' Henricus Balfourius noster civis, 
nobili loco natus, et qui in statu rerum domi turbulento semper meliores partes 
est se'cutus' . . . 'cum cohortem fere ducentorum militumad clarissimumAuraniae 
principem ducturus esset. 3 P. C. Reg. 



4 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

four hundred who cut their way over the frozen lake, with 
eighty sledges laden with munitions and food. 1 It was to 
John Cuningham, a Scotsman, that the besieged committed 
the command of the battery which they directed upon the 
great cavalier which the Spaniards had constructed, and so well 
did he work his guns that in half a day he ' put this cavalier to 
the ground, for which ^ says the historian, 2 6 he acquired great 
honour in the town.' The Spaniards endeavoured to restore it 
and brought up artillery, but Cuningham each time destroyed 
it completely. On the 15th of April, Captain Balfour with 
his Scots made a ' camisade ' or night attack on the Spanish 
lines at Russemburch, forced them, defeated a large body of 
troops, and carried back four standards. Towards the close of 
the siege, when the Spaniards were debating whether to renew 
an assault that had been repulsed, a Scottish sergeant threw 
himself from the wall and staved off the attack, by assuring 
Don Frederick, on pain of his life, that the town could not 
hold out long on account of the want of food. Scots also 
took part in the last unsuccessful attempt at relief. When 
finally the day of capitulation came, the fate of the Scots 
was at first uncertain. The French were beyond the pale 
of mercy, for they had already been spared at Mons; the 
Germans were recognised as ' neutrals, and free to serve 
any prince they pleased, 1 and, according to Le Petit, it had 
been declared to the Scots that mercy had been given them. 
Meteren says that they and the English held themselves 
assured c des belles promesses. 1 But the Spaniards, once in 
possession, held that the Scots and English as well as the 
French, were subjects of princes with whom the king was in 
peace and confederation, and, therefore, they were ' tous 
justiciez, les gentilhommes par Tespee, les autres par la corde, 
ou plongez en mer. 13 More than eighteen captains and ensigns 
with all the rest of the Walloon, Scottish, and English troops, 
to the number of 500, thus perished. 'En la ville, 1 says 
Meteren, 'furent tues plus de 2000 hommes, outre quelque 
peu qui eschapperent secretement et le Capitaine Ecossois 
Balfour, qui eschappa sous promesse d'attenter quelque chose 
contre la vie et personne du Prince d'Orange comme il le 
1 Mendoza. 2 Le Petit. 3 Renom de France. 



INTRODUCTORY 5 

declarat luymeme ail dit Prince, disant aussi, que puis qu'il en 
avoit un remords de conscience, qiTil estimoit n'etre pas tenu en 
une si mauvaise promesse. 1 For the remorse he carried with 
him for a feigned compliance with a dishonourable proposal, 
Balfour was to atone by a record of distinguished service, and 
eight years later by an honourable death fighting against great 
odds. 1 

The Spaniards entered Haarlem on the 14th of June. On 
the 6th, the Scottish Privy Council had granted a licence to 
4 Captain Thomas Robesoun' to levy 300 men for the 'defence 
of Goddis trew religioun aganis the persecutiouris thairof ' in 
the Low Countries. He was obliged to give a bond that he 
would comply with certain conditions, his cautioner being 
John Monteith of Kerse. The conditions were : ' That he shall 
not lift or transport any captains, members of bands, or soldiers 
presently in the king^s service without special licence from the 
Regent ; that he cause the like number of culverins, hagbuts, 
and other hand-guns, morions, and corselets to be brought 
again into the realm before 1st February next to come ; that 
he shall cause his men live upon their own charges without 
oppression till they are transported, and that he and they 
shall not be partakers with any Scottish subjects against 



1 There is some authority for the view that the vehicle of this proposal was 
James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, the assassin of the Regent Murray, who is 
said to have scouted a suggestion made to him to deal similarly with Admiral 
Coligny, but whose name appears in connection with Spanish intrigues for the 
removal of the Prince of Orange. De Lettenhove says : * Lorsque James 
Hamilton s'etait rendu a Amsterdam pres du Due d'Albe c'etait pour conferer 
avec Alboinos et lui indiquer un capitaine ecossais, fort courageux et propre a cette 
entreprise, qui se trouvait avec les Gueux a Harlem et qui se rendit a Delft, 
peut etre pour prendre part aux troubles et pour y profiler du desordre. A 
defaut de ce Capitaine Hamilton cut recours et sans plus de succes a un autre 
Ecossais qui ramait a Nantes sur les galeres de Charles ix.' And on January I4th, 
I 577> Wilson wrote to Lord Burghley (St. Pap. For.), * Hamilton who escaped 
out of prison from Brussels, and with whom Don John promised Mr. Harvey 
that he would not deal, has received money of him to persuade the Scots to 
revolt by whom he was delivered out of prison, and for whom, especially for 
Balfour, the Colonel, and some others, he got pardon of the Duke of Alva at the 
taking of Haarlem, with condition that the said Balfour should then kill the 
Prince of Orange by one means or another.' On 1st May, Wilson reported to 
Walsingham that Colonel Balfour had promised to ' work the feat ' of getting a 
Scot into England with letters from Don John to the Scottish Queen. 



6 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

others ; that they shall not in passing to the Low Countries 
invade or pillage any subjects or friends and confederates of 
this realm; that they shall noways serve with any Papists 
against the Protestant professors of the Evangel of Jesus 
Christ ; that he shall not muster his men within sixteen miles 
of Stirling Castle under a penalty of 5000 merks ; and that he 
should be answerable for the full redress of all plundered goods. 1 

On 16th July similar licences were granted to Captain John 
Adamson, whose cautioner was John Adamson, burgess, Edin- 
burgh, and to Captain Diones Pentland, whose cautioner was 
James Sandelandis of Calder, who were also taken bound not 
to enrol on the south side of the Forth. The English agents 
in reporting Captain Robeson's licence to their own Govern- 
ment drew attention 1 to it as an illustration of ' how the 
nation is given to stray abroad, some into Sweden and some 
into Flanders, whither more will to the Prince of Orange if 
they had comfort given them.' 

The fall of Edinburgh and the Peace of Perth had now 
deprived many Scotsmen, ' both King's men ' and ' Queen's 
men,' of employment at home, and the Spaniards were to find 
that the methods exemplified at Haarlem were the most 
injudicious that could be employed against the Scots. They 
would have been wiser if they had followed, as the Dutch 
were to do, the policy of the Emperor Charles v., ' qui ne 
vouloit pas qu'on irritast les Escossois, sachant bien que les 
Escossois estoient pauvres mais gens vaillants qui n'avoient 
pas beaucoup a perdre.' 2 

The arrival of 500 Scots was indeed reported to England 
along with the news of the fall of Haarlem, and an anonymous 
letter from Stirling, of July 26th, depicts the state of feeling, 
which soon bore fruit in substantial succours. ' The calamity 
of that good country (Flanders) is not only lamented by them, 
but goodwill borne to relieve part of their burden. Some 
number of men of war are already repaired thither, others 
upon the arriving of his ' (the Prince of Orange's) ' servant, 
Captain Ormiston, are in preparation, but the third sort are 
desirous to hazard themselves if they were certain of his plea- 
sure and what assured entreatment they might look for. They 



1 State Papers, Foreign. 2 Meteren, fol. 310. 



INTRODUCTORY 7 

are not such as have been hired by wages in former wars, but 
rather some in the rank of nobility who have done valiant 
service in the cause of religion and repressing civil sedition 
here. 1 For that purpose is Captain Montgomery, a gentleman 
of approved truth and good credit, directed towards him to 
understand the condition of their affairs, and to return speedily 
with resolution of his pleasure.' 

On 2nd August, Robert Montgomery wrote to Killigrew 
thanking him for his good offices, stating that he was ' directed 
by the Regent to go towards Flanders to offer the Prince of 
Orange 1000 horsemen and 2000 footmen to assist him in the 
general cause under Lord Cathcart, and praying that he would 
inform the Queen, so that if they should arrive upon any of her 
coasts in their voyage they might find her favour and goodwill.* 

On September 12th, Thomas Morgan wrote to Lord Burghley 
from Zealand that ' 400 Scots had arrived at Zierickzee who 
made an attempt on Barrow, but the Dutch, who should have 
backed them, having fled away, they had to retire.' Next day, he 
reported that ' Montgomery of Scotland is come to the Prince 
to make offer of service with 2000 light horse. Two hundred 
Scots have arrived in Zealand, who say that seven ensigns 
more are coming. 12 The arrival was reported to the enemy at 
Bruges, with the information that their leader was ' ung 
homme de belle taille avec la barbe quelque peu rossette.' a 
This was probably Ormiston, who appears in the pay-lists of 



1 Although from the tone of some authors, it would seem that Englishmen 
serving in foreign armies were always * volunteers' and Scotsmen * mercenaries,' 
the position of both was the same, except in regard to the English troops sent 
over by Queen Elizabeth under the treaty by which she obtained possession of the 
cautionary towns. Otherwise both nations sent spontaneous help, troops of 
both received Dutch pay, and in later years both the English and Scots Brigades 
were on the same footing. If King James was unsuccessful in asserting, in 1594, 
his claim to give his own commission to the Commander-in-Chief of the Scots, 
this was no doubt owing to the experience the States retained of the Earl of 
Leicester. The parallelism in other respects is curiously complete. As Stanley 
and Rowland Yorke betrayed Deventer and the Zutphen Sconces, and the 
English garrisons delivered Gertruydenberg and Alost, so Patton and Sempill 
betrayed Gelder and Lier, and Boyd joined with the Prince of Chimay in 
handing over Bruges to the Prince of Parma. 

2 State Papers, Foreign. 

3 For the earliest recorded names of Scottish officers, see the Pay-lists of 
Holland, infra. 

Report from Flushing, made at Bruges, 8th September 1573: * Le rappor- 



8 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

Holland as colonel in 1573-74. In 1575 he had been suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Henry Balfour, among the chequered 
incidents of whose career appears to have been the slaughter 
of his predecessor in a duel. 1 A month later, Bingham 
reported from Delft, ' 1600 Scots have arrived in Holland and 
Zealand, and the Lord of Caker is bruited to be coming with 
1000 horsemen. The league between the Prince and the Scots 
grows very great, and there is motion of marriage for the 
young King of Scotland to the Prince's daughter. 1 

The principal event of 1574 was the famous siege and relief 
of Leyden. From Delft the Prince of Orange was organising 
succour, and the Grand Commander Requesens massed large 
forces in the vicinity of Bommel, Gorcum, and Louwensteyn 
to threaten the Dutch from that side. But all the places 
were well provided, and seven companies of Scots under 
Colonel Balfour were so stationed round them to hinder his 
enterprises by piercing the dykes, and otherwise, that he 
accomplished nothing. 2 Nor although Spanish intrigue was 
busy did it succeed in doing more than disclosing its de- 
signs to the Scottish colonel, 3 while other Scots companies 

teur dit en premier lieu que Samedi dernier, entre huict et neuf heures du 
matin il est arrive de Flessinghe. La ou il ait veu descendre quelque quantite 
d'Escochois mesme que depuis vendredi et samedy il en seroit bien arrive, que 
a la Vere que Flessinghes bien huict cens dont les cinq cens serroyent arrives a 
Flessinghes, ne sachant le nom de leur chef forsque s'estoit ung homme de belle 
taille, avec la barbe quelque peu rossette. 

'Demande s'il n'avoit entendu de la part que Ton vouloit envoyer les dits 
Escochois dit avoir entendu de Betremieu de Dunder qu'ilz attendoyent le conte 
de la Marche avec xv e hommes de Ghetye a autre, et quand il seroit arrive qu'ilz 
volloyent aller assigier Termuden. ' Appendix to Renom de France. 

Some of the Scots were sent in October to share in the investment of Middel- 
burgh. Le Petit. 

1 1574. Lettres de remission du Capitaine Henry Balfour de ce qu'il avait tu6 
Andreas Ormeston couronnel des Capitains Escossois au camp pres de la Bommel 
le jour d'Avril 1574. (Registre des d6peches,etc. , du Prince Guillaume d'Orange. ) 

2 The Grand Commander, says Mendoza, sent Hierges into the Isle of 
Bommel with infantry and light cavalry, ' tant pour gaster le pays en couppant 
les grains, comme pour executer quelque menee qui se tramoit la ville de Bommel 
ou estoient en garnison quelques compagnies d'Escossois avec le Colonel Balfour 
1'un de ceux qui leur avoit commande dans Harlem mais cette entreprise ne 
sortit aucun effect.' 

3 Sp. Papers, September 1574. * They talked amongst themselves, however, 
about Captain Ellis [Villiers ?] going to Bomel and there arranging with 
Colonel Balfour for him and his men when they leave there to go to Rotterdam 



INTRODUCTORY 9 

shared in Boisot's gallant efforts to succour the beleaguered 
city. 1 

In 1575 the Scottish companies suffered severely. In the 
end of July Hierges with a strong force appeared before 
Oudewater, which was held by a small garrison of two French, one 
German, and one Scottish company, whose captain was absent. 2 
Le Petit says that the Scots abandoned an outlying fort at the 
sluice of the canal, without setting fire to it or withdrawing 
the stores, as they should have done ; but under the French 
captain, St. Marie, a gallant defence of the town was made, and 
the Scottish lieutenant was killed on the ramparts along with 
Captain St. Marie at the final assault. The garrison had con- 
sisted of 400 men according to the Dutchman Meteren, and of 
2800 according to the Spaniard Mendoza, but both agree that 
the Spaniards swept into the town, in Mendoza^s words, ' avec 
tel massacre et effusion de sang que dedans ne resterent que 
vingt hommes en vie. 1 From Oudewater Hierges passed on to 
Schoonhoven, which was held by 700 French, Dutch, and 
Scottish soldiers. The defences were weak and the townsmen 
unpatriotic, and the garrison, who awaited for a whole day the 
assault at a breach 300 paces in length, accepted an honour- 
able composition. These losses were followed by the famous 
attack in which the Spaniards forced their way on foot through 
the sea to the isle of Schouwen in spite of the fire of the 
Zealand ships and the troops drawn up to oppose them on 



or Delft or wherever Orange might be, in order to capture or kill him. They 
would also surrender one of these towns, and on their doing these two things the 
colonel and the captains were to have 20,000 crowns cash, and as much more 
for the men. In case they fail to capture Orange, but surrender the town, they 
are only to receive 15,000 crowns amongst the whole of them ; whilst if, on the 
contrary, they capture him and do not surrender the town, they are to have 
30,000 between them. In addition to this, the colonel asks for a pension of 
1000 crowns, and the captains 300 with an employment. They would sign an 
agreement as desired. Guaras says Ellis [Villiers] is a man of experience, and 
has served Orange for a long time, but he and the rest of the English are 
dissatisfied with him.' 

1 Le Petit. Meteren, in relating the unsuccessful attempt of the Zealanders 
upon Antwerp, who had bribed thirty Spanish soldiers in the castle, says, ' Ceux 
du Chasteau et de la Ville estoient deja en armes car ils furent advertirent par 
un capitaine Escossois qui y estoit prisonnier.' 

2 Le Petit. Meteren says the Scots company was 'sous Dincwerc.' 



10 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

land. A panic seized the French, Scots, and English troops, 
the gallant Admiral Boisot was killed, and the fugitives took 
refuge in a fort half a league from Ost-Duiveland, and in 
Vianen. 1 Vianen soon fell, and the Spaniards pressed on to 
Bomene, which was held by 600 old soldiers, Scots, French, 
and English under Monsieur de Ly. After it had been 
bombarded, a proposal was made for a capitulation, but some 
Spanish soldiers were overheard saying that 'these hens and 
rebels should be thrown from the walls into the sea as the 
only consideration they deserved,' and it was resolved to resist 
to the last. The first assault was repulsed, and when at last 
the Spaniards gained the place they put all who were in it 
to the edge of the sword. The strength of the Scottish com- 
panies had now been reduced by a half. 2 

There was, however, no difficulty in filling the reduced ranks. 
On 2nd January 1576, the Spanish authorities were informed 
that ' some Scottish soldiers had landed at Brill, no doubt a 
portion of the 2000 men which Colonel Balfour went to raise 
in Scotland, 1 and the siege of Zierickzee, beleaguered till mid- 
summer, was prolonged by the Scottish and English reinforce- 
ments received. 3 The Archives of the House of Orange record 
that so late as the 1st of June its relief was attempted by 
4 2000 hommes d'Ecosse ' ; but the letter sent to the town had 
been intercepted, the besieged did not co-operate, f et venans 
nos gens au lieu destine ils furent tellement repoussez par les 
ennemis que nous y perdions beaucoup de gens/ 4 



1 Mendoza. 

2 Renom de France in his Histoire des Troubles des Pays Bas, in giving an 
account of the forces of the Dutch in this year, 1575, says, ' En Zuyt Hollande 
quatre regiments dont estoient coronels le S r de Noyelle-Montigney 2 Hellin, 3. 
La Garde, et 4 Walford,-* le premier de Wallons le second d'Allemand, le 3 me 
de Franois et le 4 e d'Escossois, que avoient este pleins au commencement et 
depuis reduite fil a fil a la Moitie. Car autant qu'il pouvoit tenoit les enseignes 
pleines. ' 

3 Renom de France. 

4 The Spaniards were still flattering themselves with the coming success of 
their attempted intrigues with the foreigh troops. 

St. Pap., Guaras to Zayas. *26th April 1576. With regard to the matter of the 
plan of Flushing I have had several conferences with Col. Chester, the English- 

* Henri Balfour Ecossais au service des Etats de Hollande, puis des Etats Generaux. II 
commandait douze enseignes d'Escossais. The English companies were in garrison. 



INTRODUCTORY 11 

The closing months of 1576 introduce a new phase of the 
struggle in the Netherlands. The Spanish Fury had deso- 
lated Antwerp early in November, and a few days later the 
Pacification of Ghent was signed, by which the provinces of 
Utrecht, Brabant, Flanders, Artois, Hainault, and the others 
forming the southern Netherlands, associated themselves with 
Holland and Zealand. The Scots troops had hitherto been 
in the service of Holland alone, or of Holland and Zealand 
combined. They were now to pass for a brief period into that 
of the comprehensive States- General of the whole Netherlands. 

On 3rd December the Prince of Orange wrote to the Regent 
Morton referring to ' la bonne assistance d'hommes qu'en ces 
guerres nous avons par notre bon adveu et congie receu 
cTEcosse,' announcing the treaty with the other provinces, and 
continuing thus : ' Comme les Etatz d'Hollande apres cette 
paix faicte avoyent delibere de licentier le Couronnel Balfour 
avecq les compagnies Ecossaises qu'il a par deca, j'ai estime 
qu'il seroit meilleur veu qu'il s'estoit toujours si vailla- 
ment porte, de Temployer es aultres provinces du pays en si 
bonne occasion qui se presente centre les espagnols qui a faict 
que je Tay bien voulu recommander aux Estatz Generaulx du 
Pays Bas assemblez a Bruxelles, lesquels aussy par ma recom- 
mendation ont traicte avecq luy, Tayantz accepte en leur 
service.' * 

The English State Papers mention that on the 21st the States 

man, and have agreed that he and Colonel Daburd [Balfour ?] of the Scotch forces 
will deliver the town of Flushing to his Majesty for 300,000 crowns and all the 
plunder that the soldiers can take. 

* . . . They expect to carry the business through by pretending that all our 
forces are to go by land or sea to capture the isle of Walcheren or Zealand, which 
will certainly cause Orange to send a great force of English and Scotch to defend 
the island, who will be on our side. . . . Orange, moreover, will send Col. 
Daburd [Balfour] to defend Flushing, and as both of the Colonels think that 
Orange must shortly come to ruin, and they are looking out for themselves, they 
may be depended upon to carry through this service. . . . They are awaiting a 
reply and are much grieved at the death of the Grand Commander.' 

It required a very different condition of affairs, with the Low Country 
employers of the Scots and English troops divided against themselves, and pass- 
ing one by one back to the side of King Philip, and the hand of the astute and 
attractive Parma, before such intrigues produced even the limited effects after- 
wards obtained in a few exceptional cases. 

1 Archives of the House of Orange, Nassau. Groen van Prinsterer. 



12 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

sent sixteen ensigns of Scots under Colonel Balfour to lie in 
garrison about Limburg, and the printed resolutions of the 
States-General record the accepting in service of Colonel Henry 
Balfour the Scot with twelve Scots ensigns (i.e. companies) in 
good order and well armed. 1 

On 9th November it was also resolved to accept and treat 
with a Scots cavalry captain for 200 horse, if ready to pass 
muster, and on the 16th to pay to the Scots captains, Wm. Mon- 
criff and Ogilby, 4>Q Artois. On 9th December the Scots at 
Sas-van-Gand were ordered to the country of Oultre-Meuse, and 
successive guides (the Sieur de Franchenbergh, John Laureys, 
and Thomas Wales) appointed to conduct them there. On 
20th December Balfour's regiment was ordered ' to be provided 
at once with 1500 Ibs. of powder and 90 Ibs. of " mesches.' n<> 

The Scottish regiment had not long to wait for their first 
encounter. ' Au mois de Janvier,"* says Meteren, ' les Escossois 
qui estoient au service des Etats souz le Colonel Balfour rencon- 
trerent au pais de liege par de la Meuse pres de Jupil une troupe 
d'Espaignols en une vallee qu'ils chargerent et les different telle- 
ment que plusieurs y demeurerent et le reste se sauva en la ville de 
Maestricht/ The contemporary account sent to Lord Burgh ley 
stated : ' The Scots who lie at Bingen, near Maestricht, were by 
the Spaniards disquieted with 1500 horsemen, but the Scots being 
1600, unto whom Commendator Burnenstein joined unawares 
his 300 reiters, repulsed the Spaniards to the loss of 100 horse- 
men and of the Scots not past 12 men slain and very few hurt/ 
There was also a very mysterious capture by Colonel Balfour^s 
Scots of certain deputies of Amsterdam (which still adhered to 
the King of Spain), who were probably on their way to or from 
Don John of Austria, which resulted in caution being given by 
a burgher of Amsterdam for 4 what the Scots or their Colonel 
claim.' In March the States refused to withdraw the Scots at 
Don John's demand. On 18th April they resolved 2 to give 
letters of recommendation to the Colonel of the Scots to his 
king 4 du bon debvoir et offices qu'il a faict avec ses gens au 



1 Resolutions of the States-General, 1576-1577. De Jonge. Resolutions 
dated 5th and 6th November. 

2 Manuscripts of States-General. 



INTRODUCTORY 13 

Pays Bas, 1 and on llth May he was paid ^?6000 Artois ' pour 
la recompense a luy promise'; and it was resolved to write 'au 
Roy et Regent du Royaulme d'Escoisse que le Colonel et ses 
compagnies ont bien et lealement servy a sa Majeste Royale 
Catholique et Estats des Pays Bas. 1 On 7th June * le Col. 
Balfour Escossois ayant prins conge des Estatz a este remerchie 
de son service.' 

But Colonel Balfour was soon recalled. The reconciliation 
of February 1577 was clouded over, Don John of Austria 
had seized Namur, and both sides were preparing for another 
struggle. On 10th October 1577 Captain Henry Balfour, 
late colonel of the Scottis companis that served in Holland 
under the obedience of the Prince of Orange, and last under 
the commandment of the Estates in the Low Countries, 1 pre- 
sented to the Scottish Privy Council a supplication stating 
that after his return from service in the Low Countries, the 
Estates being constrained to renew the war for their just 
defence had sent him a commission l as colonel over certain 
companies of footmen of this nation under his regiment to 
be levied and transported there, and asking licence to ' strike 
drummis, display handsenzies, and lift and collect the said 
companies.' The council, understanding ' that the said 
Estaitts hes presentlie ado for the commonweill and support 
of their countre, and that our countremen quhilkis of befoir 
hantit in the wearis are desyrous to be in service, 1 remembering 
also ' how honorablie and thankfullie they were dealt with be 
the saidis Estaitis at their last being in Brabant and departing 
thairfra, 1 granted the desired licence to Captain Hary Balfour 
and the Captains chosen by him, each to levy ' twa hundrieth 
wageit men of weir 1 under conditions similar to those of 1573. 
Captain Preston's Bond (printed in full in the P. C. Register} 
contains the additional condition 6 that he shall not take away 
in his company any landit men prohibit to depart by Act of 
Parliament without special licence. 1 

Though the commission refers to ten companies, fourteen 



1 The commission, dated Brussels, 8th September 1577, and designing Balfour 
as 'chief et Colonell de, dix enseignes de pretons [Ppietons] Escossoyes,' is 
engrossed in the/*. C. Itegistei . See vol. ii. p. 641. 



14 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

were actually levied and the dates of the licences and names 
of the captains were as follows : 

Sept. 23. Alexander Campbell (his cautioners being Kennedy 

of Bargany and Bellenden of Stonehouse). 
Oct 16. Capt. John Ramsay. 
j, 16. Edward Preston (cautioner David Preston of 

that Ilk). 

17. Henry Balfour (his cautioner being Michael 
Balfour of Montquhanney, afterwards the 
first Lord Balfour of Burleigh), 
17. David Murray (of Hillfield). * 
18. Robert Masterton. 
22. ,, Henry Acheson (cautioner, A. Acheson of 

Gosford). 

22. Patrick Acheson. 
22. Adam Montgomery of Braidstane. 
23. James Oliphant (cautioner, Laurence Lord 

Oliphant). 

23. David Spalding. 
26. Andrew Traill. 
Nov. 19. )> Thomas Newton. 
Dec. 4. Patrick Ogilvie. 

In the following year Captain John Strachan received a similar 
licence on 21st August. 

The companies must have been rapidly raised, for on 24th 
November the Flemish general, La Motte, sent Colonel Balfour's 
secretary to receive the money intended for the masters of the 
ships which had brought the Scots into the country. 2 They 
were at once sent to the front. In December some Walloon 
soldiers reported that ten or eleven companies of Scots who 
should join the other troops at Ruremonde were still ' a Fentour 
de St. Tron.* 1 On 9th January it was reported from Namur that 
troops could not be spared, because the camp of the Estates 
was so near and reinforced by four thousand Scots. 

In the army now assembled, says Lettenhove, ' elle mette en 
ligne treize enseignes d^Ecossais. 1 They were practically for the 



1 See P. C. Register, 25th February 1580-81, vol. iii. p. 359. 

2 Gachard's Actes des Etats Generaux. 



INTRODUCTORY 15 

first time in the open to face in a pitched battle the most 
highly trained, best equipped, and fiercest soldiery of the 
century. For the Scottish regiment the fight was not to be 
that of a fair field, but their experience of the stroke of Parma, 
and of the Spanish and Italian cavalry, was to be gained 

' In the lost battle 
Borne down by the flying.' 

On the last day of January 1578 the army of the Estates was 
falling back towards Gemblours, closely followed by the Spanish 
array. The thirteen Scottish companies, with some English, 
formed part of the ' battle ' or main body, and the force was 
marching with large advanced and rear guards. Its course led 
it along the margin of a boggy and almost impassable ravine, 
and the Prince of Parma observed that the order of the troops 
composing the rearguard was loosened and invited attack. 
Without a moment's hesitation, he sent word to Don John to 
support him, and led the Spanish cavalry across the ravine, 
breathed his horses, and swept down on the cavalry of the 
Estates. They and the infantry of the rearguard were broken 
and driven in upon the main body, and the flying cavalry not 
only burst through the formation, but actually rode down the 
men of the main body. They were followed by the furious 
Spanish charge, and in a few minutes the army of the Estates 
was routed. ' En vain,' says Lettenhove, ' les Escossois opposent- 
ils une courageuse resistance.' The magnitude of their loss 
indicates that they fought longest, but the only result was that 
they suffered more than those who were fighting for their own 
hearths and homes. ' La plus grand tuerie,' says Meteren, ' se 
fit des Escossois et autres qui y estoient de la parti des Etats de 
Hollande et Zealande. Le Sieur de Montigny et Balfour, colonel 
des Escossois se comportans valeureusement eschapperent en 
combattant.' 'The greatest loss,' says Le Petit, 'fell upon 
Balfour's Scottish regiment, who was there wounded and saved 
himself, as did the Lord of Montigny, after having first done 
well all that was possible.' The number of the prisoners was 
small compared to that of the dead, but their fate was no 
better, for though Cabrera asserts that Don John liberated the 
Scottish prisoners, Tassis, one of his leading officers and 



16 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

councillors who was present, expressly states that c the greater 
part of the captives who were Scots were afterwards thrown off 
the bridge at Namur into the river,' while the other historians 
declare that the prisoners were all hung. The probability is 
that all were killed, and that, as at Haarlem, the Spaniards 
showed their impartiality between the two alternatives of 
suffocation. The result of the victory was that several 
important places fell into the hands of Don John. ' Louvain,' 
says Strada, ' not awaiting a summons, turning out the Scottish 
garrison, rendered themselves to Gonzaga of their own accord. 
To Mechlin and Vilvoorde, 1 newly garrisoned by the States, 
Gonzaga came too late. 1 

The States set themselves to raise fresh forces. ' Depuis 
furent aussi decretez nouveaux regimens d'Angleterre et 
d'Ecosse.' 2 4 Colonel Stuart,' says Le Petit, ' with his regiment 
of Scots returning from Dantzig, where he had been in the 
service of the city and commonwealth against the King of 
Poland, was accepted by the States-General. 1 3 The Belgian 
merchants in London in March found the means to enable 
one hundred and twenty Scots ' come back from the defeat ' to 
return to the Low Countries, and embarked them for Antwerp ; 
while in April King James wrote saying that he attended to 
the desire expressed through the conservator George Hacquet, 
' touching the countermandment of some companies which had 
made themselves ready to go to the service of the States.' 4 
Exactly six months after the rout of Gemblours, the hostile 
armies again confronted each other near the little village of 
Rymenant in the vicinity of Mechlin. The army of the States 

1 Lettenhove mentions Colonel Stuart as at Vilvoorde, and Colonel Preston at 
Bruges. 

2 Renom de France. 

8 It would seem that he had previously served in Holland. On roth October 
1575 he had written to Lord Burghley stating that, ' having received commission 
from the Prince to serve with 300 soldiers of his own nation, being in doubt to 
find arms ready, or of reasonable prices in Scotland, he desires that he may have 
licence to transport out of England 100 corselets with pikes, and 200 calivers with 
their furniture.' On 4th June 1577, a request of William Stuart, Scottish gentle- 
man, captain of two companies, and lieutenant-colonel of the Scottish regiment, 
had been presented to the States-General. Res. of States-General. As to 
him and his claims, see, infra, p. 115. 

4 Actes des Etats Generaiix. 



INTRODUCTORY 17 

occupied a strong position, and in advance was posted Colonel 
John Norris with the English and Scottish troops, which had 
only arrived an hour before after a long march which they had 
made to join the army. The battle began very gently at first 
between the Spanish and English, then cavalry on both sides 
joined in, and 'Robert Stuart 1 bringing up with him some 
Scots foot, Don John sent in Ferdinando de Toledo with the 
rest of those active foot under his command,'* and followed with 
his main body. Parma led the attack in person, seizing a pike 
from a soldier, and assailed by both horse and foot the Scots 
and English fell back, ' sometimes retiring, sometimes facing 
about and tiring.' They set fire to the village and Parma, 
observing the order of their retirement, began to suspect its 
object, and before long found himself in face, not only of the 
Scots and English, who had taken up a new position supported 
by the artillery, but of the whole army of the Estates. The 
brave Spanish foot and the mixed cavalry again attacked, but 
after a fierce struggle, Don John, declining to commit his whole 
force to an assault on an entrenched position strongly held, 
drew off his army and retired. ' Some companies of Scots, 1 says 
Strada, ' made themselves remarkable, who either in bravery 
or not able to endure the heat of their running and the day, 
the sun putting the whole sky into a flame, stripped them- 
selves, contented only with their shirts, some casting pff these 
too, and tying them about their middles, came on naked 
among the armed men.' But the author of a work of last 
century, 2 who had served in the Scots Brigade, says, ' What 
Strada mentions of the Scots in that battle throwing away 
their cloaths and fighting naked was no more than the 
Highlanders throwing aside their plaids to be less embarrassed, 
after having brought the vanguard of Don John's army into 
the ambuscade that was laid for them, and where they suffered 
greatly, but Strada deals much in the marvellous and makes 
mysteries of very plain facts.' 3 According to the Dutch 



1 Sic, Strada. 

2 Strictures on Military Discipline, with some account of the Scots Brigade in 
the Dutch Service. 

3 Meteren says, 'C 'etoit un jour auquel il faisoit une fort grand chaleur, 
tellement que les Ecossois et autres soldats se despouillerent et combattirent en 

B 



18 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

authorities the action lasted nearly eight hours, and the 
Spaniards left 1000 dead upon the field. A few days after- 
wards Colonel La Garde with 500 French arquebusiers, and 
Colonel Balfour with 1000 Scots took the town of Aerschot, 
Don John's army being only two leagues distant. 

The year 1579 marked the development of another stage in 
the history of the Netherlands, and the substantial separation 
of the country into the future Dutch Republic on the one hand 
and the future Belgian provinces on the other. Already on 
29th December 1578 the Union of Utrecht, by which the 
northern provinces of Holland, Zealand, Gelderland, Utrecht, 
Friesland, Overyssel, Groningen, and, for the time being, Ghent, 
drew more closely together, had been formed, and the founda- 
tions of the future United Netherlands laid. The Walloon 
provinces, on the contrary, were in negotiation with the Prince 
of Parma. Indeed, the main bond of the larger union had been 
the fear of the Spanish troops. The southern provinces were 
Catholic in sentiment, and the fear of the Spanish, Italian, and 
German troops on the royal side was succeeded by an active 
jealousy of the Scots, English, and French troops, who fought 
so well under the banners of the Estates. 'The nobles of 
Flanders were disgusted, 1 says Renom de France, ' because the 
Prince of Orange preferred Englishmen, Scots, French, and 
Germans to military command, and held them in too much 
state and esteem. 1 The numbers of the foreign troops, in- 
cluding the Scots, had been considerably increased, 1 and there 

chemise, laquelle ils attacherent entres les jambes, et firent tout ce qui se pouvoit 
faire pour se defendre centre un si grand nombre de gens qui tous estoyent gens 
experimented et vieux soldats. Le Colonel Jean Norris, fils du Lord Rycort, se 
porta fort bravement avec ses Anglois. . . . Semblablement les Escossois sous le 
Colonel Stewart et autres.' Le Petit says : ' A la premiere charge les Colonels 
Norreys, Anglois, et Balfour, Ecossois, avec leur gens (dont aucuns combat- 
tirent nuds en chemise comme ils se rafreschissoyent du travail du grand chemin 
qu'ils avoyent fait pour se rendre a 1'armee) se monstrerent fort valeureuse et y 
firent paroistre leur vertu a les repousser et puis a les poursuyvre.' Cerisier also 
notes the fact that the Scots fought ' en chemise. ' Renom de France says, ' Ceci 
arresta bien le progres du Seigneur Don Juan.' 

1 In the Appendix to Renom de France's Histoire des l^roubles des Pays 
Bas is given a state ('dresse' in 1579) of the forces of the enemy, 'estans 
presentement tant a Wervy qu'a 1'environ sous la conduicte du seigneur de la 
Noue,' which contains the following: 'huict compagnies d'Anglois sous le 
Coronel Norris.' . . . ' dix-huict compagnies escossoises le seze soulz le Coronnel 



INTRODUCTORY 19 

were difficulties with them owing to their pay not being forth- 
coming. On the 3rd of January it was resolved 1 that the 
Count Hohenlo should command in chief in the town of 
Maestricht, Colonel Balfour being there with his regiment, to 
whom the best contentment that it shall be possible to make 
shall be given. In March there was a complaint from Mechlin 
of the depredations of the Scots and English soldiers, and the 
important city of Bois-le-Duc was lost to the Estates, because 
of its refusal to admit any of the English, Scots, and French 
troops sent to it from Brussels, although it was invited to 
select from the three nationalities tendered. The arrangement 
for the command and garrison of Maestricht was not carried 
out when the Prince of Parma laid siege to it. On the 2nd 
of March he advanced on Antwerp. His army was withstood 
at Borgherhout by forty ensigns, ' tant Walons, Francois et 
Anglois que Escossois, 1 who skirmished well for two hours, till 
the odds being too great, they set fire to the village of 
Borgherhout, and retired fighting to a position under the walls 
of Antwerp, where the advance was checked by the fire of the 
cannon. The engagement lasted till evening, more than 400 
men being killed, mostly on the side of the Spaniards, and was 
witnessed from the walls by the Archduke Mathias and the 
Prince of Orange. With characteristic rapidity Parma moved 
his army from the west to the eastern side of the theatre of 
war, and commenced his famous siege of Maestricht, the 
garrison of which consisted only of 1000 men, ' tant Francois, 
Walons, Escossois, qu^autres,' aided by 1200 well-armed 
burgesses and 2000 peasants. After a heroic defence of four 
months it was carried by assault, and ' peu de soldats des Etats 
en eschapperent que tout ne fut tueV 2 

The Walloon provinces were finally reconciled to Spain in 
the summer of 1579, but part of Brabant and Flanders adhered 
to the Prince of Orange. On the 22nd of October, a gallant 



Balfour et deux venues depuis, a cent hommes chascune compagnie tant 
harquebouziers que piques font en tout deux mil hommes combattans.' . . . ' Et 
si attendent le regiment du Corronel Stuart de huict compagnies escossoises qui 
font huict cens hommes combattans parti picques et harquebouziers.' . . . 
* Cavallerie . . . autres soixante chevaulx escossois en la forme de leur pays,' 
1 Actes des Etats Generazix. 2 Le Petit. 



20 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

piece of service was performed by Colonel Balfour and his Scots. 
Information had reached Bruges that it was feasible to surprise 
Menin, and scaling-ladders having been secretly prepared at a 
country-house of the Burgomaster's, Colonel Balfour left Bruges 
on the evening of the 21st, picked up his Scots companies at 
Roosendaal, and before four o'clock in the morning, was under 
the walls of Menin, with a brewer of the town who had been 
persecuted by the Walloons as his guide. At the same time 
four companies from Courtray arrived at the other side of the 
town in boats, and as four o'clock sounded the ramparts were 
simultaneously escaladed, the sentinels driven in, the guard 
defeated, and the town taken. 1 Curiously enough at the same 
time the Walloon forces in the neighbourhood and part of 
the garrison of Menin were engaged in a similar attempt on 
Courtray, which was defeated owing to their leader hearing the 
commander of Courtray, who was listening for the alarm at 
Menin, ask a sentinel if he heard anything, and on being told 
' no,' reply ' the time is near.' In Menin the Scots secured a 
large amount of booty which the Walloons had collected there. 
On the*16th November, it fell to the Scots captains ' Seton and 
Mornou ' to conduct to Menin the prisoners taken by De la 
Noue in a cavalry action near Halewijn. 2 

1 Renom de France says, ' D'ailleurs 1'opinion des capitaines du Roy portoit 
que Menin surprinse mal a propos faisoit beaucoup de mal a toutes les provinces 
reconciliees.' 

2 In the ' Estat des gens de guerre servans aux Etats revokes, la soulde d'iceux 
et repartissement des provinces,' given by Renom de France (Jan. 1580). 

Among the troops assigned to be paid by Flanders were : 

'Les 1 8 compagnies Escossois du Colonel Balfour. 

Treize compagnies Anglois du Colonel Noritz. 

Et les compagnies de Setton, Mornault, etc.' 

(An item of Colonel Henry Balfour's estate (given up in eik dated 7th January 
1593) was a debt of 'ane thousand florence' due to him by ' Capt. Henry 
Seytoun. ') 

Among those assigned to Zealand were : 

' Cinq compagnies du Colonel Stuart Escossois. 

Les compagnies fussent estoffees de cent cinquante testes, avec les capitaines 
et officiers traictez comme s'ensuit. 

Le capitaine par mois 90 liv., le lieutenant a 45 liv., 1'enseigne a 40 liv., 
deux sergeants a raison de 24 liv. chascun, quattre caporaux a 16 liv., fourrier 
our clercq 12^, deux tambours chascun 12 liv., un chirurgien a 12^, montant en 
effet chascune compagnie a 1700 liv.' 

The captains of Stuart's regiment appear from the documents afterwards sub- 



INTRODUCTORY 21 

In January 1580, Parma took by assault the castle of 
Mortagne, which was garrisoned by three companies of Scots 
and English. There were Scots companies in the force of the 
gallant La Noue, when he was defeated and taken prisoner at 
Ingelmunster in May. And in November, Balfour, who had so 
long commanded the oldest Scottish regiment, met a soldier's 
death. ' Le Colonel Balfour General des Escossois au service 
des Etats, estans en garnison a Bruges en Flandre, sortit avec 
sa compagnie de Cavallerie, et attaqua au village de Wassenaar 
(du Franc de Bruges) quelque Cavallerie legere du Prince de 
Parma qu'il diffit ; mais y survenant secours Balfour qui n'avoit 
que soixante chevaux apres avoir vaillament combattu, fut 
defait et tue, non toutefois sans grande perte des Espagnols. 
Son corps fut rapporte a Bruges et honorablement enterre. II 
fut fort regrette pour les bons services qu'il avoit fait en Flandre, 
aussi ne mourut il point pauvre. Sa femme accoucha tost apres 
en la dite ville." 1 

In February 1581, the town of Courtray fell owing to the 
dislike of the townsmen to receive an addition to the garrison, 
and a stratagem of the enemy. The garrison consisted of two 
or three Scottish companies, and a letter was written to the 
governor purporting to be from friends offering to introduce 
an additional force secretly by a little meadow near the castle. 
At night the governor going to receive them discovered his 
mistake when too late, but the assailants found the Scots already 
turned out in good order in the market-place, where they 
defended themselves for four hours, but were finally all killed 
along with many of the townsmen. In the following month 
the Scots in garrison at Vilvoorden mutinied for want of pay, 
and drove away Colonel Stuart, their commander, but with 
much difficulty they were appeased ; and Stuart's regiment was 
afterwards sent with a French one to Flanders to occupy the 
attention of the malcontent element in that province. The 



mitted by him to the States-General to have been himself, James Stuart, Andrew 
Stuart, Thomson and Anstruther. 

1 The training the Scots were receiving in the Netherlands was carefully 
watched from London, for in the instructions by Cecil for Sir R. Bowes, dated 
i8th Sept. 1579, his attention was called to the fact that, 'the Scottish nation 
is at this day stronger in feats of arms than it was aforetime, by reason of their 
exercise in civil wars at home, and their being abroad in the Low Countries.' 



22 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

Scots who were with La Garde when he recovered the Chateau 
of Baerle from the malcontents set fire to it. In the beginning 
of October, Parma laid siege to Tournay, which was in sore 
straits, when, in the end of November, the Scottish Colonel 
Preston set out from Menin with thirty horse, ' with a great 
courage ' cut his way through the lines of the Germans forming 
part of Parma's force, defeated the company of the Prince of 
Chimay, took thirty prisoners and entered the town. Unfor- 
tunately one of his soldiers was heard to say that they had 
been to near Dunkirk in vain to meet the promised French suc- 
cours under the Duke of Anjou(a mistake because their leader's 
object had been to surprise Bourbourg or Gravelines), 1 which 
so discouraged the besieged that it hastened the surrender. 2 

While the Prince of Parma was besieging Oudenarde in the 
summer of 1582, a force consisting almost wholly of English 
under Colonel Norris, and Scots under Colonel Seton, 3 was sent 
into Flanders and quartered near Ghent, with the view of 
relieving it. Scottish troops probably the same formed part 
of the force which fell back fighting before Parma under the 
walls of Ghent, from which the Prince of Orange watched the 
combat along with the Duke of Anjou, as he had watched a 
similar one with the Austrian Archduke Mathias from the 



1 See Strictures on Military Discipline ; etc. , p. 69. 

2 A document from the archives of Ypres of about this date, quoted by Letten- 
hove, mentions as quartered at Bruges, ' le regiment du Colonel Preston fort de 
dix bannieres de cent cinquante hommes, et les cornettes du Mauregnat, de 
Robert Maxwell et d'Archibald Hamilton.' Richard Preston, second son of 
Archibald Preston, second baron of Valleyfield, and Giles Semple was a colonel 
in the service of the States of Holland. Douglas's Baronage. 

In Feb. 1584-5 Gavin Hamilton, brother of the deceased Captain Archibald 
Hamilton, brought an action against the widow and William Balfour, son and 
heir of Colonel H. Balfour, for a sum of 1200 guilders Flemish money, and 
the value of two horses, all received from said deceased Captain Archibald 
Hamilton. Acta et Decreta. 

On 6th July 1581, a quaint proclamation was made by the Scots Privy Council 
against the transport of loose women to Flanders, which proceeded on the pre- 
amble, that since His Majesty's subjects went there to serve, ' thair hes cumit 
thairfurth of this realm many and divers trowpis and cumpanis of licht women, 
uncumly and indecent in thair maners, countenance, behaviour and array, not 
being mens wyffis or having ony necessar knawin effaires or bissyness. ' . . . 'to 
the tynsale of the great reputatioun quhilkis the said subjectis in the partis 
aforssaid hes to thame acquirit sin thair cuming thairto. ' 

3 Bentivoglio. 



INTRODUCTORY 23 

defences of Antwerp. In August of that year Captain William 
Sempill, and his brother, who was his lieutenant, treacherously 
betrayed the town of Lier to the enemy, ' pour se venger de 
quelque disreputation ou tort (selon qu'il disoit) les Etats luy 
avoient faict.' l 

In January 1583 occurred the treacherous attempt of the 
Duke of Anjou to make himself unfettered master of Antwerp, 
which was known as the French Fury. When the subsequent 
accommodation was made between the Estates and the Duke, 
the English and Scottish troops who had mutinied in the ' pais 
de Waes,' taken prisoners, and held the principal inhabitants 
to ransom, took- the same oath as the French, moved from the 
country of Waes towards Rupelmonde, and crossed the Scheldt 
to succour Eindhoven, now besieged by the Prince of Parma. 
There were Scots in the army which took the Chateau de 
Viersel, but it was too late to save Eindhoven, which fell on 
the 23rd of April, having been defended by some French and 
Scots companies ' qui s'acqui tterent fidelement de leur devoir 
tant a fortifier qu'a tenir la place.' On the 20th of June, 
Parma, having learned that there were differences between the 
English and the Scots on one side, and the French on the other, 
in the army under Marechal Biron, which lay at Roosendaal, 
attacked it suddenly and defeated it. Several places in Flanders 
having fallen into the hands of the enemy, to prevent which 
the Scots and other troops, sent by the Prince of Orange, had 
been despatched too late, the authorities of Bruges sent to 
Colonel Boyd, ' whom they had themselves made colonel, 1 2 and 
persuaded him to come to Bruges with his regiment of Scots, 
which was in their pay, and abandon Menin, where he had 
been in garrison. In the following year the Prince of Chimay, 
who had temporarily joined the party of the Estates and had 
been made Governor of Flanders, and Colonel Boyd, with 
apparently the approval of the majority of the citizens, who 
were mostly Catholics, changed the magistracy, with the result 

1 Meteren. See note 2, p. 26. According to a document, quoted by Lettenhove, 
dated 4th Dec. 1582 (Arch, of Bruges), the army of the Estates then contained 
13 cornets of English and 13 of Scots. There were 20 German, 54 French, 
and 1 8 raised in the country. 

2 Meteren. 



24 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

that Bruges also became 'reconciled to the king.' But the 
Dutch historian notes that the most part of the Scottish 
soldiery and captains did not bear the Prince much affection, 
and when they left the town and were offered employment 
under Parma, only Colonel Boyd and some captains would 
accept it. Shortly before the English garrison of Alost, being 
unable to get their arrears, had sold the town to Parma, and 
taken service under the Spanish colours. An attempt was 
made to play a similar game at Ghent, but it was unsuccessful, 
and among the persons compromised were the Englishman 
Rowland Yorke, who was afterwards the author of a greater 
treason, and Seton, a Scottish lieutenant, who confessed that he 
had been with Parma, and promised to deliver Denremonde. 1 

On the 10th July 1584, William the Silent, Prince of Orange, 
perished by the pistol of the assassin Gerard. The progress of 
the Prince of Parma in reducing the southern provinces had 
been so far successful that he now proceeded to take the pre- 
liminary steps for the reduction of Antwerp. Three leagues 
below the city, on the opposite banks of the Scheldt, were two 
forts, Lillo and Liefkenshoeck, built to secure the passage of the 
river. Liefkenshoeck was carried by storm on the day of the 
Prince of Orange's death, but Lillo was gallantly held by 
Teligny, son of the brave De la Noue. The Spaniards planted 
four pieces of artillery against it, on a dyke, but just then the 
Zealanders sent four Scottish companies under the conduct 
of Colonel Balfour, 2 who, having entered the fort, as soon 
as the garrison perceived the enemy and the position he had 
occupied at once made a sortie to capture the cannon. But the 
dyke was very narrow and the enemy's trenches strong against 
assault, and they could not push their attack so far. However, 
they killed a good three hundred of his men, and returned 
bringing as their prisoner the principal miner, who revealed 
all the mines that had been prepared. 3 The fort made so good 
a defence that Parma ultimately gave up attempting to take 



J Meteren. 

2 Barthold or Bartholomew Balfour, who served till 1594, and is found in 
1603 acting as factor to the first Lord Balfour of Burleigh. Renom de France 
says that ' a la suite de certains differends il se retira en 1 594. ' 

3 Meteren. 



INTRODUCTORY 25 

it, and afterwards said that but for the way Lillo had been held 
he would have had Antwerp six months sooner. 

The respite of Antwerp was not for long. Ghent having 
been ' reconciled,' and all Flanders subjugated, Parma re- 
turned, and the famous siege began in earnest. The Scots 
bore their part manfully in the defence. Among those 
who fell in the fight at Austruweel on 13th August was 
Captain Gordon. After Teligny was taken prisoner, in the 
attempt to reach Zealand and lay the need of the garrison 
before their countrymen, Captain Prop went successfully 
on the same dangerous mission; and in the bloody struggle 
on the Kowenstyn Dyke the side next the river was committed 
to the English and Scots. Parma himself had to leap to the 
waist in water with a pike in his hand, ' when he saw that his 
men would go no more to the charge on that side, seeing that 
the English and Scots were there doing their duty so well. 1 x 
When owing to the flinching of the Dutchmen on the other 
side, the islanders had sullenly to fall back, they left many 
dead on the bloodstained dyke. ' The English and Scots under 
Balfour and Morgan,' says Motley, who, writing at a time when 
the echoes of the Trent affair were scarcely stilled, generally 
shows scant appreciation of the British services to the Nether- 
lands, ' were the very last to abandon the position which they 
had held so manfully seven hours long/ 2 

It would seem that Scottish soldiers also took part in Count 
Hohenlo's unsuccessful attempt upon Bois-le-Duc, for when 
Cleerhaghen, the guide of the enterprise, leapt into the moat 
after all was lost, he was saved by a Scottish soldier. 

If Napoleon's maxim was that 'Antwerp in French hands 
was a pistol held at the head of England,' its capture by the 
Spaniards was sufficient to spur Queen Elizabeth to action. 
The Earl of Leicester landed with a large auxiliary force, and 
was made Governor - General and Captain - General of the 
Netherlands. Scots troops were detailed to share in the as- 
sault when he took Doesburg in September 1586, but the 
achievements of the campaign were unequal to the excellence 

1 Meteren. 

2 Captain James, one of the English officers, wrote, that after the Dutch gave 
way ' the Scots seeing them to retire left their string. The enemy pursued very 
hotly : the Englishmen stood to repulse and were most put to the sword.' 



26 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

of the force at his command, and before long the relations 
between him, Prince Maurice of Orange, and the other officers 
in the service of the States in the days of William the Silent, 
were strained. Renom de France mentions Colonel Balfour 
among those to whom Leicester 'se rendit bientot odieux,' 1 
and the delivery of the city of Gueldres to the enemy by 
Colonel Aristotle Patton, 2 in January 1587,is stated byMeteren 
to have been an act of vengeance, because ' Leicester estoit 
corrouce contre luy et qu'il avoit menace de vouloir mettre 
Stuart en sa place.' Scots troops were in the force which 
in Leicester's absence Prince Maurice led to Brabant with the 
intention of relieving Sluys, and marched to meet the earl on 
his return to Zealand. On the final departure of Leicester, 

1 Renom de France says that the old 'chefs de guerre,' including Balfour, 
' tous se joindirent aux Contes Maurice de Nassau et Hohenlo.' 

Leicester himself confirms this. ' 1586, nth July. I have no liking for 
Balford here, he is a bad fellow, and wholly at others' direction and not mine : 
indeed, if the Master of Gray come not, he will look to be colonell-generall over 
them all, which I will no way consent to. ' Leicester Correspondence. 

2 The booty acquired by the famous freebooter, Colonel Schenck, in whose 
absence Patton was commanding the garrison, and against whom also he had a 
grievance, was appropriated by Patton, to which the proverb was applied, ' Du 
diable vient au diable vat. ' ' Ce Patton,' says Le Petit, * par le moyen de son 
grand argent en telle sorte acquis epousa la veuve diseteuse du feu Penthus de 
Noyelle Sr. de Bours qui aida ci arracher le chasteau d'Anvers des mains de 
1'Espagnol : Ceste Dame estoit de la maison de Bieure que le Sr. de Champaigny 
pensoit bien epouser, mais ses gouttes et 1'argent de Patton Ten empescherent le 
soir mesmes qu'il la devoit affiancer.' Shortly before his death, in 1589, Schenck 
encountered and defeated Patton, who only saved himself by swimming his 
horse across the Lippe. In a list of the army of the Prince of Parma in 1588, 
after the Spanish, Italian, German, and Walloon infantry, there came ' Irlandais 
regiment du Sr. de Stanley, Ecossois regiment de Paton entremesle de Walons.' 
Meteren says (hat in the army for the invasion of England were eight companies 
of Scots, and that Captain Sempill, who had surrendered Lier, was sent to Scot- 
land. He was a frequent intermediary between the Spanish Court and the 
Catholic earls. On 15th February 1588-89, Thomas Pringall, who had served 
twelve years, four under the States, and the rest under the Duke of Parma, was 
executed at Edinburgh. He had been sent by Colonel Sempill to the Earl of 
Huntly before Christmas, and had been in Scotland with Sempill the preceding 
Easter, when Sempill ' escaped by his mother sending him a rope, by which he 
conveyed himself out of a window, being lodged in one Gurley's house.' Colonel 
Sempill was, it is thought, a son of David Sempill first of Craigbet, brother of 
the third Lord Sempill. See ' Colonel William Sempill,' Scotsman, loth August 
1896, by T. G. L. For a full account of his betrayal of Lier, see ' Geschiedens 
der Stadt Lier? by Anton Bergmann. 



INTRODUCTORY 27 

the conduct of the war fell wholly into the able hands of 
Prince Maurice, and the Scottish regiment is to be found 
almost continually in the army with which he won his triumphs. 
Upon the destruction of the Spanish Armada, the Duke of 
Parma turned the fine army he had amassed to work at home, 
and promptly besieged Bergen-op-Zoom. 1 Scots were sent to 
the city from Brill and Ostend, and on llth November, 
Balfour, coming "from Tholen with 500 picked men 'tant gens 
du pais-bas que Escossois,' co-operated with a sortie made by 
the garrison. 2 During the following night Parma raised the 
siege. 

The services of the Scottish troops in the campaigns of 
1589 and 1590 are not specially recorded by the historians ; 
but 'Balfour, Colonel of the Scots, with ten ensigns,' 3 was 
present at the sieges of Zutphen, Deventer, Hulst, and Nime- 
guen in 1591. In February 1592 the Estates sent Count 
Philippe of Nassau with his regiment and the Scottish regi- 
ment of Balfour, making in all twenty companies, to the 
assistance of Henry iv. of France. In 1593 Balfour's regi- 
ment was again with Prince Maurice, and at the siege of 
Gertruydenberg it was posted at the west of the town, the 
Scots and North Hollanders together facing one of the great 
ravelins. 4 Scots also took part in a fruitless attempt to sur- 
prise Bruges in November, when the troops lost their way in 
a dark night, and Balfour himself was wounded in the foot, 
serving with Count William of Nassau, in a skirmish with 
Verdugo's troops who were retreating to Groningen. 



1 Orlers, in the Lauriers de Nassau, mentions that in the question of the 
governorship, ' Les Anglais tenoyent plus le parti de Drurij que de Morgan, les 
gens des Pais Bas et les Ecossais suivayent le parti de Morgan. ' 

2 According to Strictures on Military Discipline, etc., 'Colonel Scott com- 
manded 500 Scots of the garrison and behaved with great bravery.' There was, 
however, an English officer of the name of Scott. 

3 Their position is marked in the illustrations in the Lauriers de Nassau. See 
also as to Zutphen, Renom de France ; and Deventer, Meteren, fol. 333. 

4 Meteren, Orlers, Le Petit. After the reduction, the Prince 'put General 
Balfour with his regiment, which had suffered greatly, into that place, giving 
him the command, his brother, Prince Frederick Henry, whom he appointed 
governor, being yet too young to have any command.' Strictures on Military 
Discipline, etc. and Hist. Account. 



28 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

In 1594 Balfour retired from the Dutch service, 1 and the 
command of his regiment passed to Colonel Alexander Murray. 
It is said that on the return of the Dutch ambassadors from the 
christening of the Prince of Scotland, 2 a great many Scottish 
gentlemen went over to Holland, taking with them about 1500 
men. 3 Murray's regiment ^still of ten companies) was present at 
the relief of Coevorden and the siege of Groningen in that year. 
In March, Captains Brogh and Egger of the Scottish regiment 
had taken part, along with four Dutch captains, in an enterprise 
on Maestricht. They were to go to the suburb of Wyck in large 
boats, and after embarkation cut their pikes short, having been 
afraid to do so before lest cavalry should be encountered on the 
march. The ends of the staves were thrown overboard, and soon 
after the captains were alarmed by hearing a fisherman say there 
must be some of the enemy about, as pikestaffs were floating 
down the Meuse. They then heard from the town that the 
guard had been doubled, and resolved to abandon the enter- 
prise, Captain Brogh saying that he was not going to lead his 
men to certain butchery. The captains were blamed for 
their decision, but Brogh by a long course of good service 
showed that, whether he judged rightly or wrongly on this 
occasion, the decision was due to no want of courage. Two of 
his fellow-officers, Captains Robert Waddell and Melville met 
a soldier's death on 16th July under the walls of Groningen. 4 
The Scottish regiment was in October 1595 again one of two 
sent to assist Henry iv., under Justinus of Nassau. A Captain 
Balfour also took part with Heraugiere (the officer who had 
so cleverly surprised Breda in 1589) in the defence of Huy, 
and Scots troops shared in the obstinate defence of Hulst in 
1596, Captains Balfour and Egger being both killed in repuls- 
ing one of the assaults. In January 1597, Murray's regiment of 
ten companies formed part of the force under Prince Maurice 
at the victory of Turnhout ; and though the infantry did not 
arrive in time to share in the fight, Edmond led three cornets 
of cavalry in their charge on the regiments of Barlotte and 



1 See infra, p. 114. ~ See infra, p. 154. 

3 Strictures on Military Discipline, p. 7 1 ; Hist. Account. 

4 Bor, iii. 832. 



INTRODUCTORY 29 

Hachicourt, met the Spanish cavalry when they returned to 
the charge, and distinguished himself * notablement.' Two 
additional ensigns of Scots were raised ; and at the sieges of 
Rheinberg, Meurs, Groll, Brevoort, Entscheiden, and Lingen, 1 
Murray had twelve companies under his command. At Meurs 
four companies of Scots were stationed before the Kerckporte, 
and on the evening of 28th August, Captain Waddell was 
killed in the trenches. At Brevoort the Scots forced the 
Meesterporte, at Lingen they chased back a sortie of the 
garrison into the town, while the pictorial representation of 
the place bears the note, ' Ici faisoient les soldats de Morreau 
des mines et combattoient la ville.' In 1598 half the Scots 
were left in the force detailed by Prince Maurice to guard the 
Bet u we. In 1599 the foot companies were again filled up, so 
that each company consisted of 150 men, and the colonel's 
company of 200, while among new cornets of cavalry was one 
of ' Hamilton Escossois.' An attempt was made in that year 
to secure Nimeguen for the Spaniards by the exiled Earl of 
Bothwell, who was at Brussels. He had secured two agents, 
one of them at least apparently a Scot, Robert Lungden 
(Lundin), and they relied upon corrupting Captain Masterton, 
who was in the town with four companies of Scots, and who 
had 'been of the faction of the Earl of Bothwell in Scotland.' 
But Masterton discovered the affair, and Lungden was de- 
capitated at the Hague, ' regretting much to have undertaken 
such a design. 1 

The cavalry captain, Edmond, took the Count Bucquoy 
prisoner in an action near Sevenaer. At the siege of Bommel 
the Scots were at first lodged upon the Isle of Voorn ; on the 
19th of May, Colonel Murray being on the ramparts 2 ( fi sur le 
boulevard de Hohenlo '), and not stooping sufficiently when the 
besiegers' artillery fired, was struck on the top of the head 
' tellement que le test fut rompu dont il mourut.' ' C'estoit,' 
says Meteren, ' un fort habile homme, et qui avoit acquis beau- 
coup d'honneur par ses services.' Two days later an assault 
was made on the trenches, which did not succeed on account 

1 Orlers. In the cases of Meurs and Groll, the twelve ensigns are (certainly by 
inadvertence) described as under Balfour, in all the other cases as under Murray. 

2 The spot is marked in Orlers's illustration. 



30 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

of some misunderstanding between the Scots, French, and 
English. But Captain Brogh, who commanded the Scots, 
brought back a Spanish captain prisoner, and the English 
captain, Aldena, another. 1 On 8th July a bridge was thrown 
from Voorn to Herwarden, and on the same day ten Scots 
companies crossed it. They were followed by others, and a 
fortification thrown up, which was fiercely attacked by the 
Spaniards, who were repulsed by the Sieur de la Noue, Horace 
Vere, and Edmond, who was then ' Colonel of the Scots/ In 
November Prince Maurice sent some troops to Emmerick, 
where, admission being refused, Colonel Edmond came to the 
Craenporte, and with the help of some Germans within, burst 
the gate, entered with little loss, and passed to the Steenporte, 
which he opened to admit the rest of the force. 

In January 1600, Count Louis of Nassau and Colonel 
Edmond took Wachtendonc in Gelderland, while the Scots 
also took part in the reduction of the fort of St. Andrew. 

A dark day for the Scottish regiment, though an honourable 
one for the cause of the United Provinces, was near at hand. 
In the summer of 1600 Prince Maurice led a well-equipped 
army into Flanders. He had just settled down to the siege of 
Nieuport, when news came that the Archduke Albert was 
advancing with all his forces. The Spaniards rapidly reduced 
certain forts into which Prince Maurice had thrown garrisons, 
and contrary to the terms of the surrender, massacred those 
who had held Snaeskerke. The expeditious advance of the 
Archduke with his well-appointed army astonished Prince 
Maurice, who received the news after midnight. He at once 
despatched Count Ernest of Nassau towards Ostend with 
Edmond's Scottish regiment of twelve companies, the Zealand 
regiment of seven companies, four companies of cavalry, and 
two guns, to seize and hold the bridge of Leffingen, near the 
fort of Albert, which was still held by his troops. The little 
force found the bridge already occupied by the Archduke's 
troops, who were in too great strength to be assailed, and were 
increasing in numbers every moment. They resolved, however, 
to endeavour to hold their ground. As to what exactly 



1 Meteren. 



INTRODUCTORY 31 

occurred accounts differ. The Spaniards attacked in over- 
whelming force, and according to Meteren, the cavalry at once 
took to flight, and the infantry, seeing this, were equally 
alarmed, and commenced to flee, throwing down their arms. 1 
Le Petit, on the other hand, says that the Count, having fought 
valiantly for a long time, and not being able to hold his 
ground longer, was constrained to yield, after having lost his 
two guns and 800 men, of whom the most were Scots. Benti- 
voglio's account is, < These soldiers of the enemy gave at 
unawares upon the Catholics, who, finding themselves so much 
superior in numbers, and with the advantage of such fresh 
success, soon routed the adversary and made a bloody slaughter 
among them." Broken and ridden down by the pitiless Spanish 
lancers and the cruel Italian horse, the Scots were driven into 
the sandhills and the sea, and the regiment lost no less than 
600 men. All were killed, for the prisoners taken were, in 
breach of the faith pledged, miserably massacred. Of the 
twelve captains of companies who had marched in the early 
hours of the summer morning along the downs, Arthur 
Stewart, John Kilpatrick, John Mitchell, Hugh Nisbet, and 
John Strachan lay dead on the field ; Robert Barclay and 
Andrew Murray ' being prisoners, and having received the 
faith of those who held them," were massacred in cold blood. 
Colonel Edmond, Sergeant-Major Brogh, and Captains Caddel, 
Henderson, and Ker alone remained to gather the wrecks of a 
gallant regiment. Count Ernest and Colonel Edmond were 
pursued to Fort Albert, and the fugitives who fled inland were 
slaughtered up to the very palisades of the fort. 2 

After their victory and massacre the troops of the Archduke 
halted, while the question of further advance was discussed, 
and Prince Maurice had time to transport his whole force 

1 Orlers (who was present according to the Hist. Account") says that ' after having 
bravely defended themselves as good soldiers, they were put to flight, all the loss 
having fallen on the side of the Scots, so that well-nigh 800 were left on the ground, 
among whom were eleven captains, and many lieutenants and other officers.' 
These figures tally with the others if the Dutch are included. 

2 It is curious that all the four Zealand captains killed were murdered in the 
same way as Barclay and Murray, after having surrendered. The fact that five 
Scottish captains were killed in the fight suggests that their regiment stood its 
ground longer. 



32 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

across the haven of Nieuport and array it in order of battle 
before the attack was delivered. 1 In the great fight that 
followed, in which the English troops so distinguished them- 
selves, Captain Hamilton's cornet of cavalry was in the rear- 
guard, and probably took part in the charges that finally 
decided the fate of the battle. Captain Hamilton himself was 
killed. 2 When the army of the Archduke was finally driven 
back in rout, a stern revenge was taken for the slaughter of 
the morning. ' Car de la part des Escossois, 1 says Le Petit, 
4 pour expiation de la mort de leurs compagnons qui le meme 
jour avoient este tues comme nous avons dit, il n'y avoit nulle 
mercy." 1 ' Le lendemain, 1 says Meteren, ' les Escossois en 
tuerent encores quelque trente ou quarante de sang froid, pour se 
venger des Zelandois et Escossois qu'on avoit tues centre la 
promesse et Taccord de TArcheduc tant en Forts de Snaeskercke 
que des Escossois qui furent tues sur le rivage. 1 

The great struggle at Nieuport practically exhausted the 
operations of the year, and the Estates sent Colonel Edmond 
to Scotland ' to remake his regiment. 1 

In the famous siege of Ostend, which lasted from 5th July 
1601 to 20th September 1604, the Scottish troops bore their 
own part in the defence. One of the principal works was 



1 Cette defaite,' says Cerisier, ' qui devait perdre Maurice, fut ce qui le sauva 
. . . cette bataille en retardant la marche des ennemis luy laissa le terns pour 
choisir les postes les plus avantageux, et faire les dispositions les plus sages.' 
Tableaux de IJHistoire Generate des Pays Bas. 

2 In his Life of Lord Wimbledon, Dalton states, ' Among the British officers 
killed at Newport was a cavalry officer who rode with Edward Cecil in the last 
charge, and was slain in Cecil's sight when they were both pursuing the enemy. 
This officer was Captain Hamilton, a gallant Scot, who once made, to use Cecil's 
own words, "the gallantest retreat I ever heard of." Hamilton had been sent 
out with some Dutch cavalry under Count Louis of Nassau. . . . The Spaniards 
came down on them in force . . . and they retreated skirmishing, the officers 
taking in turns to keep the enemy at bay with a few of their men, while the rest 
of their body retreated. "At last," says Cecil, "it came to Captain Hamilton's 
turn to make the last retreat, always most difficult and dangerous (which the 
Dutch loveth not, therefore left it to him), and because the horses were weary 
and the enemy was gaining ground upon them, Hamilton fell into the rear of 
his men, and so long maintained the skirmish with the pursuing Spaniards that 
the States horse had time t make their retreat far enough. In the end his horse 
was killed under him, notwithstanding which he, leaping over a body, made his 
retreat on foot and so escaped.'" 



INTRODUCTORY 33 

known as the Schottenberg. When the gallant Comte de 
Chatillon, son of the great Coligny, standing on the top of 
the Sandhill on 10th September, along with Colonel Van der 
Noot, Colonel Uchtenbrook, and Brogh, now Lieut.-Colonel of 
the Scottish Regiment, had the top of his head carried off by a 
cannon-ball, the fragments of his skull wounded Colonel Brogh 
in the face. When in December Sir Francis Vere, feeling him- 
self unable to hold out longer unless reinforced, and anxious to 
gain time, opened negotiations with the Archduke, it was to 
Captain Sinclair of the Scots and two Zealand captains that 
the duty of receiving the Spanish plenipotentiaries, Serrano and 
Ottignies, was assigned. After the fierce assault which followed 
the Christmas negotiations, the States resolved to relieve the 
garrison, and to renew the change every four or six months, 
and among the officers of rank sent to the city in January 
1602 was William Edmond, now designed as ' Chevalier et 
Colonel des Escossois." l 

Before the siege closed the States had permanently in their 
pay another Scottish regiment brought over by the Lord 
Buccleuch. 2 In May 1604 it is recorded 3 that His Excellency 
sent five companies of the new Scots regiment, with Captain 
Sinclair of the old Scots, and that soon afterwards Captain 
Hamilton was wounded and retired, being succeeded in his 
command by Captain Moore, while a little later Colonel 
Sinclair was killed. 4 In August the Governor deputed Sir 
William Brogh and Adolphe van Gelder to receive the in- 



1 Edmond had, in August 1601, been sent with some cavalry to occupy 
Mons, but was not admitted. The freedom of access by sea- rendered a system 
of relief possible, and allowed of considerable leave. In May 1604 the Governor 
wrote that of five Scottish captains, only one, Captain John Brachton, was at his 
post.' 

2 ' His Majy hath been pleased to assent to the leavying of the new Regt s 
in Scotland, for which purpose there is order already gone to the Lord of 
Bucklugh, who is to command them.' Sir R. Cecil to Winwood, August 12, 
1603. St. Pap. Holland. 

3 ' Siege of Ostend ' (Huguenot Society), by Belleroche, Fleming's Diary. 

4 According to the Hist. Acct. % at an earlier stage of the siege, when Sir Francis 
Vere had resolved to abandon the outworks, Captain Sinclair undertook the 
defence of part of tliefaussedraye of his own accord, and a reinforcement arriving 
the abandonment was countermanded. Sir John Ogle, however, in his continua- 
tion of the ' Siege of Ostend,' added to Vere's Commentaries, denies this. 

C 



34 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

structions of the Government as to the course he should pursue, 
in view of the impossibility of holding out long, even within 
the inner defences of ' New Troy.' The Schottenberg was 
taken in September, and when the garrison finally marched out 
on the 22nd of that month, the English and Scottish troops 
formed the rear-guard, and were the last to leave the ground 
so long and obstinately defended. 

The Scots had not, during the long siege, been absent from 
other operations of the war. A Captain Hamilton was mortally 
wounded before Grave, and a detachment of 200 under Colonel 
Edmond formed part of the picked force with which Count 
Lewis made his dashing foray into Luxembourg in 1602, riding 
as far as the Ardennes, and penetrating one hundred miles into 
hostile country. 

At a review held by Prince Maurice after the taking of 
Grave, the Scottish companies present were Edmond's (160), 
Brogh's (120), Henderson's (100), Sinclair's (94), and Balfour's 
(116). Scots troops were also engaged in the fight before 
Bois-le-Duc in August of the following year, and in May 1604, 
when Prince Maurice was besieging Ysendyke, the sudden 
attack of the enemy upon Cadzand, which formed his base of 
operations, was only defeated by the steadiness of two Scottish 
companies, who taken by surprise, as they were, by a force 
which had already landed 600 men, charged them at once with 
such vigour that they routed them, drove them back to their 
galleys, and took forty prisoners and eight of their vessels. 
Had the design succeeded Prince Maurice would have lost all 
his boats and ammunition ; and the expedition which took Sluys 
would have ended in failure. In the campaign of 1605, it was 
the firmness of Buccleuch's Scottish infantry and four English 
companies (defying with their level pikes the utmost efforts of 
the Spanish troops to break their formation) 1 that extricated 
the cavalry of the Estates when committed to an unequal 
combat with the masses of the enemy's horse, near Mulheim, 
and enabled them to repass the river. In July 1606, half 
of Edmond's cavalry company formed part of the force which 



1 In this campaign there were also English, Scottish, and Irish regiments in 
Spinola's army. 



INTRODUCTORY 35 

successfully resisted the attempt of the Spaniards to cross the 
Waal into the Betuwe, and when in the following month 
Spinola laid siege to Rheinberg, it is noted that ' in the Isle 
and on the other side of the Rhine Sir William Edmond, 
colonel of the Scots, was in command, because that was a place 
it was above all necessary to guard well. 1 Spinola determined 
to attack the entrenchments on the other side of the Rhine, 
while Prince Maurice approached with his army from Wesel, and 
entrenched himself on the opposite bank awaiting the arrival 
of his bridge. But the Prince lost his opportunity to succour 
these entrenchments, and on 3rd September Colonel Edmond 
like his predecessor Murray received a wound in the head as 
he was looking over the rampart, of which he died. ' CVtoit,' 
says Meteren, ' un vieux capitaine qui avoit long temps servy 
les Etats. II estoit Colonel d'un Regiment Escossois, et homme 
qui de bas lieu estoit par sa valeur parvenu a grand honneur.' l 

After his death the besieged were disheartened, abandoned the 
entrenchments the following night, and withdrew their troops 
into the island and the city. Prince Maurice found himself 
unable to relieve the place. It was surrendered, and on 12th 
October the garrison marched out, bearing with them the body 
of Colonel Edmond. 

The campaign of 1606 practically concluded the war, for 
although the Twelve Years' Truce was not signed till 9th 
April 1609, there were no more military operations of magni- 
tude, and none in which the share of the Scottish troops has 
been recorded. The first chapter of the history of the Scots 
Brigade closes dramatically with the bearing by the garrison 
of Rheinberg through Spinola's camp of the body of the 
veteran colonel of the old regiment. 



1 Sir John Ogle had written shortly before, * I fear Sir Wm. Edmonds will 
return in no tryumphe from that place, though for his particular, men doubt not 
but he will deserve honourably.' 



36 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1573 



I. PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS FROM THE 
ARCHIVES OF HOLLAND 

EXTRACTS FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE STATES OF HOLLAND AND 
WEST VRIESLAND, illustrating the earlier history of the 
Brigade, prior to the commencement of the Records of 
the United Netherlands, after the separation of the 
reconciled provinces. 

From the (1) From Accounts and Pay Lists showing personnel of officers 

Archives of 

Grand STATEMENT OF TOTALS of the 3d Account rendered by Franchoys 

mnaries. Valckesteyn deceased, formerly Treasurer of War of the Land of 

Holland and that from the first of June anno 73 to the last of July 
anno 74, in pounds, shillings and pence of 40 groots. 

Paid Out 
1st Payment to German soldiers, Walloons, Frenchmen, Englishmen. 1 

Scots 

l a to Captain Baulfour . . . 8015 

2 a to Captain Robinson . . . 3837 

3 a to Colonel Ormeston . V . 50 

4 a to Captain Pentlandt . . . 6021 5 6 

5 a to Alexander Cembell . . . 3301 

6 a to Captain Edmeston " . . . 2254 

7 a to Captain Trell . . . . 3427 

8 a to Captain Melluyn ' . . . 1925 

9 a to Captain Oggelby . . . 7746 

10 a to Captain Adamsz . . . 4394 15 

5 a Somma . 40,970 6 6 

Pay 

20 a to Colonel Ormeston . . 500 

21 a to Johan Pentlandt, lieut. . . 200 



1 Cap. Greve, Cap. Genffort, Thomas Morgan, Cap. Prys, Cap. Brandt, 
Cap. Maurisz, Cap. Palmer, Cap. Lagan, Irish Captn. 



1574-75] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 37 

STATEMENT OF TOTALS of the 4th and last Account rendered by the late 
franchoys Van Valckesteyn, etc. 

Paid Out 

-Scots 

l a to Captain Baulfour . . . 114 

2 a to Johan Pentlandt . . . 3973 6 

3 a to Captain Oggelby . . . 3598 6 6 

4 a to Captain Cambel . . . 141 17 

5 a to Captain Wm. Edmeston . . 29 16 

6 a to the Compy of Robert Melluyn . 412 

5 a Somma of payment made to Scottish Companies . 8269 5 6 



15 a to Johan Edmeston . . . . 41 11 

This account with the heirs of F. v. V. has been closed by Commis- 
sioners for the State on Feb. 12th, 1577, new style. 

EXTRACT from the Account of Nicolas van der Laen of his Receivership- 
General expiring on the last day of July anno 1574. 

Paid Out 

To Expenses (?) and to bring the soldiers from England and Scotland. 
l a Somma ...... 8962 19 

including for the soldiers of Cap. Trell. . . xij c xxix 

EXTRACT from the first general Account of Jacob Muys, Receiver-General 
of Finances (Jan. 1st, 1575 May 31st, 1577). 

Paid Out 
To Captains native, . . . Ditto foreign, . . . Scottish and English. 

547 lv Pentland .... 12,294 12 

558 Ivj Cambol ..... 13,638 14 6 

570 Ivij Trel . . . . . 16,469 4 6 

under Beaufor l 

576 Iviij Ja. Kuyng or Smit . . . 11,568 1 

584 lix Wm. Emeston . . . . 12,146 16 

588 Ix Thomas Robynsson . . 5,509 13 
590 Ixi Johan Edmeston in 

Thomas Pluoist(?) . . . 3,580 

639 Ixvj Paid to Discharged Captains . . 36,212 18 

1st Grand Total of Payments to Captains . 544,517 10 



1 In Feb. 1577-78 a complaint was made to the Scots Privy Council by Capt. 
William Yorstoun, who had served in March 1575 in Col. H. Balfour's regiment, 
who maintained that Col. Balfour had received payment of his whole wages from 
the Estates of Holland and Brabant. 



38 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1574 

Pay 
663 viij Baulfour . . . 6,421 8 

Sundry Noblemen 
686 xx Wm. Stuart . . . . 870 

Sergeant-Maj ors 
725 xliij John Edmeston . . . 680 11 



() Extracts from the Manuscript Resolutions of the States 
of Holland (Military Affairs) 

1574 

Aug. 28th. To offer de Noyelles the colonelcy of 5016 compi^ Walloons 
and others at 100 crowns monthly. Accepted and promised to do good 
service ; letters of appointment. 

Sep. 2. The Scottish comp ies recently arrived in this country to be 
stationed in the Crimpenerwaart under the colonelcy of Noyelles. 

Sep. 4. Cap. Pentelan is ordered with his company to go to Delfshaven 
in the place of the compy of Captain Morgan. 

Ditto. Cap. J. Blaer, Scottish nobleman, on certain conditions allowed 
to touch certain 100 guilders, now in the hands of Cap. Pentlin and 
owing to Cap. Nielvinck. 

Sep. 10. Treasurer-General to be advised on petition of J. Blaer, Scots. 

Sep. 25. The Treasurer-Gen, of Finances J. Taffin to treat at Rotter- 
dam with the Burgomasters about 15 or 1600 guilders required for the 
departure of Cap. Ogelby and his compy of Scots, already discharged. 

Oct. 5th. Mayor and Aldermen of Boskoop notified to receive 2 
comp ies of Scots in garrison and to accommodate and lodge them without 
hindrance. 

Oct. 9th. Order on the Receiver-General in favor of Captain Oggelby, 
Scotchman, for 1500 guilders, for what is owing to him and his compy, to 
be paid from the excises at Rotterdam. 

Oct. 21. Order for the payment and departure of the discharged Scottish 
soldiers of Captain Oggelby. 

Oct. 27. Capitaine Oggelbie Ecossois pour quelque contentement de 
ses depens depuis qu'il est casse, s'adressera a ceux des Finances de S.E. 
et le Thesaurier Tafin. 

Nov. 1st. Order on C. P. Beaumont Mayor of Rotterdam for 18 Last 
rye the proceeds to be used for the discharge of the soldiers of Cap. 
Oggelby. 

Nov. 26th. The 2 Scottish comp ies on board of vessel outside of Rotter- 
dam and arrived there from Bommel, to be stationed the one at Dordrecht, 
the other at Schoonhoven. 



15/6] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 39 

1575 

Aug. 20. Henceforth all captains appointed by H. Exc? to take oath 
before the Council (Landraat) and a proper record to be kept thereof. 

Aug. 26. Captain Stuart allowed an order for 60 guilders, one month's 
pay. 

Ditto. Resolution on petition of Col. Balfour of the Scottish Regt, 
whether entitled to the 2 chains of Robbeson. 

Sep. 13. Receiver Muys to pay Col. Balfour 1500 glds. for his pay 
from June to August provided it can be done from the current quota ; 
for what he is further in arrear for services with his soldiers at Bommel, 
amounting to 2947 guilders, to provide conform to advice of His Exc v . 

Sep. 22. The Scottish Cap. Smith to make affidavit of having again 
provided for the vacancies (in his Comp v ), and then for this time to let 
him pass muster. 

Oct. 7th. Col. Balfour to be paid by the Receiver-General 800 guilders 
yearly for his services. 

Oct. 18th. Col. Balfour to be paid 950 guilders for his voyage, on 
reduction of what is due for former services, by Receiver Muys, from 
the money of Cap. Mailsant. 

1576 

May llth. The pay of the 3 enlisted Comp ies of Scots allowed on the 
share (of Holland) in the general loan, to be repaid within a month by 
the Union. 

May 22d. Committee to treat with all captains, in the first place with 
the Colonel of the Scots, to bring the pay from 32 days to 6 weeks or 
48 days, with interest for the days thereby reduced, in proportion of the 
pay and at the rate of 12%. 

June 1st. The back pay due to the Scottish Col. Balfour to be pro- 
vided for from the first loan with certain merchants of Dordrecht of 8 or 
10 thousand guilders, under security of the revenue of the Mint at that 
place. 

June 19th. Mayors of towns to provide for the future payment, main- 
tenance, and enlisting of soldiers at 42 days for a month, at the usual pay. 

July 6th. The Committee to arrange with Col. Balfour. 

July 10th. Cap. Cornille with his Comp v to leave Woerden with the 
Comp v of Despontain, to be replaced by the Scottish Comp y of Captain 
Hector. 

Aug. 7. Committee to inquire at Gouda, of Captain Michiel, into the 
affair and fault of certain Scotchmen at Crimpen and Elshout, also (into 
the complaints) against their Lieut, and officer; the Committee to be 
allowed an interpreter for the Scottish language. 

Aug. 7th. The Committee to make proper provisions at Gouda for the 
pay of the soldiers, and to have the Scottish and English Comp ies march 
there. 



40 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1577 

Aug. 8th. On account of the understanding of certain Scots at Crimpen, 
etc., with the enemy, resolved to divide them up. 

1577 

Feb. 22. All captains to pay their men 45 stivers each, half monthly, 
while the engagement remains at 1100 guilders monthly for 100 men. 

May 25th. Those of Finances to discharge first the Scottish and then 
the English Comp ies in Holland, as soon as the necessary funds shall 
be on hand. 

June 9th. Cap. Cromwell (to be stationed) in the fort at Campen, and 
Captain Nysbeth again at Dordrecht, and there to be discharged by 
Commissioner Orteil. 

1578 

Aug. 27th. The pay of J. Cuningham of 150 guilders per month (to be 
reduced) to 100. 

1579 

Sep. 14th. Cap. J. van Cuincham having accepted the office of Lt Gen. 
(sic) of the Regt. of 10 Comp ies of Count Willem of Nassau at 200 
guilders monthly from the nearer Union, his pay in Holland of 100 
guilders monthly no longer to be paid. 

Sep. 18th. To stop the pay of J. Cuningham because he draws from 
the nearer Union 200 guilders as L* Gen. of Count Willem of Nassau. 

Sep. 24th. Those of Sevenbergen to deliver to the Secretary within 
14 days the documents (required) for a settlement with Captain 
Nysbeth, etc. 

1581 

Jan. 4th. Res. with reference to the back pay of Col. Stuart and 
his Regt. 

Jan. 19th. H. Exc^ protesting against the order of the Committee 
with reference to the payment of Col. Stuart in so far as the necessary 
funds are not forthcoming, which endangers Brussel, Vilvoorden or 
Malines, the towns give their opinion thereon. 

April 26th. Col.'s Pension to the widow of Col. Balfour and his son 
at 800 guilders yearly ; some raise difficulties. 

April 29th. Final settlement for the services of the Scottish Captain 
Mestertoin and the back pay of his soldiers. 

June 7th. The Comp v of J. Nysbeth to be sent from Geertruydenberg 
to Amsterdam and employed against the enemy in Vriesland. 

June 10th. Final settlement with the Scottish Captain Mestertoin for 
his services and of his previous [claims]. 

July 4th. The States not being able to furnish for their share more 
money than already granted, Regt. Stuart has as an exception to be pro- 
vided for by the generality. 

July llth. 2000 guilders to Col. Stuart to take the field. 



1586] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 41 

Ditto. Cap. P. Merlyn allowed a month's pay for 150 men and bounties, 
provided it be deducted from Holland's quota to the generality as well as 
the 2200 guilders for Col. Stuart. 



1582 

May 23. Committee to administer with Count Hohenlohe the oath to 
the colonels and captains conform to the new ordinance of His Exc^. 

June 22. To continue to insist to the Deputies of the States General 
that Holland is not liable for back pay of Col. Stuart ; if hard pressed 
to report. 

1583 

Sep. 19th. The Scots ordered by His Exc v to The Clundert to be 
allowed 3 stivers each, daily, for 14 days. 

1585 

Feb. 17th. Captain D. Charrete to allow Col. Koningham to stop at 
Fort Noordam on his way to Geertruydenberg with his Comp v , where he 
is ordered by Count Hohenlo. 

April 24th. His Grace, the Council of State and Count Hohenlo 
written to, regarding filling the vacant colonelcy of Smits. 

Sep. 19th. The Captains, Lieutenants and Ensigns at Bergen to be 
paid out of the 40,000 guilders, and to satisfy the Scottish Captains 
before sending them to their garrisons. 

Ditto. Councillor-Commissioners to Count Hohenlo to insist on prompt 
payment to the Scottish Captains of one month's pay, that otherwise 
payment shall be made on a certain draft. 

Nov. 8. Agreement with the Deputies of Zeeland on the reduction and 
the pay of the Comp v of Scots under Balfour. 

Nov. 15. All captains in gar. in Holland and Zeeland to discharge all 
Scottish soldiers, on pain of not being paid. 

1586 

Jan. 14th. Cap. J. Balfour and others to have patience for what the 
interest is behind, until the payment shall be provided for. 

Nov. 26th./Dec. 9th. The Gd Pensionary and the Committee to pro- 
ceed in every possible manner with the Council of State for the reduction 
of the soldiery, as well of the English and Scottish as the Netherlander, 
horse and foot ; all superfluous salaries to be stopped, and likewise all that 
are necessary to be reduced. 

Nov. 10th. His Exc v having ordered all soldiers garrisoned under his 
command in the towns of Holland to receive daily 3 stivers for their 
keep ; the Mayors of Schiedam to point this out to the Captain of the 
Scottish Comp v there stationed, and that this must satisfy him. 



42 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1587 

1587 

Feb. 13th. Distribution of the Scottish and English Comp ies and 
transportation to their destination at the Country's expense, the magis- 
trates to find accommodation for the Scottish Comp ies with maintenance 
at 3 stivers per head. 

Feb. 17th. Res. on the reception of the Scottish and English Comp ies ; 
and how to act. 

Feb. 18th. Res. on form of oath for Col s and soldiers. 

Feb. 23d. For the Scottish Comp ies in gar. in the towns of Holland 
by command of His Exc^, each to be maintained at 150 head, authority 
to draw on the receiver Thomas at Dordrecht. 

April 13th f J. Verbaas, 1 Scotchman, Ensign of Captain Trel, 50 glds 
as recompence for the wound he received at Zutphen. 

Aug. 4th. To also pay each of the Scottish Companies one month's 
pay and to insist on the States General resolving on the cloth and the 
settlement. 

Aug. 19th. Commissioners to Count Hohenlo notified regarding the 
pay of 5 squad 8 of horse and 7 comp ies of Scots for the expedition and 
reception of German soldiery, etc. 

Aug. 22d. The expenses incurred by Rotterdam, for the transporta- 
tion of the Compy of Cap. R. Schotte to Haarlem, for supplies and 
shipments, to be borne by the Country. 



Probably Forbes, of which the local Aberdeenshire pronunciation is Forbes. 



1579] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 



II. STATES OF WAR 

1579-1609 
EXTRACTS (WITHOUT DATE) 

Infanterie estant prtement en service pour servir en campaigne. 
Item, le Regiment du Colonel Balfour l de 15 Enseignes a 150 testes 
traites et armes comme dessus. 2 



1 Colonel Hary or Henry Balfour served as a captain at Haarlem, and 
colonel of the Scottish Companies from 1574 to his death in 1580. For his 
services, see pp. 11-21. Killed at Wassenaar, November 1580. Married 
Cristian Cant, sister of Captain David Cant. (See P. C. Reg. ii. p. 676.) 
Repeated recommendations in favour of his heirs, especially on July 5th, 1594, 
and May 1603, and see representations and claims by his son, Sir William Bal- 
four, in 1605. His will is recorded in the Edinburgh Commissariat Records on 
3rd June 1587, with an ' eik ' on 5th August 1590, and a statement of ' omitted ' 
on 7th January 1593-4. 

Sir Henry Balfour's widow, Cristian Cant, subsequently married Captain John 
Balfour (Acta et Decreta, February 1584-85) of Wester Pitcorthie, who was 
serving in Flanders in 1586, and had died before I7th November 1592. On 
30th January 1598-9, a discharge was granted to 'Cristiane Cant, relict of 
Capt. John Balfour, and Peter, Bishop of Dunkeld, now her spouse.' 

It would seem that there were two Henry Balfours at an early period in the 
service of the Low Countries. The colonel killed at Wassenaar was a younger 
son of Bartholomew Balfour of Mackareston in Menteith, who was killed at 
Pinkie in 1547, full brother of James Balfour of Boghall and Easter Tarrie, and 
half-brother of Colonel Bartholomew Balfour, who subsequently commanded 
the regiment. He had two sons, Sir William Balfour and Henry (described 
in the Sinclair MS. as 'colonel,' but who does not appear to have attained 
higher rank than that of captain or lieutenant), who seems to have died between 
1605 and 1613. 

Among the MSS. of B. R. T. Balfour of Townley Hall, Drogheda, the 
representative of Sir William Balfour, are the following documents : 

June 1 8, 1561 (sic) Dillenburg Castle. Commission from William, Prince of 
Orange, to Sir Henry de Balfour, a Scottish gentleman of prudence and experience 
in warfare, to arm and equip a ship and to levy soldiers for the same, to go to 
the coasts of Spain and Portugal, in order to attack the Prince's enemies and do 
damage to their persons and goods. He is expressly forbidden to do damage to 
any subjects of the Queen of England, the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, or 
any other potentate well disposed to the Christian religion or the Prince. 

June 15, 1574- Commission from William, Prince of Orange, to Sir Henry 
Balfour to be colonel and superintendent of all the companies of Scots foot- 
guards in his service. 

Nov. 5, 1575. Order by the nobles and delegates of the cities of Holland for 
the issue of a yearly pension of 800 florins of 20 stivers apiece to Henry Balfour 



44 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1579 

1500 Harqueboustiers ) 05 500 

750 Picques . . ) 
Le traictement du Colonnel Balfour, 1200. 



for so long as he shall live and show himself friendly to the people of Holland, 
in consideration of his services against the Spaniards. 

Dec. 22. 1576. Brussels, Commission from the King to Henry de Beaufort to 
be colonel of 16 ensigns of Scots foot soldiers, at a yearly salary of 500 livres, 
with suitable salaries specified for the inferior officers. Hist. MS. 10 Rep. App. 
vi. p. 255. 

According to Douglas's Peerage, Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich (second son 
of Andrew Balfour of Mountquhanny), who married the heiress of Burleigh, and 
was the father of Sir Michael Balfour, created in 1606 Lord Balfour of Burleigh, 
and Sir James, created in 1619 Lord Balfour of Clonawley, had a fourth son, 
Henry, ' a general in Holland.' He is also said to have had a sixth son, David, 
a captain in his brother's regiment, who was drowned in crossing to Holland ; 
and it will be seen (p. 203) that there was also another son, John, who (men- 
tioned as Captain John in the Sinclair MS.) in 1606 offered to raise a company, 
and had apparently previously served. 

The following pedigree (showing 'descent of the Balfours in Holland'), taken 
from the Sinclair MSS. at Crawford Priory, was communicated to the editor by Mr. 
C. B. Balfour of Newton Don : I. Sir Henry Balfour, Knight, brother of Sir 
Michael Balfour, first Lord Balfour of Burleigh, emigrated to Holland and 
married Anne, daughter of Sir Paul Bax. He had issue. 2. Lieutenant-Colonel 
James Balfour ; married Anne, daughter of Philip Stewart, and had issue. 
3. Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Balfour ; married Elizabeth Fleming, and had 
issue. 4. Lieutenant-Colonel John Balfour ; married Vincentia Moggo, and had 
issue. 5. Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Balfour ; married Adriana Leydekken, 
and had issue. 6. Captain John Adrian Balfour. 

It would, however, rather seem that the Henry, brother of Lord Balfour of 
Burleigh, has been confounded with the other Henry, who was really a colonel 
if not a general ; and that he and his own brother David have also been trans- 
posed, both by Douglas and in the Sinclair MS. According to an Irish MS. by 
Bishop Reeves (communicated by Mr. B. T. Balfour of Townley Hall), it was 
David and not Henry who married Anne Bax, while Henry married Maria de 
Leon. The latter alliance appears to be confirmed by the Dutch Service Lists, 
and the Henry who was the husband of Maria de Leon or van Leeuwen died 
as a captain. 

It is further confirmed by the following note from Holland, made by Baron 
^Eneas Mackay, and communicated by Lord Reay : 

* Anna Bax mar., 30 Oct. 1607, Captain David Balfour, and had four children. 
I. daughter; 2. Paulus [Patrick?] Balfour, born n July 1610; 3. James 
Michael Balfour, born 22 Nov. 1611 ; 4. Marcelis Robert Balfour, born 6 March 
1613. James Michael Balfour, captain at Gertruydenberg, mar., in Feb. 1637 at 
de Klundert, Agatha [sic\ Stuart. They had children, David Balfour, born 10 
April 1639 ; Jacoba Balfour, born 2 Feb. 1644, mar. Johan van Stapele. 

' The brother of Anna Bax, Marcelis Bax, had a daughter who in 1632 married 
Cornelis van Stapele. She had two children, Johan, who married Jacoba Balfour, 
and Anne Maria van Stapele (b. 1635), who married Patrick Balfour, and had 
a son, Cornelis Balfour, born 24th Sept. 1669.' 



1579] STATES OF WAR 45 

Le Regiment de Stuart 1 de 10 Enseignes traites et armes comme 
dessus. 

Sio | X f Harqueboustiers j 17,000. 

I 750 Picques . . J 
Le traictement du Colonnel, 996. 

Etat et recueil a quoy montent les Regiments et compaignies In- 
fanterie estans en service comme presentem ils sont payes. 

Le Regiment de 15 enseignes Ecossois soubz le Col. Balfour montent 
y companys le traictem Colonnel a la somme de 29,629. 

Les Regimens et compaignies ainsy remis et redresses a 150 testes 
chaque compaignie comme cy devant est diet il semble a monseigneur 
Le prince d'Oranges que se pourront repartir en deux trouppes Tune en 
Geldres et 1'autre en flandres puis que 1'ennemy a la teste vers Geldres 
ou Frize. 

Pour Geldres, etc. 
Item, le Regiment de Stuwart : 
1000 Harqueboustiers. 

500 Picques ... 10 Enseignes. 
L'lnfanterie qui servira en campagne pour Brabant ou Flandres. 
Le Regiment de Balfour a 150 testes 15 Enseignes. 
1500 Harqueboustiers. 
750 Picques. 
Du nouveau pied conceu par Monseig r le Prince d'Oranges pour dresser 



In a Brussels paper of 28th July 1808, * Lieutenant-Colonel Balfour de Burleigh 
is named Commandant of the Troops of the King of the Netherlands in the West 
Indies.' The name Balfour of Burleigh has also been observed on a door-plate 
in Utrecht in the present generation. 

The difficulty in tracing the various officers of the name who served one or two 
centuries ago must, however, be great, as Sir Robert Sibbald states that in his 
time, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were no less than thirteen 
landed proprietors of the name in Fife. (Note communicated by Major Balfour 
of Fernie. ) The Balfours of Tarrie and Mackareston in Menteith were of the same 
stock as the Lords Balfour of Burleigh, being descended from a younger son of 
Sir Michael Balfour of Burleigh (1450), who married Elizabeth Douglas, and the 
direct line of whose eldest son ended in the heiress of Burleigh who married Sir 
James Balfour of Pittendreich (Sinclair MS.). 

It seems therefore clear that the original Colonel Balfour was Sir Henry 
Balfour of the Mackareston family, who was killed in 1580, being then 'General 
of the Scots,' and that at a later period there were two Henrys in the Dutch 
service, neither of whom appears to have attained a higher rank than captain, 
one being that Colonel Henry's son, who died before 1613, and the other being 
Henry, brother of the first Lord Balfour of Burleigh, who died in 1615 (see p. 61). 

2 This refers to what is mentioned in a previous section with reference to the 
English Regiment of Noritz : 

' dont les loo y compruys les officiers seront harqueboustiers et les restans 
50 picques a raison de 1700 livres pour chaque compaignie.' 

1 Sir William Stuart of Houston. See p. 115. 



46 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1579 

les compaignies d'Infanterie de 150 testes dont les cent y compruys les 
officiers seront Harqueboustiers et les restans 50 armes portent picques 
revenans pour ung mois de gages a 1700 florins. 

Le cap ne par mois . 90 Quatre corporautz . 64 

Lieutenant . . 45 Fourier ou clercq . . 12 

Enseigne ... 40 Deux tambourins . . 24 

Deux sergeants . 48 Ung chirurgin . . 12 

S a 335 

Aussy reste encore 137 testes desquels il faut oster 50 corseletz reste 
87 harqueboustiers lesquels seront traictez come sensuyt. 

Les 45 a 8 . 360 10 a 20 .' . 100 

12 a 9 .108 8 a 11 . . 88 

S a 656 
12 Mousquetiers. 

6 a 12 . ^72 2 a 15 . . 30 

2 a 14 .28 2 a 16 . . 32 

S a ^162 
Les 50 corseletz seront traictez come sensuyt : 

14 a 9 . 126 2 a 14 . . 28 

33 a 10 .130 2 a 16 . . 32 

9 a 11 .99 2 a 18 . . 36 

8 a 12 . 96 

S a 547 

Soma totale a quoy monte le mois degages pour 150 testes traictez et 
armez come dessus, ...... 1700 

REGIMENT OF COLONEL WILLIAM STEWART. 

[This is from Collection : Council of State. 
Portfolio : e Hoplieden ' (captains) 3. 
Bundle: General settlement with Col. Morgan, and with other 

captains, 1572-1581. 
23 Folios : General settlement with Col. Stewart, and divers 

documents pertaining thereto.] 

Life Company 1 [i.e. the Colonel's] March 1st, 1579 April 18th, 1581. 

CaptDallachy ... 

Mangrief ... 

Penthone [Renton ?] . 



1 From the settlement which Colonel Stewart finally made in 1593, it would 
seem that at 1st March 1579 there were five companies in his regiment, namely, 
his own, James Stuart's, Andrew Stewart's, Thomson's, and Anstruther's. 
(See also pp. 16, 19, and 20.) In December 1586 it was resolved that the Scots 
should be divided into two regiments, one of ten companies under Balfour, and 
one of four companies under Patton. In the following year Patton betrayed 
Gueldres, and went over to the Prince of Parma, and in 1588 he appears 
as colonel of a regiment of * Scots mixed with Walloons.' (See note, p. 26, 



1579] STATES OF WAR 47 

Trottar ... 
Thomson ... 







Amstratter, 1 . . ,, ,, 

Gordon,' . . 
Blayr . 

Haultain, now Patton, 

The Col.'s staff. 

1579 

JExhibe par Monseig 1 " le Prince d Oranges en 1'assamblee des Etats 
gnaulx le 12 de decembre. 

I/Estat quil semble a son Ex e pouvoir estre suyoy pour la Levee de 
1'armee quil juge estre necessaire a estre mise sus pour 1'annee qui vient. 



also p. 96.) In 1587 Balfour's regiment consisted of twelve companies, includ- 
ing those of Dallachy and Blair. Probably these were two of Patton's regiment, 
which he did not take over, and which were joined with the ten under Balfour's 
command. William Renton or Penton [Panton] appears in the general list of 
1586, and his son Andrew, as drawing a pension, in 1595. Captain William 
Moncrieff was killed on the Kowenstyn Dyke before Antwerp in 1585. See 
petition of his widow, Bentgen Jansz, November 1618. 

1 Anstruther. Probably one of the family of Anstruther of that Ilk. In 1578 
six of them were serving at the same time in the Scots Guards in France. * Peter 
Anstruther, a captain in Flanders, who died in 1589,' is mentioned by Wood in 
The East Neuk of Fife as probably a younger son of John Anstruther of 
Anstruther, who married c. 1527 as his second wife Elizabeth Spens of Wormiston. 
(Note communicated by Sir Ralph Anstruther of Balcaskie.) 

2 'The year of God 1585 Captain Alexander Gordon (brother to William 
Gordon of Gight) was Governor of the fort of Tour-Louis besyde Antwerp 
when it was rendered to the Duke of Parma : which fort was manfullie defended 
by Captane Alexander Gordon a long time against the Spaniards with the loss 
of much of his owne blood and the lyves of many of his soldiers. Then was he 
maid Governor of Bergen-op-Zoom, by Prince Maurice his excellence, and thair- 
after maid colonel 1 of a Scottish regiment. In end coming home to visit his 
friends in Scotland he was slain in Menteith by some evil willers, who had 
secreitlie layed an ambush for him. He married Jacobee Pedralis of Aungadere, 
ane Italian gentlewoman by whom he had two sons, George Gordon and 
Captain John Gordon. This captain John Gordon was slain in Holland, and 
had a son called Alexander Gordon.' Sir Robert Gordon's History of the 
Earldom of Sutherland. 

A Captain Gordon was killed before Antwerp on I3th August 1584. The 
pedigree of the Gordons of Gight, given in the Thanage of Fermartyn t states 
that William Gordon, who succeeded to Gight on the slaughter of his kins- 
man ' on the shore of Dundee by the Master of Forbes and the Goodman of 
Towie,' had three brothers (2) Captain John Gordon, who was killed at 
Donibristle in the celebrated attack made on that house by the Earl of Huntly 
when the Earl of Moray was killed ; (3) Alexander, killed in the wars of 
Holland ; (4) George, killed by the Master of Menteith. 



48 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1579 

La quelle debvrait estre prest pour le printemps tant des gens de cheval 
que de pied pionniers artillerie et esquippage. 

Gens de cheval, etc. 

Gens de pied pour la campaigne. 

Ecossois. 2000 harquebousiers mil corpselets. 



Exhibe p. le tresorier de guerre, van Beke, le 22 de Decembre. 

Estat en brief a quoy revient ung mois de gaiges soldees et traictemet 
des gens de guerre tant de cheval que de pied que Ton entendt pre- 
sentemet entretenir pour le service de messieurs Les Estats ensamble les 
traictements des chefs du camp avec les trains de vivres et de 1'artillerie 
coe il sens*. 

Gens de piedt pour la Camp ne Asscavoir. 

A deux milles Harquebousiers et mil corpselets Ecossois ils se pourront 
mestre en 20 comp ies soubs 2 Regiments pour le d. mois aux pris chacune 
comp ie et le traictement couronnel revenans ensemble a la somme 
de 42480 



1586 
Rendered Nov. 28th. 

Cavalier ie 
Captain Wisschard. l 

Hollands Infanterie 
Col. Balfour 2 1800 



1 Alexander Wishart received commission in March 1586 as cavalry captain 
in recognition of his 'good service at the dyke of Kowenstyn.' Obtained on 
7th June 1592 an Act discharging legal proceedings in Scotland at the instance 
of the States or their Confederates against him and his spouse, until they are 
paid the debts due to them by the inhabitants of Bommel in Guelderland 
(P. C. Reg. ). On March I4th, 1616, a quarrel having broken out at Leith between 
Sir William Balfour and Captain Alexander Wishart, Sir William offering a 
stroke of a rod to Captain Wishart, and he, after his sword was broken, having 
shot a pistolet at the said Sir William, they were warded in the Castle of Edin- 
burgh, and formally reconciled by the Privy Council, to prevent 'distraction 
and factions among the Scottis captains and commanderis in the Low Countries.' 
See frequent references to him and his company, infra. 

2 Bartholomew Balfour, Colonel of the old Scots Regiment from 1585 or 1586 
to 1594. Served at Antwerp and passim to 1594 (supra, pp. 24-28). He 
was wounded near Groningen, and left the Dutch service in 1594, on account of 
differences with the Estates, receiving an honourable pension (pp. 20, 56, and 114). 
On 6th January 1603 an action was raised by Sir Michael Balfour of Burley and 
Colonel Bartill Balfour, his factor. Sir Michael had imported arms from France 
for the defence of the country, was charged for duty, and brought a suspension, 
which was sustained (P. C. Reg.}. Commission for his ' compagnie colonelle ' 



1586] STATES OF WAR 49 

Gordon 1 1120 

Cant 2 1530 

Waddel 3 reduit et estime a 200 testes . . 2020 

Blaire 4 ...... 1720 

Melvil 5 . 1540 

Trail 6 . . . ... 1450 

Prop 7 reduit et estime a 200 testes . . 2200 

Kiets 1180 

Prize 

Meldrom. 8 
At the end appears a list of 64 Comp ies : 



1588 on p. 84. Colonel Bartholomew was a younger son of Bartholomew 
Balfour of Mackareston, in Menteith (killed at Pinkie 1547), by his second wife, 
Margaret Drummond, daughter of Alexander Drummond of Carnock, previously 
wife of Macaulay of Ardincaple. * She bore to him,' says Lord Strathallan, in 
his Genealogy of the Drummonds, f Colonel Bartholomew Balfour, the father of 
Sir Philip Balfour, both knowen for valiant men in the wars of the Netherlands.' 
Colonel Bartholomew married Beatrix Cant, whose will, in which she 
bequeathed a dyamont ring to her nephew, Sir William Balfour, is noted in the 
Edinburgh Commissariat Register, vol. xlvii. It is dated January 28th, 1611, and 
she is designed as * sumtyme spous to Colonell Barthilmo Balfour of Ridhews. ' 
In 1589 Bartholomew Balfour, 'coronator,' and his wife bought Prior Letham, 
which was sold in 1597. In 1601 he bought * Reidheuchis,' in the parish 
of Currie, Midlothian, which was sold by his son Philip in 1618. He was 
alive in 1605. Besides Sir Philip, afterwards colonel of a regiment, he had a 
second son, James, a captain in Holland, and was probably the grandfather or 
great-grandfather of Brigadier Bartholomew Balfour killed at Killiecrankie in 
1689 (see p. 70, note). See also pp. 96 et sey., 114, and 245. 

1 See note, p. 47. 

2 David Cant, brother-in-law of Colonel Henry Balfour, dead July 1592, when 
John Mitchell succeeded him. Recommendation in favour of the widow of his 
brother and heir, Walter Cant, on 5th July 1594, and see claims of his nephew, 
Sir William Balfour, tnfra, pp. 252-255. See also as to a dispute to which 
Walter Cant, younger, was a party, which had been * remitted to the decision of 
the Colonels and Captains of the Scots Companies in Flanders,' 25th October 
1581. P. C. Reg. 

3 William Waddell left service in 1594, and was succeeded by his brother Robert, 
formerly his lieutenant. ' Captain Waddell ' appears in pension list of 1597. 

4 The widow and two children of Captain Blair appear in pension list of 1595. 

5 An Alexander Melville was killed before Groningen, I5th July 1594, but 
his commission as captain was dated 3rd February 1589. 

6 (David) Trail, dead before March 3ist, 1590, when Captain William Brog 
succeeded him. His widow and heir were recommended in 1594. 

7 John Prop, sent to States from Antwerp, 1585. Dead in June 1596, when 
succeeded by Arthur Stuart. His widow was receiving pension in 1 599, and his 
children appear in 1607. 

8 Captain Meldrum's widow appears in pension list of 1595. 

D 



50 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1586 

Anglois 
Including (apparently by mistake) 

Rally . . . .... . . 1180 

Boswel ...... 1180 

Guillame Morray 1 . . . . . 1700 

Dallachy 2 . . . . 

Wm. Nysbeth 3 . . . ....... : . 

Alex. Morray 4 . . . 

Renton 5 .... 

JanBalfour 6 . . . . . 



1 Sir William Murray of Pitcairly, second son of Sir William Murray of 
Tullibardine (ancestor of Duke of Athol), left the Dutch service in September 
1588, and was succeeded in his company by Alexander Murray, his brother 
(pp. 89 and 106), who had previously commanded a company. He had claims 
against the States, which were settled in 1594 when he came over as ambassador 
from King James, and received a pension, settled first on himself and subsequently 
on his children (see pp. 74, 153, and 233). He received another recommendation 
from King James in 1599, when he came over to settle the affairs of his brother, 
Colonel Murray, killed at Bommel. Douglas (followed by Burke) and the 
Chronicles of the Families of Atholl and Tullibardine state that Sir William 
Murray, tenth Baron of Tullibardine, who married Catherine Campbell of 
Glenurchy, and died in 1562, had Sir William, who succeeded him ; Alexander, 
a colonel in the service of the States of Holland; James of Purdoves, and 
Andrew Murray. Sir William, the eldest son, who married Lady Agnes 
Graham, and died in 1583, had John, his heir, Sir William of Pitcairly, Alex., 
said to have died young, and Mungo of Dunork. But it would seem that Colonel 
Alexander Murray really belonged to the later generation. 

2 Captain John Dallachy continued to serve until 1599, when he was succeeded 
in October (being dead) by John Kilpatrick. Probably killed at Bommel. His 
widow (Elizabeth Crichton) and two children appear in list of 1607. See 
recommendation ' en sa vieillesse ' by King James, April 1599. Attended Dutch 
ambassadors in Scotland in 1594. 

3 William Nisbet. Received captain's commission on i7th Oct. 1581, in 
succession to Captain John Nisbet, in the regiment of Count Diedrich Sonoy 
(p. 76). The name Nisbet occurs until 1600, when Hugo Nisbet succeeded his 
father, and was killed at Nieuport. The children of Captain John, and the widow 
(El. Forbes) and children of Captain William appear in pension list of 1607. 

4 Alexander Murray succeeded his brother in his company in 1588, became 
colonel of the Scottish Regiment in 1594. Killed at Bommel, 1599 (see 
p. 29). 5 See note, p. 47. 

6 A Captain John Balfour, who had previously served with distinction, received 
a commission as cavalry captain in March 1586 (p. 79). A John Balfour also 
appears in list of 1587, and then disappears. This was probably Captain John 
Balfour of Wester Pitcorthie, second husband of Christian Cant, dead in 1592, 
who had in 1586 a law-suit with Alexander Balfour of Denmylne for redelivery 
of 'twa blankis' left with him on leaving for Flanders. In 1594 a Captain 
John Balfour is mentioned by the ambassadors of the States as seen by them at 
the Scottish Court. This was probably Captain John Balfour, brother of David 



1589] 



STATES OF WAR 



51 



Montgomery 
Olifart 



1700 



Col. Balfour 



1587 
Rendered Dec. 31st. 

Foot 

Companies of 200 men 
Actual number at the last muster. 

Companies of 150 men 



Cant 

Waddel . 
Treil . 
Blair 
Nysbet 
Dallachy . 



Hay 

Guil e Morray . 

Jan Balfour 

Prop 

Alex. Morray . 



. 148 
.120 
. 144 
. . 150 

.. . , . 135 
.. , 150 

List of pay 

Col. Balfour with one S r major at 80 and one Provost Marshal 
at 50 monthly ...... 

1588 and 1589 
Foot soldiers paid by Holland 
Estimated Estimated 



200 

144 
150 
103 
137 
126 



530 



1500 
1500 
1500 
1500 



Balfour of Bandon, who, along with Margaret de Primzie, his spouse, entered 
into a contract with Michael Balfour of Mountquhanny and Andrew Balfour, his 
son, on yth June 1598. On 6th September 1599 Andrew Balfour of Strathor 
granted an obligation for 8000 marks to Margaret de Primzie, relict of Captain 
John Balfour. Bandon was possessed by this family from at least 1498 to 1642. 
From the resolutions of Holland it appears that Captain John Balfour, who had 
a claim in respect of Captain John Petam's company, was appointed second 
sergeant-major in July 1597, the Prince of Orange being unwilling to supersede 
Sergeant-Major Brog, and Holland having three months before appointed 
Balfour. On March I5th, 1605, a petition was referred to the committee from 
Margrieta Proignere, widow of the late Captain Balfour, and before him widow 
of the late Captain Johan de Petain. The widow of Captain John Balfour 
appears in the pension list of 1609. In April 1606 John Balfour, brother of 
Baron Balfour of Burley, presented a request to raise a company, which was 
not disposed of (p. 203). 

1 Alexander Melville, commissioned February 3rd, 1589. Killed at Groningen 
1 5th July 1594. His widow (Maria Rigg) appears in pension list of 1597. 
For names of children, see list of 1607. A branch of the Fife house of Melville 
is still represented in Holland. 



Col. Balfour . 


200 men 


. 2200 


Hay, now Melvil, 1 


130 men 


Waddel . 


130 


. 1500 


Prop . 


130 


Cant . 


150 


. 1700 


Morray 


130 


Dallachy 


130 


. 1500 


Trail . V . 


130 


Nysbet . 


130 


. 1500 







WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1587 

Pay on Holland 
Col. Balfour with one S fc major at 80J and one 

Provost Marshal at 50. 530 



Settling of Accounts with the Captain Mathias Railing 

Evhibitum, Aug. 24, 1592. 

ESCOMPTE faict de la part des Estatz generaulx des Provinces unies du 
Pays Bas avec le Capitaine Mathias Railing, des services par Iceluy 
faicts avecq sa Compaignie de gens de pied, depuis le XIV e de 
Janvier 1587, jour de sa premiere moustre, jusques au XXIV 6 de- 
Juillet ensuivant, que Alexandre Mouray est venu en sa place- 
Faict en libvres, soulx et deniers de 40 gros pieces. 

Premierement revient au Cap ne depuis le 14 e Janvier 1587, 
qu'il a este premierement par moustre a la ville de 
Rotterdam, troure fort de 150 testes, jusques au 20 e 
febvrier ensuivant inclus, faisant 37 jours a 1'advenant 
de C l7 par mois .... 

La somme de . . . . . 1965 12 6 

Encores depuis le 21 e de Febvrier 1587 que la dite com- 

paignie a de recheff passe moustre en la ville de Delff 

et trouve fort de 141 testes (en retirant le sergeant 

Maior illecq passe et non paye par le dit Cap ne ) 

Jusqu'au 7 e de May ensuivant faisant le temps de deux 

mois 12 Jours, a 1'advenant de 1610 par mois 
revient ....... 4823 15 

Encores depuis le 8 e de May 1587 jusqu'au 28 e de Juillet 
que Alexandre Mouray est venu en sa place, faisant 
deux mois 18 jours, a 1'advenant de 1360 par mois, 
pour 116 testes ..... 

revient ....... 3485 

Somma . . . . . . 9274 7 

de quoy rabatu le sixiesme denier a cause du moindre 

nombre, changement des noms, et desspenses tombees 

passant par le plat pays, reste . . . 7728 13 4 

y adiouste 600, quoy luy a (ete) donne en recompense 

du service qu'il a fait devant date de la dite moustre 

Revient ensemble : huict mille trois cents vingt et huict 

libvres, treize souls, quatre deniers . . . 8328 13 4 

Payements faicts a I'encontre et premierement en argent 

Premierement paye par le Recepveur general le 19 e 

Janvier 1587 ...... 1700 

le 26 e Janvier a Michel Gordon, gentilhomme de la com- 

paignie, .... 15 O 



1587] STATES OF WAR 53 

le 23 e de Mars 1587 par descharge sur le recepveur de 
Hollande 1620, mais com me suivant la reveue, il 
n'a este paye la dessus que 1177, partant seulle- 
mentici . . . . . . 1177 

le 25 e de May 1587 encore . . 1360 

Encores par ceux d' Hollande par les mains de Lodensteyu 

le 25 e d'Avril 1587 . . . 1550 8 

par les mesmes par de Lint sur rescript de son Ex ce et 

ordonnance du 20 6 de May 1587 , . . 834 12 

Premiere Somme . 6637 



Aultres payements f aicts par prestes, vivres et armes 

Par Thomas Rochusz surquoy ordonnance a suivy du 20 e 

Febvrier 1587 . . . . 121 2 6 

Par ceulx de Cluyndert, surquoy ordonnance a suivy du 

25 e Febvrier 1587 . . . . . 85 9 

Par Biermans, recepveur a Aernhem par 31 recepisses, 
depuis le 8 e d'Avril 1587 jusques au premier de Juille 
ensuyvent . . . . . 1544 

Par Caesvell 20 musquettes, 84 harquebuses, avecq les 

furnitures, trois rondasses, 40 corcelettes, 40 picques 1444 
La portion pour ceste compaignie des vivres despartis au 
Regiment Escossois en 1'expedition faicts en Brabant, 
1'an '87 . . . . . . . 568 14 8 

Encores de Mierop par ceulx de Wesip . . . . 258 

De Thomas Rachusz par ceulx de Geertruydenberge . 11 13 6 

De Regelinck par ceulx de Schombourg . . . 44 3 

Encores par de Lint . .. . . . 31 15 6 

De Lodenstein, par ceulx de Delff . * . 48 15 10 

Encores par ceulx de Wesip . ... . ,. 8 10 2 

Encores par Iceulx . . . . . 24 16 2 

Encores par Thomas Rochusz . : . . 71 1 

De Mierop par ceulx de Sevenbergen . . ' . 18 16 

Encores a 1'hospital a Leyde . . . . 5 3. 

1'hospital a Delif . ', . - . 19 10 

a 1'hospital a Dordrecht . ! . . .'. . 17 15 

a 1'hospital a Amsterdam . . . , ... 3 1 11 

a 1'hospital a la Haye . . . ... 024 

Par ceulx d'Utrecht .' . . ,^ . 36 6 7 

Encores rabaton au Capitaine selon la vieille Coustume le 
Centieme denier de tous les d s payements, excepte' 
des 1700 qu'il a receu du Recepveur ge'neral ou le 
d fc rabatement a este une fois fait, faisant 9190, 
19s. 3d. de quoy le c denier monte . ' . . 90 18 2 



54 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592 

Seconde Somme . . . . . . 4345 17 5 

Totale Somme *<<. . . i .-, . 1098217 5 

Revient doncques trop receu : deux mille six cent, qua- 
rante et quatre libvres, quatre souls, 1 denier (2644, 

4s. Id.) 

Ainsy faict et descompte a la Haye, a condition que s'il se trouve avoir 
este quelque chose davantage et profite par ceste compaignie soit en loge- 
ments par le plat pays ou qu'ils ayent les despens es villes sur les 
bourgeois ou quelque chose d'aultre qui n'est point specific cy dessus en 
ceste descompte soit en vivres, armes, munitions, vestemens au aultre- 
ment, que tout cela pourra estre cy apres sans aulcune contradiction 
rabatu au payement qui en sera faict, selon qu'il comment. 
Faict le 23 e d'Aougst 1592. Signe' C. Aerssen. 

MATTHIAS RALLING. 

1595 
Rendered Nov. 18th. 

Cavalry 

Edmond 1 100 men . . . . ' . 2275 

Foot soldiers paid by Holland 



Col. Morray 200 men 2264 
Wm. Balfour 2 150 1748 

Wm. Brog 3 



Wm. Waddel 4 150 men 1748 
John Michel 5 

John Prop . 



1 Sir William Edmond, a native of Stirling, received commission as captain of 
a company of lancers loth June 1589 (p. 90). Succeeded Alexander Murray in 
command of the old Scots Regiment in 1599. Recommended (p. 179). For his 
services see pp. 29-35. Killed at Rheinberg Sept. 1606. Widow and children 
recommended by King James 1611. 

2 William Balfour received commission, in February 1594, as captain, in suc- 
cession to Colonel Barthold Balfour, whose lieutenant he had been (p. 92). 
Served at Huy in 1595, and was killed at Hulst in 1596, being succeeded, on 
30th August, by Archibald Buntin. On 25th May 1598 an application was made 
by David Balfour, servitor to Mr. Henry Balfour, advocate, against Sir Michael 
Balfour of Balgonie, as to the sum of 400 crowns received by him from the 
deceased Captain William Balfour. 

3 Sir William Brog. Captain, March 3ist, 1590. Sergeant-Major, 1588. 
Recommended by King James, 1599, Lieutenant-Colonel, 1600. Colonel in suc- 
cession to Sir William Edmond, September I2th, 1606. Commanded the regi- 
ment till 1636. Specially selected in 1595 to act as sergeant-major of the force 
under Justinus of Nassau which went to relieve Cambrai and co-operate with 
Henry IV. of France (see Commission, p. 94). He was dead by I3th March 1636. 

4 William Waddel, appointed August 3rd, 1595, in succession to G. Johnston 
(deceased), having already filled the place for some time. Johnston had been 
appointed, on July i8th, 1594, in succession to Robert Waddell, who had been 
killed before Groningen on July i5th. (Robert had succeeded his brother 
William shortly before.) Was killed at Meurs in 1597. The children of Captain 
Waddel appear in the pension list of 1599. For their names, see list of 1607. 

8 John (or James) Mitchell succeeded Captain Cant on 28th July, 1592. He 



1595] STATES OF WAR 55 



Wm. Nysbeth 150 men 1748 
John Dallachy 



John Strachan 150 men 1748 
James Egger 2 



Pay on Holland 

Col. Morray 400 

The pension of the Prince of Scotland of 5000 yearly, 
of which the share of Holland amounts to 2655, 
19s. 4d., which is monthly . . . 221 6 2 

Wardens 

Brog Warden (St Major) of the Scots . . . 30 

N.S. Is Brog to be allowed to fill the two offices of 
Warden and Captain at the same time, this must be 
looked into. 

Officers of Justice 
Alex. Murray, 3 Provost Marshal of the Scots . . 50 

Pay on Zeeland 
The pension of the Prince of Scotland, etc., 65313 54 9 5 

Pay on Utrecht 
Ditto . . . . 274 14 22 17 10 

Pay on Groningen and Ommelanden 
Ditto . . . 366 5 5 30 10 5 

Pay on the Veluwe (Gelderland) 
Ditto 325 27 1 8 



was killed at the battle of Nieuport in 1600, and his widow appears in the 
pension list of 1608. 

1 John Strachan received commission, in succession to Alexander Melville, on 
i8th July 1594. Killed at Nieuport 1600. His widow (Anna Kirkpatrick) in 
pension list of 1607. 

2 James Egger (Edgar) received commission December nth, 1589, on king's re- 
commendation (new company). Killed at Hulst before 3<Dth August 1596, when 
he was succeeded by his lieutenant and brother Alexander Egger. Widow and 
children in pension list of 1599. Two children, Nicholas and Margaret, are noted 
in 1607. In 1599 Nicholas Edgar, heir of Captain James Edgar, his father, was 
retoured in the lands of Patrick Edgar, merchant in Edinburgh, and, as heir of 
his father, in part of the lands of Lymphoy and Hillhousefield in the baronies of 
Restalrig and Broughton. Edgar of Wedderlie, in Berwickshire, was an ancient 
family of Saxon origin, which, like the Hepburns and Rentons, held their lands of 
the old Earls of Dunbar. A branch of the name settled in Dumfriesshire, and in 
the sixteenth centurya rich burgess of the name, Patrick Edgar, lived in Edinburgh, 
and his family were owners of Peffermiln, where their arms showed connection 
with the house of Wedderlie. In 1596 Captain James Edgar, a gentleman of 
Scotland, who had served the French king, received a passport for himself and 
his page to go through England to France. The Scottish House of Edgar. 

3 Alexander Murray received commission as Provost Marshal on 3ist May 1595. 



56 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1595 

Pay on Overyssel 
The pension of the Prince of Scotland, etc., 175 1411 8 

Pay on Vrieslandt 

549 8 1 45 15 8 

Other payment* made by the Receiver from the balance of the contribution 

of Brabant 

The widow of Cap. Meldrom 250 yearly and monthly . 20 16 3 

The widow of Cap n Blaire, with her 2 children . . 33 6 8 

Bartholt Balfour, formerly Colonel, at 1000 . . 83 6 8 

Andries Penton, 1 son of Guillaume Penton, 150 yearly . 12 10 

The widow of Johan Cuninga 2 at 300 . . 25 

Cap n Hans Craeck, 100 . . . 868 

1597 
Rendered June 2d 

Footsoldiers paid by Holland 
Col. Morray 200 men 2264 Michel 150 men 1748 



Waddel 150 1748 

Dallachy 

Nysbeth ,, 

Brogh 



j 



;> 



Strachan 
Stuart 3 
Alex. Egger* 
Brontin 5 



Pay on Hollandt 
Col. Morray . . . . 400 

Pensions on Hollandt 
The Pension of the Prince of Scotlandtof 5000, etc. (see 1595). 

Wardens 
Brog St Major of the Scots . . . . 30 

Officers of Justice 
Alex. Murray, Provost Marshal of the Scottish Regt . 50 

1 Or Renton, 

2 John Cunningham is recorded as having distinguished himself as an artillerist 
at the siege of Haarlem. He is referred to in the resolutions of Holland in 
1585 as Colonel Cunningham. In 1581, being then * commander of the artillery,' 
he received a commission as * Assistant ' (Adjutant) to Count William Louis of 
Nassau, at Dockum (see p. 77), and in the same year a commission for the 
relief of Naijesijl (p. 78). He married Anna van Duivenvoorde. 

3 Arthur Stuart succeeded Captain Prop, June i6th, 1596. Killed at Nieuport 
1600. His widow (Anna van Leeuwen) appears in pension list of 1607. 

4 Succeeded his brother August soth, 1596. Killed at Meurs before November 
28th, 1597. 

5 Archibald Buntin(?) succeeded William Balfour 3Oth August 1596. Dead 
before August i2th, 1599. Probably killed at one of the sharp actions near 
Bommel. 



1598] STATES OF WAR 57 

Ministers 

Andreas Hunterus, 1 Minister of the Scottish Regimen 1 . 30 

Other pensions pay e at the Office of the Receiver-General 

Col. Balfour . . . ' . 1000 yearly 83 6 3 

Cap. Waddel . . * . .700 58 6 8 

Widow of J. Cuninga . . ,300 25 

Cap. Meldrom . . . 250 20 16 6 

Blaire and 2 children .400 33 6 8 

The same additionally . , . 150 12 10 

Widow of Cap. J. Craeck .100 ,869 

Melvil . . .400 33 6 8 

Andries Penthon, son of Cap 11 G me Penthon 150 12 10 



1598 
Footsoldiers 



Col. Morray 160 men 1852 

Andries Morray 2 120 1435 

Dallachy 

Nysbeth 

Brog 



Michel 120 men 1435 

Strachan ,, 

Stuart 

Robt Bercley 3 ,, 
Bontin 



Compan** from the undivided (war) expenses and now charged to Holland 
Caddel 4 150 men 1748 Hamilton 6 150 men 1748 



1 Andrew Hunter was for a long time chaplain. See representations by him 
(p. 245) in 1611 and later. 

2 Andrew Moray succeeded William Waddell, November 26th, 1 597. Captured 
and killed at Nieuport, 1600. Captain Andrew Moray, fifth son of Robert 
Moray of Abercairney, and Catherine Murray (of Tullibardine), died in Holland 
without issue (Douglas's Baronage}. An older brother was Sir David of Gorthy, 
and a third Mungo Moray of Craigie, who married a daughter of George Halkett 
of Pitfirran. A younger brother, James, also died without issue. 

3 Robert Barclay succeeded Alexander Egger, November 20th, 1597. Captured 
and killed at Nieuport, 1600. King James shortly afterwards gave his brother, 
David Barclay of Struiy (sic, Urie or Towie ?), a letter of recommendation. See 
infra, p. 181, Requests by his widow 1604, and son 1607 ; also p. 21 1. 

4 James Caddell received commission (new company), I5th August 1596. 
Question with Utrecht as to his arrears, 1604. On 7th August 1595 the 
authorities of Holland considered a letter from the Prince * strongly recom- 
mending Jaques Caddel, for his good qualities and services, as L*, to be granted 
the company he served in.' He died as lieutenant-colonel in 1618, having served 
in the Juliers campaign. He married Catherina van Duivenvoorde, and on her 
petition their son Thomas received extraordinary pay in Colonel Brogh's Com- 
pany, until he should be able to carry arms. Res. of Holland, 1618. 

5 John Hamilton received commission (new company) isth August, 1596. 
(Must be distinguished from Cavalry Captain John Hamilton, who received his 
commission as such on April I4th, 1599, and was killed at Newport). On I3th 
November 1621 a petition was presented to the Scottish Privy Council by Captain 



58 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1598 

Pay 

Col. Morray . . . 400 

Wardens 

Thos. Nysche, 1 St Major of the Scots . . . 80 

Officers of Justice 

Alex. Murray, Provost Marshal of the Scots . , . 50 

Ministers 

Andreas Hunterus, Minister of the Scottish Regt . 30 

Pensions payable at the Office of the Receiver-General for settlement of 

accounts and previous services 

Col. Balfour, yearly . . . 1000 83 6 3 

The children of Cap n Waddel, deceased , 600 yearly 50 

Widow Johan Cuninga . . . 300 25 

Cap n Meldrom ... 250 20 16 8 

Blair, with her 2 children . 400 33 6 8 

The same additionally ,. ." . . 150 12 10 

Widow Cap n Mellvil . . .400 33 6 8 

Andries Renton, son of Cap n Guillaume Renton 150 12 10 

Summary of the divided monthly war expenses or required to be divided 

over the 7 provinces, etc., conform the statement rendered July 4th 1598 

Undivided (war) expenses 

Additional 13 English Comp ies , etc. 

The pension of the Prince of Scotland at 5000 yearly which pro month 

amounts to ...... 416 13 4 

2 Comp ies of Scots, each of 150 men, at 1265, 18s. 4d., 

together monthly . . ..u ' . . 2531 16 8 

1599 2 

Cavalry 

Edmond 80 men 2125 



Harry Bruce to stop proceedings against him ' for the slaughter of Captain John 
Hamilton in single combat in the Low Country of Flanders some seventeen 
years ago.' But John appears to have been a mistake for William (p. 66). See 
representation for when in garrison at Nymguen in 1601 (p. 184). A Captain 
Hamilton was killed at Grave in 1602, and one of the name had been in service 
in 1594 (see p. 177). Captain John Hamilton had died before January i6th, 1620, 
when he was succeeded by Captain Marjoribanks, and had ' served more than 
forty years.' See resolution in favour of a petition by his daughter, infra. 

1 Thomas Niche, formerly lieutenant of Captain Murray, received his com- 
mission as sergeant-major (sit) on 6th October 1598. He was probably killed 
before Rheinberg in 1601, for Prince Maurice there appointed Archibald Erskine 
to succeed him on July 22nd, 1601. 

2 This is a curious list, and really represents the state of the regiment after 



1599] STATES OF WAR 59 

Footsoldiers paid by Holland 
Col. Edmondt 150 men 2014 



the battle of Nieuport in 1600. The Holland lists for 1599 and 1600 are as 
follows : 

1599 1600 

Col. Murray and R. Henderson. Col. Edmond. 

Bruntin and^CoLjEdmond. Henrison. 

Andro Murray. Murray. 

Dallachy and^Kilpatrick. Kirkpatrick. 

Nysbeth. Nysbeth and his son Hugo Nysbeth. 

Brogh. Brog. 

Mitchel. Michel, with James Phis and Sincler. 

Strachan. Strachan. 

Stuart. Stewart and Neisch. 

Berclay. Berclay. 

Daniel Mackigny. 

Allane Coutes. 

Henry Balfour. 

Caddel. 

Ker. 

The list of 1 600 indicates very plainly the effects of the disaster at Nieuport. The 
names in italics are the officers who fell. The others recorded by the historians as 
present were, besides Colonel Edmond and Sergeant-Major Brog, Henderson, 
Caddel, and Ker. Robert Henderson, the first of three brothers who were to 
distinguish themselves in the Dutch service, had succeeded to Colonel Murray's 
company in June 1599. Caddel, and Hamilton, whose name does not appear, 
and who may have been in garrison elsewhere (his name appearing under Utrecht 
in 1604), commanded the two companies added in 1596, and John Ker received 
his commission on April 24th, 1599, as captain of a new company then raised. 
On September I5th, 1599, the States-General had resolved to maintain 'at the 
general expense 13 companies of Scots, viz., the life company at 150 men, 
and 12 other companies, each of 113 men.' On 3rd July 1600, they resolved 
'that all the Scots remaining after the defeat they lately suffered shall be 
divided over the 4 companies of which the captains are still living.' Edmond, 
Henderson, Brog, and Caddel appear in later lists. Ker received a letter of 
recommendation from King James on 27th December 1600, having been called 
to Scotland on private affairs (p. 182). Archibald Johnston was appointed in 
his place shortly before. 

It would seem that while Murray's, Kirkpatrick's, Nisbet's, Strachan's, and 
Barclay's companies were completely wiped out, Mitchel's and Stuart's were so 
far extant that they could still be held to exist, and Sinclair and Neish to be 
successors of their former captains. Colonel Edmond brought over 800 Scots 
in October, and the States ordered three new companies to be formed. These 
were evidently Mackenzie's, Balfour's, and Coutts's. 

Robert Henderson was the second son of James Henderson of Fordell, and 
Jean, daughter of William, tenth baron of Tulliebardine. His elder brother, 



60 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1599 

Daniel Makingny 1 113 men 1502 | Allyn Coutys 2 113 men 1502 

Sir John Henderson, married first a daughter -of Sir Michael Balfour of 
Burleigh, and second, Anna, daughter of Sir Robert Halkett of Pitfirran. It is 
curious that while Douglas mentions Sir Francis Henderson (the fourth son) 
as killed at Bergen-op-Zoom in the Dutch service, he merely says that Sir 
Robert and Sir James (the third son) distinguished themselves in the Danish, 
Swedish, and French wars. On i;th March 1618, there was submitted to the 
Scots Privy Council a complaint by John Boyle of Kilburn against Robert 
Galbraith of Culcreuch, as cautioner for him ' at the hands of Sir Robert 
Henderson of Kiniegask (Finnegask?) Coronell over the Scottis Regiment in the 
country of Flanders.' Robert Henderson was transferred to Lord Buccleuch's 
regiment soon after its formation, and ultimately succeeded to the command. 
In 1610 he commanded the Scots regiment (made up from the Dutch companies) 
sent along with two English ones in English pay to Cleves, and distinguished 
himself at the siege of Juliers. He, and not his brother Sir Francis, was killed 
at Bergen-op-Zoom in 1622. His widow, Anna Kirkpatrick, recommended by 
King James and the Scottish Council, was granted an annuity in recognition 
of his good service. For an account of his last moments, see Introduction to 
Div. m. Petitions by his widow in 1622, 1624 and 1626. 

John Kirkpatrick succeeded Captain Dallachy on I5th October 1599, having 
been formerly lieutenant of the company. He was killed at Nieuport. His 
widow (Susana Splitkoff) appears in the pension list of 1607, and with her 
children, John, Maria, and Helena, in 1609. 

James Caddel received his commission on August I5th, 1596, served as 
lieutenant-colonel of the Scots regiment in the expedition to Juliers and Cleves 
in 1610; died before January I4th, 1617, when succeeded by Thomas Edmond. 

John Ker has been already referred to. He was recommended by King James 
in December 1600 (see p. 152), having been in Scotland for private affairs, which 
necessitated his leaving the service of the States, and being anxious to dispose of 
his company to a friend. 

The name of another Scotsman of an ancient house who fell has been preserved 
by a communication from a descendant at Vienna to his chief in Scotland. 

James Wemyss of Caskieberran (1554), whose wife was Janet Durie, younger 
son of David Wemyss of that Ilk, had eight sons, of whom, according to tradi- 
tion, five went to Flanders. From a Cornelius Wemyss killed at Nieuport, whose 
eldest son entered the Venetian service, came the Italian family of Wemyss. 
Memoirs of Wemyss of Wemyss^ by Sir William Fraser. 

1 Daniel Mackigny( Donald? Mackenzie) received his commission on October 
24th, 1600, when Colonel Edmond had first brought over 800 Scots. In 1608, his 
company was in garrison at Aardenburg (see p. 214). His wife's name was 
Beatrix van Berchem, and his son, John Mackenzie, was appointed ensign in his 
company in succession to William Grant, on his petition on i6th February 1618. 
He was dead before the 9th of July, when a petition from his widow was 
considered. 

2 Allan Coutts received a captain's commission in 1600, became lieutenant- 
colonel of Sir William Brog's regiment, and had died before May I2th, 1631, 
when he was succeeded as captain by George Keir. Petitions by his widow, 
Christina Bos well, in 1631 et seq. Coutts of Auchtertoul was an ancient family 
in Cromar, in Aberdeenshire. 



1599] 



STATES OF WAR 



61 



Henry Balfour 1 113 men 1502 



Brog 
Cinder 2 



Jacques Caddel 113 men 1502 



Robert Henrison ,, 
Archibald Arskyn 3 ,, 

Pay on Holland 
Col. Edmond *...... 

W m Brog, Lt Col. of the Scots . 

Wardens 

Thos. Ewink, 4 st major of the Scots .... 

Thos. Maesterton 5 quarter master of the Scots, usually 36 when 

with the army, 14 additional here .... 

Officers of Justice 
Wm Carcadie, 6 Provost marshal of the Scottish Reg* 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, minister of the Scottish Reg* 

Extraordinary pay, when with the army 

Cap n Meesterton q r m r of the Scottish Regt, with the army 
14 guilders monthly, additional pay, facit for 6 months 

Zeeland 

from the undivided (war expenses) 
Bruse 7 113 men . 



400 
100 



80 

36 

50 
30 

84 
^1572 



1 Henry Balfour had, in 1611, been a captain for twelve years. He then 
petitioned for a lieutenant-colonelcy, and again in 1613, and in 1614 for a 
lieutenant-colonelcy or sergeant-majorship. He was dead before August 4th, 
1615, when he was succeeded as captain by Robert Coutts. He is designed as 
Sir Henry Balfour in the recommendation of the British Ambassador of 1611, 
and had also the recommendation of the Princess Elizabeth, wife of the 
Elector- Palatine. Maria de Leon, widow of Captain Henry Balfour, appears in 
the pension list of 1618. Probably brother of first Lord Balfour of Burleigh (see 
p. 44 note). 

2 William Sinclair received commission 1600. A Captain Sinclair distinguished 
himself, and was killed at Ostend. 

3 Archibald Erskine received commission as captain 24th August 1601. 
Offered to form company of Cuirassiers in December 1604. Offer ultimately 
accepted (p. 196 et seq.). Stationed at Zwolle. Died before 3rd December 1608. 
Referred to as Sir Archibald Erskine in the resolutions of Holland. 

4 Thomas Ewing. 

5 Thomas Masterton, see p. 29. Appointed quartermaster in 1597. Records 
of Holland. 

6 William Carcadie (Kirkcaldy or Cathcart ?). 

7 Sir Walter Bruce. On 2ist January 1604, his company was in Ostend 
(p. 187). In 1610, his company was in Zealand, and in 1621-22, at Bergen- 
op-Zoom. Dead before June ist, 1627, when he was succeeded by William 
Douglas. 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1599 



Hamilton 



Utrecht 

from the undivided (war expenses) 
113 



1502 



Pensions payable at the office of the Receiver General for settlement 



of accounts and previous services : 
Col. Balfour 1000 guilders yearly 
The children of Cap n Waddel .. 
Widow Cap n Melvis 400 .. 

Blair with 2 children 400 . 
the same additionally 150 yearly 
Widow Cap n Cuninga ... 

Craik 

Guill e Morray 400 guilders yearly 
Widow Cap. Dallachy ... 
Andries Renton son of Cap n Guillem Renton 
Widow Cap. Meldron 250 yearly .. 
Prop 500 . 

and children of Jacques Egger 250 



Edmond 



Col. Edmondt pikes 

and muskets 
Daniel Macqingny , 
Allane Coutis . 
Henry Balfour . 
Brogh 

Col. Edmondt 



1599/1604 

Cavalry (of Holland) 
80 men 

Footsoldiers paid by Holland 



83 6 8 

50 

33 6 8 

33 6 8 

12 10 

25 
868 

33 6 8 

50 

12 10 

20 16 8 

41 13 4 

20 16 8 



2125 



150 


2014 


Guill 6 Cinder . . 113 


1502 


113 


1502 


Jacques Caddel 


M 





) 5 


Thos. Neyse . . 


)3 








Robert Hendersonne 


}} 





,, 







Pay on Holland 



Wardens 

Thos. Neyssche, s* major of the Scots 
Thos. Meisterton q r m r ordinary, 36, when 
with the army, 14 more, here the ordinary . 

Officers of Justice 
Alex. Murray, Provost marshal of the Scottish Regt 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, Minister .... 

Extraordinary Pay when with the Army 
Cap n Maesterton being with the army 14 monthly above 
the ordinary pay, facit for 6 months . 



400 

80 

36 

50 

30 

84 



i6oi] 



STATES OF WAR 



63 



Pensions the same as for 1599, except Murray, Dallachy, Prop and 
Egger, who do not appear. 

Zeeland, Foot, Undivided 



Bruce 



113 men 



Utrecht, Foot, Undivided 
Hamelton . . 113 

Karr (pikes and muskets) 113 



Extra State, 1599 
Cavalry of Holland 



Thomas Areskyn l 
Henry Bruce 2 



^1572 

1502 
1460 



1138 9 
Ditto 



1601 

Footsoldiers paid by Holland 

Edmond 150 spears and muskets 
D. Makinge 113 men 1502 
Aleyn Coutis ,, ,, 



Balfour 
Brock 



Chincler 
Caddel 
Thos. Neisse 
Rob 1 . Herrisson 



. 2014 
113 men 1502 



Pay on Holland 
Colonels 



Edmondt 



400 



Wardens 

Thos Neys, major of the Scots 
qr. master of the Scots . .- 

Officers of Justice 
The Provost Marshal of the Scots 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, of the Scots . 



80 
36 



50 



30 



1 Thomas Erskine. See note i, p. 67. 

2 Henry Bruce, see note, pp. 57 and 58. Killed Captain Hamilton in a duel, 
1604. In 1607 requested settlement of his arrears, and was told that he had been 
better treated than any other Scottish captain. Submitted certain inventions to 
the States in 1608, and received grants in recognition (see p. 211). Recommended 
to the Margrave of Anspach 1609. See report by Sir Dudley Carleton as to his 
service under the Emperor (p. 224). A Colonel Henry Bruce commanded a 
regiment in the Cadiz Expedition of 1625, advocated a descent on Gibraltar, and 
was the only commanding officer who spoke well of his soldiers (Dalton's Cecil). 
Writing in 1638, Baillie states, ' Sir Harie Bruce has offered his service to the 
king long ago. He asked Sir John Seaton if he would serve the king. He 
answered he would, but not against his own countrie, where he had his life. ' 



64 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1601 

Pensions the same as 1599 except that Murray, Dallachy, Prop and 
Egger do not appear. 

Zeeland, Foot, undivided Utrecht, Foot, undivided 

Bruce 113 men 1572 Hamelton 113 men 1502 

Kar Ditto Ditto 

1604 

Exhibitum, Aug. Qth. 

Companies as yet not brought under division. 

The Reg fc of Bachlouch 1 has been paid until Aug. 12th, 1604 inclusive, 
the month which remains still to be paid commences therefore with Aug. 
13th, 1604, and orders have been received, in addition to the reduction to 
be made for arms and the 8th man, conform Res. of the gentlemen 
states general, to reduce the last (pay) order as has been noted here for 
each (individually). 

Monthly to be 

men deducted for arms. 

2100 Col. Bachlouch 2 200 2489 300 

1750 CapaSchot 3 200 2489 399 



1 On August I2th, 1603 Sir R. Cecil wrote to Winwood, the English ambas- 
sador at the Hague : * His Majesty hath been pleased to consent to the leavying 
of the new Regiment in Scotland, for which purpose there is order already gone 
to the Lord of Bucklugh who is to command them.' The first service of the new 
regiment was at Ostend, and seven companies were there when the place capitu- 
lated (see p. 33). In April 1604 it had been inspected by Robert Henderson, who 
was transferred to it as lieutenant-colonel with his company, his brother Francis 
being one of the new captains. On December 2Oth, 1603, the two Hendersons, 
Ralph Selby, David Balfour, and David Cathcart, all new Scottish captains, took 
their oaths on the commissions newly issued to them in Buccleuch's regiment. 
They were followed on the 3ist by William Hamilton, on January 28th, 1604, by 
Alexander Erskine, and on April i;th by Sir Andrew Balfour of Monthone 
(Mountquhanny), and James Chinne (Chene, i.e. Cheyne) of Steelberg. The other 
two original captains were evidently John Murray and William Hamilton. On 
1 7th July 1604, Laurence Sinclair was recommended to succeed Captain More of 
his company in Buccleuch's regiment. Of More there is no other mention, but 
probably the regiment lost several officers at Ostend. On 24th November, com- 
missions were granted to supply the places of Lamond, Murray, and Hamilton, 
then deceased. 

On 25th March 1603, Patrick Murray, Ensign of Captain R. Henderson's com- 
pany, had been authorised by the Scots Privy Council to levy sixty men. 

2 Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch was Lord Warden of the Marches between 
England and Scotland in the last days of the separate monarchies, and was the 
hero of the rescue of ' Kinmont Willie ' from Carlisle Castle. He was created 
Lord Buccleuch in 1606, and died in 1611. See pp.i88, 256 et seq. in reference 
to his services and claims, and those of his son, the first Earl of Buccleuch. See 
also Sir William Eraser's Scoffs of Buccleuch^ vol. i. p. 235. 

3 Robert Scott took oath as captain on 28th November 1604. 



1700 


Andro Balfour 2 


200 


2489 


I860 


David Balfour 3 


200 


2489 


1800 
1560 


Spence 4 
Carcardt 5 


200 
150 


2489 
1925 


1401 


Franc. Henderson 6 


150 


1925 


1348 


Raeff Selby 7 


150 


1925 


99 men at Ostend conform List of July 13th. 



1604] STATES OF WAR 65 

1961 Schyne 1 200 men 2489 491 

152 men at Ostend conform List of June 13th, 1604. 

390 
432 
410 
158 
321 
383 



As to question in divorce suit at the instance of his wife, Isobella Mowbray, 
I5th February 1618, see infra. Described in 1619 as ' the oldest of the Scottish 
captains.' Dead before January 25th, 1627, when succeeded by James Elphin- 
stone. 

Robert, third son of Robert Scott of Burnhead in Roxburghshire, who died in 
1609, settled in Holland. Douglas's Baronage. 

Douglas states that his eldest brother, William Scott of Burnhead, was * an 
officer in Holland, and served under the brave Walter Scott, Lord Buccleuch, 
against the Spaniards in the year 1604, when that cohort of Scots performed 
many glorious actions against their enemies.' William of Burnhead died about 
1640. 

1 James (or John) Cheyne (Chene) of ' Steelberg,' also described as * Baron de 
Chinne,' succeeded by Arthur Forbes on January I4th, 1605. The arrival of his 
company at Ostend is noted by Fleming. 

3 Sir Andrew Balfour of Mountquhanny, succeeded by William Douglas on 
January i6th, 1606. Sir Michael Balfour of Mountquhanny, served heir to his 
grandfather, Andrew Balfour (father of Sir James of Pittendreich), in 1592, 
married M. Adamson, and had two sons, the eldest of whom was Sir Andrew 
Balfour of Strathor and Mountquhanny, who married Mary Melville, and died 
s.p. He is represented by Balfour of Balfour and Trenaby, Balfour Castle, 
Kirkwall. 

3 Sir David Balfour. Appointed sergeant-major, September 4th, 1622, lieut.- 
colonel, December 23rd, 1628. Succeeded Sir John Halkett as colonel of the 
regiment in 1629, his appointment before Bois-le-Duc being confirmed on 
September 7th. Was dead by December 6th, 1638. On February 5th, 1639, 
Colonel Morgan in recommending Captain Wight said, 'The good lady, his 
wife, has recently lost her father, Colonel Balfour, who served this country so 
long and so faithfully.' Probably brother of first Lord Balfour of Burleigh (see 
p. 44, note). 

4 John Spens. See grant to his ensign, John Boyd, p. 195. 

5 David Cathcart. (Oath-book.) 

6 Sir Francis Henderson, fourth son of James Henderson of Fordell ; served as 
sergeant-major of Buccleuch's regiment from June 1604. Succeeded his brother 
as colonel on September i7th, 1622. Dead by December 27th, 1628, when he 
was succeeded by Sir John Halket. Recommended by King James, 1624. 

Concerned in an ' unfortunate malheur? for which his pardon was obtained by 
Sir Dudley Carleton (infra}. 

7 Ralph Selby, succeeded in July 1605 by his lieutenant, George (Joris) Home. 

E 



66 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [ 1 604 

1727 132 men Lamond 1 150 men 1925 307 

1304 95 John Murray 2 ) 150 1925 310 

now with j Jean Halket 

1617 122 Wm. Hamilton 3 150 1925 365 

1447 108 Alex. Aresken 4 150 1925 310 



Holland 

The Compy of Bachlouch of 200 men . . . 189113 Hob. 

10 Comp ies of the same Regt : Fraiichois Henderson, 
Schot, Andro Balfour, David Balfour, Spens, 
Carcardt, Lamonde, Alex. Areskyn, John Murray 
and W m Hamilton, each of 150 men . . 13940 19 6 



Zeelandt 

2 companies of Scots, namely : 
Schyn and Raeff Selby, each of 150 men . . 2738 311 

List of all the Comp ies of Foot in the service of the State 6 



Col. Edmondt 200 175 

Mackingny 113 61 

Allane Coutes 113 141 

Henry Balfour 113 98 



Brogh 113 64 

Michel Etmetson 6 113 73 

James Kaddel 113 41 

Robert Henrison 113 128 



1 Lamond. Dead before November 24th, 1604, when he was succeeded by 
William Hudson. 

2 John Murray. Also dead before 24th November 1604, and succeeded by 
John Halkett. 

3 William Hamilton, also dead before 24th November 1604, and succeeded by 
William Hay. 

On 29th January 1605 Lord Buccleuch complained of the delay in dealing 
with Captain Bruce, who had killed his lieutenant, Captain Hamilton, in a duel, 
and a court-martial was recommended. On I3th November 1621 a petition was 
presented to the Scots Privy Council by Captain Harry Bruce, ' servitor to the 
Prince his Hieness,' to stop proceedings against him * for the slaughter of Capt n 
John (sic) Hamilton in single combat in the Low Country of Flanders some 
seventeen years ago,' his conduct having been justified by the Council of War 
established by the Estates, and the king's remission having been granted to him 
in 1605. 

4 Alexander Erskine was dead before January ipth, 1606, when he was 
succeeded by George Bothwell. 

5 N.B. The document does not give the meaning of these figures. Probably 
the number of men of the/#// company and of the actual number at the last muster. 

6 Michael Otmarson succeeded Captain Sinclair (dead) on October 8th, 1604. 



1604] 


STATES 


OF WAR 


Hollandt. 1st Amplification 


Thos. Areskyn 1 


113 86 


Henry Bruce 2 


Hollandt. 2nd Amplification 


Col. Buchloucli 


200 170 


Corchard 


Francois Henderson 


150 114 


Wm. Hutson 3 


Schot 


150 128 


Alex. Arskyn 


Andro Balfour 


150 134 


John Hacquet 4 


Spens 


150 98 


Wm. Hey 



67 



113 87 

150 77 

150 61 

150 62 

150 53 

150 63 

1 Captain Thomas Erskine and Captain Henry Bruce were authorised by the 
Scots Privy Council on 25th March 1603 to levy 200 men each, their cautioner 
being Sir Michael Balfour of Burleigh. On 8th April 1617, Thomas Erskine, 
having left his company, was succeeded by James Erskine. Both Thomas Erskine 
and Henry Bruce were in state of 1599 as commanding cavalry of Holland, and 
both (as well as Walter Bruce) appear to have taken an oath in August 1601. 

2 Henry Bruce killed Captain William (or John ?) Hamilton in a duel in 1604, 
(see pp. 57 and 66.)- 

3 William Hudson succeeded Captain Lamond in November 1604. Was dead 
before February loth, 1625, when he was succeeded by David Colyear. 

4 John Halkett, though apparently not the first of his name in the Dutch 
army, is the first of whom a detailed record exists of a family that were to render 
remarkable services to the Dutch Republic, and to the British Crown. He was 
the second son of George Halkett of Pitfirrane (No. ix. in the family genealogy). 
The genealogy of the Halkett family records that he ' had the honour of knight- 
hood conferred upon him by King James vi. , and being born a younger brother 
he betook himself to a military life, went into the service of Holland, where by 
his bravery and merit he rose to the rank of colonel-general, had the command 
of a Scots regiment in the Dutch service, and was President of the Grand Court- 
Marishal of Holland. He was killed at the siege of Bois-le-Duc, anno 1628. 

' He married Maria van Loon, a lady of Amsterdam, and had two sons : (i) 
John (Alexander), ancestor of the late Lieutenant-General Alexander Halkett, of 
whom there are no male descendants. Lieutenant-General Alexander Halkett 
was Governor of Breda, where he died and was buried, 1742. (2) Maurice, who 
carried on the line of this family. ' 

The genealogy also contains the following ' Translation of an Extract from the 
Register of the Finances of Holland ' : 

* List of the Generals, Colonels, etc. of the family of Halkett of Pitfirran, who 
have served the House, United Netherlands, and the Kingdom of Holland, from 
the year 1582 to the year 1782. 

* Rodd George Halkett, Colonel-General, 1582. 

* John Halkett, Colonel-General, 1598. 

'Both were at the battle of Nieuport, near Ostend, in Flanders, 1600, and by 
them were taken the colours that hang in the palace, and on which stood the 
Virgin and a monk. These were the first trophies of the then formed Republic. 

* Maurice Halkett, General, 1655. 

' Robert Halkett, Major-General, 1680. Killed at the battle of Ramillies, 
1706. 

* Ed ward Halkett, General: killed, nth September 1709 at the battle of 
Malplacquet. 



68 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1604 

Zeeland. Foot 
Walter Bruce 113 8.5 

Zeelandt. 2d Amplification 
Schyn 150 95 | Raaff Selby 150 54 

Footsoldiers paid by Groningcn and Ommelanden 
Norman Bruce l 113 89 

Utrecht. Foot 
Jan Hamelton 113 102 

Buyren and Culenburg 
Andro Donalsonne 113 95 



' Arent (Brent) Halkett, Major-General, 1738. 

'Alexander Halkett, Colonel of a Scots regiment, i;th July 1716 ; Lieutenant- 
General and Governor of Breda, I3th May 1740. He died and was buried, at 
Breda, 1743. 

1 Charles Halkett, Major, I4th November 1727 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, loth 
March 1730 ; Colonel and General of a regiment of Scots, I7th November 1736 ; 
Lieutenant-General, I3th January 1748, and on the ist of February of that year 
sworn in as Chief President of the High Council of War of the United Nether- 
lands. Died 24th October 1758, and buried in the Kloster Church at the 
Hague. 

* Peter Halkett, Colonel, murdered with his two sons in the colony of Berbice, 
1761. 

'Charles Halkett, Acting Major, 3<Dth May 1748; effective Major, 5th 
November 1758 ; Commandant of the town of Namur, 8th January 1761 ; Colonel, 
i8th March 1766 ; Colonel Commandant, 2nd October 1772. Died April 

1774- 

' Frederick Halkett ; ensign when still a baby in 1736 ; was made a prisoner 
of war on i8th June 1745, at the surrender of the town Meenen, in Flanders, by 
capitulation to the French; Lieutenant, 1752; Captain 5th January, 1762; 
Major, nth April 1774, in the ist Battalion of the Regiment Gordon, and sworn 
in on the i8th April of that year; Lieutenant-Colonel, 5th November 1777. 
Asked for his demission 6th July 1782, and obtained it with the rank of Colonel 
and the honourable mention of his services and those of his forefathers to the 
United Netherlands.' 

See also resolution as to the widow of Colonel Sir John Halkett, by the 
States General in 1640, infra. 

1 Captain Norman Bruce succeeded Captain Archibald Johnston in May 

1603 (see p. 95, note). Sir Robert Bruce of Clackmannan, knighted 1593, had a 
second son, Colonel Norman Bruce, who married, and had daughters but no 
male issue {Douglas's Baronage). His company was in Groningen in December 

1604 (p. 197). He was dead before July 8th, 1615, when he was succeeded by 
George Coutts. 



1 607] STATES OF AVAR 

1607 

Guelderland. Bueren and Culenborgh. Foot. 
These 2 counties to pay for the comp^ of Cap 11 Andro Donaldson. 

Holland Foot 

Col. Brogh . . 200 men . . 2612 

Caddel . ,150 . . . 1925 

Mackigny . . . . . ,, 

Allaune Coutis . 
Henry Balfour 
Thos. Areskyn 

H. Levingston 1 . . . . 

Archibald Areskyn . . 

Col. Bachlouch . . 200 . . 2612 

Robert Henderson . 150 spears and muskets 2014 

Francois Henderson . ,, . . . ,, 

R. Schot ...... 
Wm. Douglas 2 . . ,, . . ,, 

Wm. Balfour 3 



1 Henry Livingston succeeded Captain Bruce on January I2th, 1607. A 
young man Livingston, who had previously served, was recommended by King 
James in July 1603. Sir Henry Livingston died before November 24th, 1626, 
when he was succeeded by P. Murray. On August 28th, 1617, Secretary Lake 
wrote to Sir Dudley Carleton : ' In the matter of Sir Henry Levingston and 
Capt. Hamilton, his Majesty saith that you have so much mistaken him as he 
was fain to call for the letters he wrote for Hamilton for his own satisfaction, 
and findeth they contain no other matter than what his intention was, that if by 
the course of the discipline there it be due to Hamilton his Majesty would not 
prejudice him, if to Levingston not him, if it be at liberty for either, then to 
Levingston, because the others years have made him unserviceable.' In 1627 
Johanna Turck, his widow, requested appointments for her three sons, John, 
James, and Alexander, and a commission was granted to John, the eldest. 

2 William Douglas succeeded Sir Andrew Balfour on January i6th, 1606, and 
was succeeded by James Lindsay on March 3ist, 1615. 

8 Sir William Balfour, of Pitcullo, eldest son of Colonel Henry Balfour, killed 
in 1580, made frequent representations to the Dutch authorities, and received 
recommendations from King James, the Princess of the Palatinate, and the 
Dutch Ambassador in London, in reference to his father's and his uncle, Captain 
D. Cant's arrears and his own claims. See representation by him as ' fils aine" ' 
in November 1605 (p. 200), when he had been for eight months a captain in 
Buccleuch's regiment. Consideration of his claims was postponed in 1608 
(p. 215). In 1613 he is described as the eldest and only son (p. 252). In 1615, 
when he was settled with and received a pension of ,600 settled on his son's life, 
he was negotiating with Captain Wishart for his company of cavalry. He then 
asked that 'the salary of his uncle of 1000 guilders per annum should be settled 
on him for life,' which confirms the MS., which states that Colonel Barthold 
Balfour was a brother of Colonel Henry. In November 1618 Captain 



70 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1607 

Geo. Botwel l .150 spears and muskets . 2014 

Wm. Hutson . ,, . . 

Jean Halcket . ,, . } , 

Monge Hamilton 2 . ,, . . . 

Davidt Balfour 



Orrock received a commission in succession to William Balfour, who had become 
a captain of horse. In 1610 he served as sergeant-major of the Scots regiment 
in the expedition to Juliers. In April 1621 he was stationed at Nymeguen. In 
1622 he was taken prisoner by the Spaniards in a camisade at Emmerich. 
In 1625 King Charles I. requested the loan of his company of carabineers, and 
in 1627 the king made repeated requests for his services. In 1628 he was 
allowed to leave the Dutch service, in order to raise a large force of cavalry 
for the king. The death of Buckingham interfering with the war preparations 
in England, he applied to be restored to his company. He had then been 
twenty-five years in service, and in recognition of 'his father's, his uncle's, and 
his own services' was granted a gold chain, valued at 1000 guilders. In 1634 
his pension was transferred and made payable on the lives of two young 
ladies. He was Lieutenant of the Tower when Earl Strafford was im- 
prisoned, and sat with his distinguished prisoner in the impressive trial in 
Westminster Hall. 'The putting of Sir William Balfour from the Tower of 
London ' is mentioned by Baillie in 1643, an( ^ * n J ^44 he commanded the Parlia- 
mentary Horse in the fighting near Winchester between Waller and Forth and 
Hopton. In September ' he broke through the enemy with all his horse with 
no loss considerable.' He had a command at Edgehill. According to the Sin- 
clair MSS. there were two Sir William Balfours, father and son, and the younger 
has been thought to be the Lieutenant of the Tower. But Charles Balfour, 
son of Sir William, Lieutenant of the Tower, presented a petition to King 
William in., in which he stated that 'his father, Sir W m . Balfour and Coll. 
Henry Balfour, his grandfather, served his present Ma ie ancestors in very con- 
siderable military employments in the Low Countreys, his said grandfather 
being killed before Antwerp, and that he has also lost two near kinsmen, who 
were Colls, in his May' 8 army, killed in His May' 8 service, ye one at ye Battle 
of Killiecrankie in Scotland, and the other at the Battle of ffluroy in fflanders.' 
This Charles Balfour had two elder brothers, Alexander and William (died 
before 1659), who are both said to have served in Holland. Baillie, when 
recording certain marriages in 1658, says : 'The Earl of Murray did little better, 
for at London, without any advice, he ran and married Sir Wm. Balfour's second 
daughter.' 

Sir William Balfour is represented by Balfour of Townley Hall, Co. Louth, 
Ireland. 

1 George Both well succeeded Alexander Erskine, January iQth, 1606, and was 
succeeded by James Henderson on November I4th, 1618. Letter of Scottish 
Council in reference to in 1615. 

2 Mongo Hamilton, commissioned between June and October 1606, was appointed 
sergeant-major of Sir David Balfour's regiment before Bois-le-Duc in 1629. He 
had died before February 24th, 1633, when he was succeeded by James Balfour. 
In 1627 he asked leave to enter the Danish service without losing his commission, 
which was refused. His wife's name was Hester Sideniski. A gallant cavalry 
officer of Polish extraction, called Seldnitski or ' Sedenesco,' served at Nieuport, 
and was killed at Juliers in 1610. Requests by widow in 1638. 



1607] STATES OF WAR 71 

Pay on Holland 

Col. Brogh * . . 400 

Lt Col. of the Scots . . . . 100 

Pensions and Endowments 
The children of Cap. John Nysbeth, deceased , 

yearly 200 per month . 16 13 4 

Widow John Balfour, 100 . 434 

Wardens and Quarter Masters 

Thos. Ewyn, St major Reg* Brog . . . 80 

Robert Maesterton, q r m r of the Scots, above 14 when in 

the field 50 

Officers of Justice 
Wm. Carcadin, Provost marshal Reg* Brogh . . 50 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, minister of the Scots . . . 30 

Extraordinary Pay when with the Army 
N.B. The following items are only to be charged during 

the operations in the field, offensive or defensive : 
Robert Maesterton, q r m r of the Reg* of Col. Brogh, in addi- 
tion to his ordinary pay 14 per month 

for six months . . . . -,. . 84 

Zeeland Foot 

Walter Bruce . . . 150 men . . 2014 

Arthur Forbes 1 . . .150 . Y 1925 

Geo. Homes 2 . . . .150 . . 1925 

Utrecht Foot 
Jan Hamelton . . . .150 men . . 1925 

Utrecht, undivided 
Gordon 3 1394 1 ll 



1 Arthur Forbes succeeded James Cheyne on January I4th, 1605. Made a 
representation as to his debts from Breda in 1609. Sergeant-major of Brog's 
regiment, 1610; company at Tiel in 1611. An Arthur Forbes, a younger son 
of William Forbes of Corse, followed the profession of arms, and was ancestor of 
the Earls of Granard in Ireland. 

2 George Home succeeded Ralph Selby on July 23rd, 1605. Was dead by 
May 2nd, 1623, when he was succeeded by James Murray. 

3 John Gordon was commissioned as captain of a new company on 1 5th April 
1605 (see note on Captain Gordon of Stuart's regiment, 1585, p. 49). In 1609 
his company was reported on, and its dismissal recommended. In 1614 he re- 
quested a lieutenant -colonelcy or sergeant-majorship, and in 1618 the advice of 
the Council of State was requested in reference to his dismissed company. In 
1618 Sergeant-Major Gordon of Brog's regiment was absent. 



72 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1607 

Brounfelt 1 . ;vv . . 1394 1 11 J 

Setton 2 . . . . . . . . 

Groningen Foot 
Norman Bruce . . . 150 men . . 2014 

Pay on Groningen and Ommelanden 
Col. Bachlouch in his high offices .... 1580 

Pension pay e at the Office of the Receiver-General 

Guilliam Murray . . . . .. . . 400 

The widow of Cap n Blair . . . . . 400 

Ditto . . . . . 100 

Niclaes and Margretha Egger . .. . . . 125 

The widow of Cap n Arthur Stuart .... 75 

Nysbeth . . ... .400 

,, Jan Kirckpatrick .... 50 

,, Strachan . . . . 200 

1608 

Guelderland, Bueren and Culemburch Foot 
Andro Donalson 3 . . . , 91 men , . 1290 

Holland Foot 

Col. Brogh . . . 168 men . . 2244 

Oliver Wodney 4 91 . 1290 

Caddel . . 89 . . 1271 

Mackinge . . .140 . . 1828 10 

Allane Coutis ... 107 . 1410 10 

Henry Balfour . . 96 . . 1324 

Thos. Arskyn . . .129 . . 1692 

H. Levingsten . . .113 . . 1572 

Archibald Arskyn . ;! J ... 92 . . 129910 

Col. Bucklouch . . 200 . . 2612 

Robert Henderson . .124 . 1702 

Francois Henderson . . 136 . . 1853 

Robert Schot . . .121 . . 1599 

Wm. Douglas . . .146 . ; 1887 

1 Steven Brownfield, commissioned nth March 1606 (new company). 

2 J. Seton, commissioned i7th May 1606. Protest by in 1618. Succeeded 
by Andrew Caddell, June I3th, 1623. 

3 Andrew Donaldson took oath on October 9th, 1604. Recommended by 
Colonel Brog for sergeant-majorship 1618; dead by March ryth, 1627, when 
succeeded by James Balfour. Request by widow, Mary Davidson, June l6th, 
1627. 

4 Oliver Udny took oath on 1 6th May 1607 as captain of the company pre- 
viously commanded by Colonel Brog. Succeeded by Ramsay October 23rd, 1610. 
Probably a member of the ancient family of Udny of Udny in Aberdeenshire. 



i6o8] 



STATES OF WAR 



Wm. Balfour . 


113 men 


. 1473 


Wm. Hutson . 


74 


1098 


George Botwell . - 
J. Racket 


97 
73 


1348 
1081 


Mongo Hamilton 
Davidt Balfour 


93 
.. 149 


1305 
1915 



Pay 
Col. Brogh . 

Pensions and Endowments on Holland. 

The children of Cap u Johan nysbeth, 200 yearly 

per current m., 

The widow of Cap n Johan Balfour, deceased, 50 ,, ,, 

ditto ditto Jacob Michiels, deceased, 40 ,, 

Pieter Michiels, yearly 50 



400 



Wardens and Quartermasters 

Thos. Ewing, st major of the Regt of Col. Brogh, 
Robt maesterton, q r m r of the Scots, 40 when in the 
field, . ... 

Officers of Justice 
William Carcadie, Provost Marshal of Regt col. Brogh, . 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, minister of the Scots, 

Utrecht Foot, Undivided 



s. d. 

16 8 4 
434 
368 
434 



80 

50 

50 

30 



J. Hamilton \ 
John Gordon J 


remain unpaid {^ men ' 


1338 
1208 


Brounfeilt . 


, . 101 


1372 


Sitton 


91 


1290 




Zeeland Foot } Undivided 




Walter Bruce 


96 


1377 


Arthur Forbes 


. 140 


1828 10 


Geo. Homes 


. 126 


1645 


Moubry l 


.85 


1229 10 




Overyssel Pay 




Col. Backlouch 


in his high offices . k 


7ftft / has not 
780 \been paid. 




Groningen Foot 




Norman Bruce 


115 . 


,1525 



1 Philip Mowbray took oath on January 2nd, 1607. Dead by February 23rd, 
1626, when succeeded by William Brogh. 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1609 



Col. Bucklouch 

Col. Brogh 

Robbert Henderson 100 men 1417 

Francois Henderson 

Caddel 

Oliver Wodney . 

Mackinge 

Allane Coutes 

Henry Balfour 

Thos. Arskyn 

H. Levingston 



1609 
Footsoldiers paid by Holland 

200 men . 
150 

R. Schot 

70 1059 Win. Douglas 
Wm. Balfour 
Wm. Hutson 
George Bodwell 
Jan Halket . 
Mongo Hamilton 
David Balfour 

Pay 



2612 
2014 
. 70 men 1059 



400 
80 
50 
50 



Col. Brog, for his prison .... 

Thos. Ewing, S* major of the Regt of Brogh 
Robert Mesterton, q r m r Col. Brogh . , . ^ 
William Cacader, Provost M. of Brogh . 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, minister of the Scots, . . 33 6 8 

Pensions 

The children of Cap n Jan Nysbeth, 200 yearly . 16 8 4 

Widow Jan Balfour, 50 . . 434 

Pensions for settlement of accounts and previous services 

The children of Cap n Waddel Archibald, Jan, and 

Willem, each 200 . . . . 600 

Lady Margaret Stuard, widow of Agt Dammari . . 450 

Maria Rig, widow of Cap 11 Melvil, on the life of Jacq. 

David, Janneken, Tanneken and Hester, each 80 400 

Guillame Murry of Pickerles, on the life of Jan, Rigmet, 
Elisabeth and Margarieta, his children, each for 
one fourth ...... 400 

Elisabeth Creichton, widow of Cap n Dallachy, the half 
on her, the other half on Jan and Catharina 
Dallachy, each the half of 100 . . . 400 

Elisabeth Forbes, widow of Cap 11 Willem van Nysbeth, 
the one half, and the other half on W m Arthur and 
Margareta Nysbeth, each one 4th . . . 400 

Mistress Anna van Duivenvoorde, widow of Col. 
Cuningam, on the lives of Mistresses Margriet van 
Duivenvoorde and Elisabeth van Cunigam, each 
one half . . . . . 300 

The children of Cap n Prop, Jan and Janneken Prop, 

each one half . . . .^ . . 200 

Mistress Anna Kirpatrick, widow of Cap. Strachan . 200 



1609] STATES OF WAR 75 

The children of Cap n James Egger, named Niclaes and 

Margarieta, each one half .... 125 
Guilliame Suderman, cap u .... 100 

The widow of the former Lt Penbrouck . . . 100 

Mistress Suana Splitkoff, widow of Cap 11 Kilpatrick, the 
one half on her life and the other half on the lifes 
of her children Jan, Maria, and Helena Kilpatrick 50 

JoostBlaire . . . . . . 50 

Pay on Zeelandt 
Col. Backlouch, 500 ; Robert Henderson, Lt Col., 

100 ; Forbes St major, 80 ; Blaire, q r m r , 36 ; 

Michiel Henderson, Provost Marshal, 50 together 766 

Col. Balfour yearly, 1000 . . . . 83 6 3 

INVESTIGATION as to the difference between the state of war 1609 and the 
state of war 1610, consisting in a balancing of accounts which have 
been deducted from each province or altogether left out with posts 
that have been increased or newly added, all per current month. 

*. d. 

Guelderland has been raised on Pay, monthly, for Mistress 

Anna van Leeuwen, widow of Cap u Arthur Stuart . 650 

Pensions 
Laurens Dallachy has been left out, with a monthly profit of 18 

Pensions for settlement of accounts and previous services 

On Holland, Bartels Balfour .... 1000 

On Utrecht, the widow of James Blair . . . 400 

Andries Penton . . . 150 

Guelderland, the widow of Cap 11 Arthur Stuart . 75 
And on the other hand Zeelandt has been raised on Pay, for 

Col. Backlough in his high offices, monthly . . 756 

Col. Balfour . . . . . 83 6 8 

Guelderland Foot 

Dona-ldson . . 70 men . . 1059 

Zeeland Foot 

Arthur Forbes . 90 : 1297 

Walter Bruce . 70 ; . 1059 

Geo. Homes . . . ' .' 

Moubrey ...... . ; 

Utrecht Foot 

J.Hamilton . ' .. 70 men ... . 1059 

Brounfield . . ,, ' ' : . 

Sitton . . . . 

Groningen Foot 
Norman Bruce 70 men 1059 



76 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1581 



III 

COMMISSIONS GRANTED BY THE COUNCIL AT 
THE EAST SIDE OF THE MEUSE, THE 
GOVERNOR-GENERAL THE EARL OF LEICES- 
TER, AND THE COUNCIL OF STATE. 

COMMISSIONS GRANTED BY THE MAGISTRACY AND LAND-COUNCIL 
AT THE EAST SIDE OF THE MEUSE * 

Commission of William Nisbet 2 as Captain. 

THE Magistracy and Provincial Council on this side of the 
Maas make known to all and sundry who shall see or have 
read to them these presents. Since by the decease of John 
Nisbet, late captain of a company of soldiers in the regiment 
of Colonel Diedrich Sonoy, the captaincy of said company 
has fallen vacant. And it being considered necessary to 
supply said company, in order that it may not lapse, with 
another captain, therefore, owing to the good report made 
to us regarding the person of William Nisbet, lieutenant of 
the same company, and being informed of the many good 
services performed by him in the course of several years in the 
common cause, and trusting in his loyalty and experience, we 
have commissioned and appointed, and do hereby commission 
and appoint him to be captain over the said company, there- 
over as captain to order and command, to maintain good 
order and discipline of war. And on all expeditions and 
watches, at all times and places, to hold himself in readiness 
with his company at the orders of his colonel or his lieu- 
tenant. And farther to be guided in everything by the 

1 Extracted from the ' Commissie boek van de Overheid en den Landraad 
aan de Oostzyde der Maas, beginnende met den 5 Aug fc 1581 tot 8 Sept r 1584.' 

2 See State of War, 1586. 



1 58 1] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 77 

regulations made or to be made for the conduct of the war, 
and that he may acquit himself therein well and loyally he 
shall hold himself bound to take the proper oath before us 
or those commissioned by us, it being understood that this is 
to be registered in the Record Office. Therefore we summon 
and request, and that officially, all commanders, colonels, 
captains, commissioned officers, soldiers, and all whom it may 
concern, to respect and acknowledge the said William Nisbet 
as captain ; also we command the soldiers of said company to 
obey and submit to the said captain. And in all marches 
and watches at all times and places, whether against the 
enemy or otherwise, to allow themselves to be employed as he 
may order, that therein the Land may be served and our 
earnest purposes carried out. 

Given in Leeuwaarden under our seal the xvii October 1581. 

On the xviii October 1581 William Nisbet took the oath 
mentioned in the foregoing Commission before the Council 

Commission of John Cunningham 1 as Assistant to Count 
William. 

The Magistracy and Provincial Council on this side the 
Maas hereby make known that the noble Count William 
Lewis of Nassau, because at the battle of Noorthoeren his 
colonels, lieutenant, and captains were shot and some taken 
prisoners, is in urgent need of some one of rank and ex- 
perienced in affairs of war who shall be commissioned to assist 
the said count in counsel and action in all that touches the 
preservation of the town of Dokkum and our resistance to 
the enemy. Therefore we, being well informed regarding the 
person of John Cunningham, Captain of Artillery ; and trusting 
to the ability and experience which the said Cunningham has 
recently had in the affairs of the war, have authorized and 
commissioned, and do hereby authorize and commission him, 
to assist with counsel and in act the noble count aforesaid, in 
the oversight, superintendence, and guardianship of the said 
city of Dockum, also in the absence of the said count to take 



1 See pension list appended to State of War, 1595. 



78 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1581 

command of the garrison, and to take oversight in like manner 
for the conservation of the said city. And further to hold 
and conduct himself as a good counsellor, assistant, and, in 
the absence of the said count, as a good superintendent and 
head of the foresaid garrison, in such manner as hereinbefore 
he is held bound and ought to do and such as also the con- 
servation and warding of the said town and the service of 
the land shall require, requesting, and officially ordaining, the 
magistracy of the said town of Dockum. the captains, officers, 
cavalry and soldiers at present lying there in garrison, or 
those who shall yet be placed there, to acknowledge, obey, 
and submit to the said Cunningham, as attached by us in the 
quality of good counsellor and assistant to the said Count 
William Lewis of Nassau, etc., and in the absence of the 
said count, as superintendent and head of the garrison; 
and in case of need render him all assistance, that therein 
the service of the Land and our earnest purposes may be 
carried out. 

Given within the City of Leeuwaarden under our Seal, the 
7 October 1581. 



Commission of John Cunningham for the relief of NaijesijL 

This Magistracy, etc. Since we, in order to provide those 
devout captains, soldiers, at present beset and besieged by 
the enemy in the village of Naijesijl, with all such necessaries 
against the violence of the enemy, and for the preservation of 
the said post, as may be found of assistance, have thought 
good to commission an expert conversant with military affairs 
and with all that might be required in such a case and in 
similar ones. Therefore, being well informed respecting the 
person of John Cunningham, Captain of Artillery, and trust- 
ing to his ability and experience with advice of General 
the Lord [den Heere] Norris, and of the Lieutenant Stadholder 
of Friesland, have authorized and commissioned, as we do hereby 
authorize and commission him, to communicate with those 
acquainted with the situation of the said redoubt and the 
country round it, as to succour or relief; and to bring all such 
means to bear as may suggest themselves for effecting said 



1581] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 79 

relief, and that in the surest possible manner. For which 
purpose the said Cunningham is empowered to employ some 
officers and soldiers of the ensigns of the said Lord Lieutenant 
Stadholder at present lying in Dockum, if necessary other 
troops also, together with all such light vessels, ships, and 
other necessaries he may require for the purpose, and can 
obtain at Dockum or elsewhere. And should the said 
Cunningham make any promise to the extent of one hundred 
Gulden or two, three, or four hundred, according as occa- 
sion may require, in the employment of persons to this 
end, his said promises shall be made good and the said 
Cunningham shall be indemnified and held free from 
liability. We do summon and also officially command the 
soldiers of the said two ensigns, also all such other soldiers 
that the said Cunningham may require for this exploit and 
everything connected with it, to allow themselves to be 
employed at the command and order of the said Cunningham, 
in the matter already stated for the service of the Land : 
ordaining also that the Magistrates of Dockum, and all others 
whom these projects in any way concern, give all possible 
help and assistance to the aforesaid Cunningham towards the 
accomplishment of this service, thereby contributing signally 
to the service of the Land and to the carrying out of our 
earnest wishes. 

Given within the City of Leuwerden under our Seal, the 
viii. October 1581. 



COMMISSIONS GRANTED BY THE EARL OF LEICESTER. 1 
Commission pour le Capitaine Jehan Balford. 2 (John Balfour.) 

Robert, Conte de Leycester, etc. a tous ceulx etc. Comme 
avons entendu des bonnes et longues services faictes en cestes 
provinces tant au feu de tres heureuse memoire nostre tresscher 
et bon cousyn le Prince d'Oranges comme aussy aux Estatz 
gnaulx durans les precedentes guerres par le Cap n Jehan Bal- 



1 Extracted from the ' Commissieboek van den Gouverneur Graaf van Ley- 
cester, begin-nende met den 5 March 1586^18 February 1588.' 

2 See State of War 1586, p. 50, note 6. 



80 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1581 

ford, gentilhomme Escochois, ensemble le desir qull a d'estre 
accepte en nfe service a telle charge que nous plairait Temploier, 
scavoir faisons que pour la bonne congnoissance qu'avons de la 
personne du diet Balford et de sa vaillantesse et dexterite au 
faict de la guerre, Nous confians a plain de sa fidelite et expe- 
rience, Avons Icelluy constitue, ordonne et commis, constituons, 
ordonnons et commettons par ceste a la charge de capitaine 
d'une compaignie de cent chevaulx a schavoir cinquante lanciers 
et cinquante harquebousiers desia dresses ou encores a dresser 
la ou il trouvera le mieulx convenir en luy donnant pleyn 
pouvoir, authorite et mandement especial de les lever 
(Tung lieutenant, cornette et aultres officiers en oultre de com- 
mander a icelle compaignie et la conduire et emploier contre 
les Espaignols, Malcontens, leurs adheriens et aultres nous 
ennemis, soit en campaigne ou es villes et places fortes que de 
par nous luy sera commande, prennant soigneux regard que 
par ceulx de sa dicte compaignie ne soit faict aulcun tort ou 
foulle aux bourgeois et inhabitans. Dlcelles, ains qu'entre 
eulx soit tenu tout bon ordre et discipline militaire. Suivant 
les ordonnances sur ce faictes ou encores a faire et au surplus 
faire toutes et singulieres offices qu'un bon et fidel capitaine de 
cavaillerie est tenu de faire aux gages et traictemens a ce 
ordonnes, sur quoy et de son bien et fidelement acquite en 
ceste sa charge et commission ledict capitaine Balford sera 
tenu prester le serment de fidelite en nous [sic] mains. Si 
donnons un mandement aux Lieutenant officiers et soldatz de 
la dicte compaignie de tenir et respecter le diet Balford pour 
leur Capitaine et Tobeir comme pour Pacquit de leur devoir il 
convient. Requirons en oultre a tous chefz Colonnelz, Magis- 
tratz et aultres qu'il appartiendra de faire au diet Capitaine 
Balford a Texecution de ceste commission toute faveur, adresse 
et assistance requises et sur ee sera tenu le diet Capitaine de 
monstrer ceste au [sic] chambre de la Tresorie pour en estre 
registre et verifie. Car ainsy pour le service du pays Tavons 
trouve convenir. Donne a la Haye le 27 de Mars 1586, et 
estoit soubzsigne R. Leycester et chachete en chire rouge du 
cachet de son Ex ce sur le dos estoit ce jour d'huy le xxix e de 
Mars 1586 a Jehan Balfort faict le serment de fidelite es mains 
de messr rs du Conseil d'estat de soy bien et deuement acquiter 



1586] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 81 

comme Cap ne (Tune Compaignie de chevaulx, suyvant le con- 
tenu de ceste commission. Actum ut supra a Utrecht, signe 
T. Langhe et sur le dos estoit aussy Les Deputez hors du 
Conseil d'Estat pour la chambre de la tresorie le d* son Ex ce 
consentant autant qu'en eulx est que le contenu au blancq de 
ceste soit faict et accompli en la forme que sa dicte Ex ce com- 
mande et entend estre faict par Icelle faict ut supra et estoit 
soubzsigne G. Zuylens. 

Mars 1586. Commission pour le Capitaine Alexandre Witchart. 
Ecossois d'une compaignie de cent chevaulx harequebouseiers. 

Robert, Conte de Leycester, Baron de Denbigh, etc. Lieu- 
tenant de Sa Majeste d'Angleterre, Gouverneur et Capitaine 
General des Provinces Unies des Pays-Bas, a tous ceux qui ces 
presentes verront Saluyt. 

Comme le Capitaine Alexandre Witchard, Escossoys aiant 
cydevant servi quelque bon espace en ces pays tant du temps 
de feu notre tres cher et bien ayme Cousin le Prince d'Orange 
H. M. Comme depuis avecque charge et jusques ores continue 
en toute fidelite, soing et debvoir mesmement a la derniere 
entreprinse sur la dyke de Cawesten et qu'il nous ait remonstre 
le bon desir qu'il en a decontinuer et faire le mesme a Fadvenir, 
Scavoir faisons que pour la bonne cognoissance qu'avons du 
d. Capitaine Witschardt et de sa vaillantsie et preudhomie au 
faict de la guerre, Nous confians a plain de la fidelite et experi- 
ence, avons Icelluy establi, ordonne et commis, establissons, 
ordonnons et commettons par ceste a la charge de Capitaine 
d'une compaignie de cent chevaulx harequebousiers, desia 
dressee ou encores a dresser, la ou il trouvera le mieulx con- 
venir, en luy donnans plain pouvoir, authorite et mandement 
especial, de la pourveoir d'un Lieutenant cornette et aultres 
officiers, en oultre de Commander a Icelle compaignie et la 
conduire et emploier centre les Espaignols, malcontents, leurs 
adherens et aultres nos ennemis, soit en campaigne ou es villes 
et places fortes que de par nous luy sera commande, prennant 
soigneux regard que par ceulx de sa dicte Comp ie ne soit faict 
aulcun tort ou foule aux Bourgeois et habitans d'icelle, ains 
qu'entre eulx soit tenu tout bon ordre et discipline militaire, 
suivant les ordonnances sur ce faictes ou encores a faire, et au 

F 



82 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

surplus faire toutes et singulieres les choses qu\m bon et fidele 
Cap ne de Cavaillerie est tenu de faire. 



COMMISSIONS GRANTED BY THE COUNCIL OF STATED 

Commission of William Waddel? as Captain of a Company of 
Infantry, 130 strong. 

The States-General of the United Netherlands, to all who 
shall see or have read to them these our open letters of com- 
mission, greeting ! ... Be it known, that we consider it 
necessary for the service of the said United Netherlands to 
keep certain Companies of the Scottish nation in the service of 
the said Lands. By reason of the good report made to us of 
the person of William Waddel, and of his affection for the 
service of these Lands, of his ability, piety, and experience in 
the business of the war, and trusting completely to his good 
character, loyalty, and diligence, we have, at a meeting of the 
Council of State of the said Lands, retained and continued 
him, William Waddel, and, so far as may be necessary, have 
anew commissioned, and do, by these presents, retain, continue, 
and commission him to the charge of a company of Scottish 
infantry, one hundred and thirty strong, included under the 
regiment of Colonel Bartho. Balfour, the company to include, 
besides his person and boy, a lieutenant and ensign, each with 
his boy, two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, one 
quartermaster, one surgeon, 19 musqueteers, 36 pikemen, 
9 halberdiers, three bucklermen, 3 and 48 arquebusiers, giving 
him full power, authority, and special charge, to take com- 
mand of the said company, to lead and employ them against 
the Spaniards, malcontents, and their adherents, and all other 
enemies of the United Netherlands, whether afield or in 
garrison, for the safeguarding of any towns or fortresses, also, 
should need be, on board ships of war therein, and when it 
shall be ordered and commanded by us, and by those having 
commissions from us in the service of the Lands, or by the 
said colonel. He as captain keeping his soldiers in good 



1 From the Commission Book, 1588-1591. 

2 See State of War, 1586, p. 49, note 3. 3 Rondasseurs. 



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 83 

order, watch, and discipline of war by day and by night : not 
suffering them to burden or do any injury to the citizens and 
inhabitants of the places where they shall be garrisoned ; and 
further to do everything that a devoted and loyal captain is 
bound to do, in accordance with the ordonnance and regula- 
tions made, or to be made, for the conduct of the war ; and 
this on the payment for the whole company, as above stated 
130 strong, of the sum of 1500 pounds of 40 Flemish grotten 1 
every 32 days. In particular, he is to content himself from 
this date with payments at the end of every 48 days. With 
which he the captain, his subordinate officers and soldiers 
must, like others in the service of the Land, content themselves, 
serve us and the said Lands loyally without any contention, 
and allow themselves to be mustered at every journey, or at 
any time when told to do so. 

And that he may in all these respects acquit himself well 
and loyally, he, William Wad del, captain, holds himself 
bound to take the proper oath before us, or before the members 
of said Council of State : and he shall cause this his com- 
mission to be registered, as well by the said Council of State, 
as by the commissioned Councils of the States of Holland, on 
whose repartition he shall forthwith be paid. Hereupon, there 
shall also be granted him thereto an Attache from their Lord- 
ships the Governor and the commissioned Council of the States 
of Holland. Which done ; we charge and command the lieu- 
tenants, commanding officers, cadets, and common soldiers of 
the same company, and also all others whom it may concern, 
to acknowledge him, William Waddel, for our captain, obey 
and submit to him, also in case of need, to give him all assist- 
ance and direction and all this till further orders. For we 
have found this essential to the service of the Lands. 

Given at the Hague, the 20 June 1588. 2 



1 See note, p. 85. 

2 Mutatis mutandis, similar commissions .were issued on 26th June 1 588 to 
Wm. Murray and John Dallachy, and on 27th June to John Prop, David Cant, 
Wm. Hay, and David Trail. 



84 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 



Commission in favour of Earth. Balfour l for his ' compagnie 
colonelle'' o/*200 men. 



The States- General of the United Netherlands, unto all who 
shall see or shall have read to them these open letters of 
Commission, Greeting. 

Be it known that we, considering it needful for the service 
of the said United Netherlands to keep some companies of 
the Scottish nation in the service of the said Lands, and being 
well informed regarding the person of the respected and noble 
Barth. Balfour, colonel ; and of his affection for the service 
of these Lands, his ability, good character, and experience in 
the business of the war, and being thoroughly assured of his 
devotion, trustworthiness, and loyalty, have by a resolution 
of the Council of State of the said Lands, retained, continued, 
and in so far as is necessary, -appointed anew Barth. Balfour, 
colonel ; and we hereby do by these presents retain, continue, 
and appoint him to the charge of captain of his compagnie 
colonelle of two hundred Scottish infantry, which shall include, 
besides his person and boy, a lieutenant and ensign each 
with his boy, two sergeants, two drummers, one piper, three 
corporals, one quartermaster, a surgeon, 27 musketeers, 73 
harquebusiers, 63 pikemen, 18 halberdiers, and three buckler 
men ; 2 giving him full power, authority, and general command 
over said compagnie colonelle, to order, lead, and use them 
against the Spaniards, the malcontents, and their adherents, 
and all other enemies of these United Netherlands, whether 
afield, or in garrison for the protection of any towns or 
fortresses ; also, in case of need, on board ships of war,. 
wheresoever he shall be ordered and commanded to such 
duties in the service of the country by us, and by those 
commissioned by us; always keeping his soldiers in good 
order, guard, and discipline of war, both by day and night,. 
not permitting them to burden or in any way to injure the 
citizens or inhabitants of the towns and places where they 
may be garrisoned. And further, to do everything that a 



1 See State of War, 1586, p. 48. 

2 Rondasseurs, from rondas^. round shield. 



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 85 

good and faithful captain ought and is in duty bound to do, 
in pursuance of orders and written regulations already made, 
or that may be made, as to the conduct of the war. And 
this at a pay for the whole company of the above strength of 
200 men of the sum of 2200 pounds, of 40 groats l the poundj 
every 32 days, with the reservation that henceforward he 
shall content himself with these payments every 48 days. 
With this he and his subordinate officers and his soldiers, like 
others in the country's service, must content themselves. And 
on this stipulation loyally serve us, and the Lands aforesaid, 
without complaint, and at each journey allow themselves, 
when called upon, to pass muster. And in order that he 
may acquit himself in all these well and faithfully, he, Barth. 
Balfour, acknowledged as Captain, is bound to take the proper 
oath at our hands, or those of the Council of State aforesaid, 
and to cause register this his commission both by the said 
Council of State and by the commissioned Councils of the 
States of Holland, upon whose repartition 2 he shall forthwith be 
paid. In addition also there will be granted to him the attache 
(or confirmation) of the Lord Governor, and of the commis- 
sioned Councils of the States of Holland. Which being done, 
we charge and command the lieutenant, commanding officers, 
cadets, and common soldiers of the said company, and all 
others whom it may concern, to acknowledge him, Barth. 
Balfour, as our captain, submit to and obey him ; also when 
necessary to render him all help and direction ; and all this 
till our further orders; for we have found this essential in 
the service of the Land. 

Given at the Hague, the 26 June 1588. 

(Initialed) J. VALCKE V*. 

Docqueted (below) : 

By order of my Lords, the States-General of the United 
Netherlands, relative to the report of the Council of State in 
respect of this commission. (Signed) Cn r HUYGENS. 



1 Old Flemish pound equal to n shillings sterling : 40 grotten=is. iod., or 
one guilder : groot = ^d.: pound = ios. 

2 Repartitie = division into smaller parts. 



86 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

And sealed with a hanging-out seal in red wax on doubled 
string. Indorsed (on back) : 

This fifth day of July 1588, Bartolt. Balfour took the 
pfoper oath before the Council of State as captain of a com- 
pany according to the commission on the other side of this. 

Cn r HUYGENS. 

Original Dutch of the preceding. 

Commissie voor Bartolt Balfour voor sijne compagnie collonnelle van 
IP hoofden. 

Die Staten Generael der Vereeniehde Nederlanden alien den ghenen 
die dese opene brieven van commissie sullen sien oft hooren lesen, Saluyt. 

Doen te weeten dat wij noodich achtende tot dienste van de selve 

Vereeniehde Nederlanden eenighe Compaignien van de Schotze natie in 

dienste der voorz landen te houden, om de goede kennisse die wij hebben 

van den persoon des edelen erentfesten Bartolt Balfour collonnel ende 

van sijne affectie tot deser landen dienst, cloecheyt, vromicheijt ende 

experiente in't stuck van der oirloge. Ons gantschelick betrouwende 

zijnder vromicheyt, getrouwicheyt ende neersticheyt, hebben bij deliberatie 

van den Rade van State derselver landen hem Bartolt Balfour, collonnel 

onthouden, gecontinueert ende voor 200 veel des noot zijnde op nijes 

gecommitteert, onthouden, continueren ende committeren bij desen tot 

den last van Capiteyn van zijne compaignie collonnelle van twee hondert 

Schotze voetknechten, daeronder sullen wesen neffens sijnen persoon 

ende jongen, eenen Lieutenant ende Vendrich, elcx met heurl jongen, 

twee Sergeanten, twee trommelslagers, een pijper, drie corporalen, een 

forier, een chirurgijn, sevenentwintich musketters, drie ende tzeventich 

harquebousurs, drie ende tsestich spiessen, achtien hellebaerden ende 

drie rondassuers, hem gevende vol comen macht, auctoriteijt ende 

generael bevel over deselve compaignie collonnelle te gebyeden, die te 

geleijden ende te gebruye-ken gegens den Spangaerden, malcontenten 

ende heuren aenhangeren ende alien anderen vianden deser Vereeniehde 

Nederlanden 't zij te velde ofte in garnisoen tot bewaringe van eenige 

steden ende stercten, oock op de schepen van oirloge des noot sijnde, 

daer ende soe hem sulcx bij ons ende bij den ghenen van ons last 

hebbende tot der landen dienst sal worden geordonneert ende bevolen, 

houdende sijne soldaten in goede ordre, wacht ende crijchs discipline soe 

bij daghe als bij nachte, sonder te gedoogen dat sij den burgeren ofte 

ingesetenen van de steden ende plaetzen, daer zij zullen garnizoen 

houden, eenigen last ofte schade aen doen. Ende voorts alles te doen 

dat een goet ende getrouwe Capiteyn schuldich is ende behoort te doen, 

achtervolgende d'ordonnancien ende artyckelbrief op 't beleyt van der 

oorloge gemaect, ofte alsnoch te maken. Ende dit op de gagie voor 

de geheele compaignie als boven, sterck sijnde twee hondert hoofden, te 

summe van twee ende twintich hundert ponden van veertich grooten 't 



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 87 

pondt alle twee en dertich daghen, behoudelick dat hij hem voortaen sal 
contenteren mette betalinge van acht en veertich daghen te acht en 
veertich daghen daermede hij sijne onderhoorige bevelhehberen ende 
soldaten, hen gelijck anderen in dienst van den lande sijnde, sullen 
moeten contentereu ende daerop ons ende de voorz-landen getrouwelick 
dyenen sender eenich wederseggen ende hem telcken reijse te monsteren 
laten des vermaent zijnde. Ende omme hem in alien desen wel ende 
vertrouwelick te quyten, wert hij Bartolt Balfour als Capiteyn gehouden 
den behoorl. eedt te doen aen handen van ons ofte die van den Rade 
van State voorz, ende dese sijne Commissie te doen registreren, soe wel 
bij den voorz. Rade van state als bij de gecommitteerde Raden van de 
Staten van Hollandt, op wijens repartitie hij voortaen betaelt sal wordeji, 
daertoe hem oock attache van den Heere Gouverneur ende gecommitteerde 
Raden van de Staten van Holland sal worden verleent 't Welck gedaen 
weesende lasten ende ordonneren wij den Luetenant, Bevelhebberen, 
Adelborsten ende gemeene soldaten van deselve compaignie ende oock 
alien anderen dyen't aengaen mach, hem Bartolt Balfour voor onsen 
Capiteyn te erkennen, hem te gehoorsamen ende obedieren. Oock des 
noot sijnde alle hulp ende addres te doen, ende dat alles tot onsen 
wederseggen, want wij sulex tot dienste van den lande bevonden hebben 
te behoiren. 

Gegeven in 's Gravenhage den xxvi. Junij xv c acht ende tachtentich. 
Geparapheert J. Valcke v*. Op de ply eke stont ges- ter ordonnan van 
myn Heeren de Staten Generael der Vereeniehde Nederlanden. Ter 
relatie van den Rade van State der selve. Onderth Chr. Huygens. 
Ende besegelt met een uythangende Zegel in rooden wassche aen 
dubbelde strecke. Opten rugge stondt. Op huyden den vijffden July 
xv c lxxxviii heeft Bartolt Balfour den behoorlicken eedt gedaen aen die 
van den Rade van State als Cap n van een Compaignie volgende de 
comissie aen d'andere sijde van dese. CHR. HUYGENS. 

Commission of William Brog as Sergeant Major over 
the Scots. 

The States-General of the United Netherlands, etc. Be it 
known that we, considering it necessary for the service of the 
Land, and the good direction of the affairs of the war, to 
appoint a qualified sergeant-major over the Scottish soldiers 
and regiment under Colonel Balfour, and other Scottish 
captains in the service of the Lands : We have, on account 
of the good knowledge we possess, of the person of the doughty 
William Brog, as also of his ability and experience in the 
conduct of the war, and trusting to his capacity and diligence, 
at a meeting of the Council of State of the said United Lands, 



88 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

retained, placed, and appointed the same, and we do by these 
presents retain, place, and appoint him to the position and 
office of sergeant-major, and Watchmaster (Wachtmeester) 
over the said Scottish regiment and soldiers, giving him com- 
plete power, authority, and particular charge, to enter into the 
service, and serve in all faithfulness, whether in towns, fortresses, 
or afield; therein to take good heed and to see that marches 
and watches be well provided, and faithfully carried out, 
according to circumstances, and to this end he must, at the 
proper moment, give the word of command, or the watchword 
to those who ought to have it, and he may ask it to be 
repeated at his pleasure, also he is to make his rounds with 
great strictness, or cause them to be made. He is occasionally 
to test the corps, the guards, the sentinels, in every place, and 
is to take particular care lest through neglect of these measures 
any troubles should occur ; also to take good oversight of the 
common soldiers and troops, and take care that every one be 
provided with such weapons and accoutrements as his place 
demands ; and on the detection of fraud by any one, the cap- 
tains and other officers whose duty it is to see to it, are to be 
earnestly exhorted to take proper action in the matter. Also at 
times and on occasions when musters or reviews shall be held on 
the part of the Land, he is to render all good assistance to the 
commissary [or muster master] or commissaries, and to exert 
himself that such may be carried out in the best order, and as may 
be best for the service of the Land. And further, in general and 
particular, he is to do all that pertains to the maintenance of 
good discipline of war and order among the soldiers, and in 
other respects to do what a good and loyal sergeant-major, as 
aforesaid, is in duty bound and ought to do. And since it 
is likely said regiment of Scottish soldiers will not remain 
always together with the others in one place, but at times the 
companies of it will be employed in various quarters or places 
according as the service of the Land may require, he shall be 
bound to allow himself willingly to be employed on all other 
occasions, and when good opportunity offers in the service of 
the Land, when ordered in his quality as sergeant-major; and 
in particular to let himself be employed and serve as sergeant- 
major-general, when that shall be asked of him in the service 



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 89 

of the Land ; and that at a salary of 80 pounds, of 40 Flemish 
groats per pound a month. And in order to acquit himself 
in this his post and office honestly and devoutly he is held 
bound to take the proper oath of loyalty, before the Council 
of State aforesaid, and to allow his commission to be registered, 
as well by the said Council of State, as by the commissioned 
Councils of the States of Holland on whose repartition he shall 
forthwith be paid. Thereto also a proper attache shall be 
granted him by the Lord Governor, and by the commissioned 
Council of the States of Holland. The which being done, we 
invite and command Colonel Balfour, those under him in his 
regiment, together with all other Scottish captains, officers, 
and common soldiers being in the service of the Land ; and 
further, all others whom these presents in any way concern, 
to acknowledge the said William Brog in the quality of 
sergeant-major, hold him for such and respect him. Also 
in the fulfilment of his duty and commission, if need be, and 
he require it to render him unhesitatingly all good help and 
assistance ; for we have found this indispensable in the service 
of these Lands. 

Given at the Hague, the twelfth July 1588, etc. 

Commission of Alexander Murray as Captain. 

The States-General of the United Netherlands, etc. Since 
Captain William Murray has informed us that on account of 
certain private affairs, he finds it needful, with our consent, 
to leave the service of these Lands to go to Scotland, having 
also presented and delivered over the company of infantry, 
led and commanded by him for some time past, and up to this 
date. We therefore find it necessary to provide the same 
company again with a qualified captain. Be it known that 
we, owing to the good knowledge we have of the person of 
Alexander Murray, and of the good services done by him 
during a considerable time for these United Lands, in his 
quality of captain of a company of infantry, and having con- 
fidence in his ability, experience, and honesty, have, at a 
meeting of the Council of State of the said Lands, continued, 
etc., in place of the foresaid William Murray, the said Alexander 



90 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

Murray in the post of captain of the said company of infantry, 
130 men strong, including, besides his own person and boy, a 
lieutenant and ensign each with his boy, two sergeants, three 
corporals, two drummers, one quartermaster, one surgeon, 
fifteen musketeers, 36 pikemen, nine halberdiers, 4 broad- 
swordsmen, 1 48 arquebusiers, giving him full power, etc. 
The payment of the whole company aforesaid, 130 strong, to 
be the sum of 1500 pounds, of 40 groats Flemish per pound, 
every 32 days, etc. 

Given at the Hague, the nineteenth September 1588. 2 



Commission of William Edmond 3 as Captain of a Company 
of sixty mounted Lancers. 

The States-General, etc. Seeing we have found it advisable 
and necessary for the prosecution of the present war, and to 
resist the common enemy, to take some more cavalry into the 
service of the Land, be it known, that on account of the good 
report received by us regarding the person of the doughty and 
honest William Edmond, and relying on his ability and ex- 
perience in war, we have, at a meeting of the Council of State 
of the said united Lands, appointed and commissioned and do 
appoint and commission him, by these presents, as speedily as 
possible to raise and take command of a company of sixty 
lancers cavalry, giving him complete power, authority, and 
a special order to take command thereof as captain, to lead 
it and employ it against the Spanish, the malcontents, their 
adherents, and all other enemies of the United Netherlands, 
whether afield or in garrisons, and for the defence of any 
towns or fortresses there and wherever he may be ordained 



1 Slagzwaard = two-handed sword, probably the meaning. 

2 In 1586, in ' a band ' drawn up by ' the haill name of Murray,' the signatures 
appear together of 

' WILLIAM MURRAY of Pitcairles. 

ALEXANDER MURRAY of Drumdeway. 

In another similar bond of 1598 there appears the signature of 
'ALEXANDER MURRAY of Drumdeway, Colonel.' 
See also supra, p. 50, note I, and infra , pp. 153, 166, 170. 

3 See State of War, 1595, p. 54, note i. 



1589] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 91 

and commanded in the service of the Lands by us, or by those 
having authority from us ; holding his cavalry in good order, 
watch, and discipline of war as well by day as by night, with- 
out suffering them to burden excessively or to injure the 
citizens or the inhabitants of the towns and country districts ; 
further, to do all that a good and faithful captain ought 
and is in duty bound to do in accordance with the rules and 
letters of instructions on the conduct of the war, already made 
or yet to be made. And this for payments such as other 
captains and cavalry are in receipt of; provided that he, his 
under officers, and cavalry shall rest satisfied with receiving 
one month^s pay every 48 days, like others in the service of 
the Land ; that he shall serve us and the said Lands faithfully, 
without any contention, and always allow his company to be 
passed in muster if called upon. And that he shall have no 
power outside the United Netherlands to arrest or molest any 
of the said Land's inhabitants in their persons or goods on the 
account of this or other company for past services ; but must 
comfort himself with the thought that he is being treated in 
everything like other companies of these Lands in the Land's 
service. And that he may acquit himself in all this well and 
faithfully, the said Captain Edmond binds himself to take 
the proper oath at our hands, or at those of the Council of 
State aforesaid, and to cause register his commission, as well 
by the same Council of State, as by the appointed Councils of 
the States of Holland, upon whose repartition he shall be 
paid. Thereto shall also be granted to him the attache of 
the Lord Governor, and of the appointed Councils of the 
States of Holland, which being accomplished, we charge and 
command the lieutenant, officers, and common horsemen to 
receive him into their company ; and all others whom it may 
concern, to acknowledge the said William Edmond for our 
appointed captain, submit to and obey him. Also in case 
of need, to lend him all assistance, help, and direction, and 
all this till further orders ; for we have found this essential to 
the service of the Land. 

Given at the Hague, the tenth June 1589, etc. 



92 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593 

Commission of Patrick Bruce as Captain of Horse over a 
Company of a hundred mounted Lancers. 

The States- General of the United Netherlands, etc. Seeing 
that Captain Patrick Bruce has offered to recruit a company 
of lancers for our and the service of the said United Lands, 
his payment to be found in contributions levied in the country 
parts of Flanders, which he is to bring under the safeguard 
and control of the State-General : and we having found it 
desirable to increase the cavalry already serving in defence 
of the said Lands, in order the better to withstand the common 
enemy : we have accordingly, at a meeting of the Council of 
State of the said Lands, accepted the offer of the said Patrick 
Bruce and retain the same, etc., for captain over a company 
of good lancers of 100 horses ; giving him complete power, 
authority, and particular charge to raise the said company 
with all diligence, so that within the course of the next three 
months it may be ready to be employed in the service of these 
Lands, said company he is to take command of and lead, and 
is to suffer himself to be employed against the Spaniards, etc., 
and particularly for the execution and ingathering of the fore- 
said contributions; that is to say, when and as often as he 
shall be requested to do so by the officers appointed over the 
same, and in doing so to regulate himself according to the 
measure and order given, or that may be given by us. He is 
to keep his cavalry in good order, watch, and discipline of 
war, etc. ; his payment to be 3000 pounds per month of 32 
days, the officers' salaries and horse fodder included therein : 
provided he shall take care to procure, according to his agree- 
ment, all such payments out of said levies on the country dis- 
tricts of Flanders, the which he is to exact with all diligence 
and put in train, so that his pay beyond the present incomes 
can be escheat (or claimed) out of them ; and he, the captain, 
his subordinate officers, and cavalry shall, like others, rest 
satisfied with receiving a month's pay every 48 days, it being 
understood that these United Lands do not hold themselves 
bound in their ordinary payment, nor in the third part of the 
remainder due for his services : reserving always an action, (or 
law suit) by him against the Lands of Flanders. 

Given at the Hague, the 15 April 1593. 



1594] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 93 

Commission of William Balfour 1 as Captain over Colonel 
Balfour 's Company o/150 men. 

The States- General of the United Netherlands, etc. Seeing 
that Colonel Bartolt Balfour is discharged from the post of 
captain over a company of infantry for some years led by 
him; and that we deem it necessary to continue the same 
company in the service of these Lands, and therefore again to 
place another suitable person over them as captain : Be it 
known, that owing to the good report made to us regarding 
the person of William Balfour, lieutenant of the foresaid 
company, and his long continued and faithful services per- 
formed to these United Lands, together with his experience 
and honourable comportment, wherein we trust he shall per- 
severe, we have, at a meeting of the Council of State of the 
foresaid United Lands, unanimously accepted the same William 
Balfour, etc., for captain of the company above mentioned, in 
the place of Colonel Balfour, giving him full authority, etc., 
to command the said company, and reduce it to 150 men, and 
it shall include, besides his person and boy, a lieutenant and 
ensign each with a boy, two sergeants, two drummers, a piper, 
three corporals, a quartermaster or clerk, a surgeon, 30 
musketeers,' 39 pikemen with corselets, ten halberdiers, three 
buckler-men being noblemen, etc. 

Given at the Hague, 19th February 1594. 

Commission of Robert Barclay z as Captain of a company of 
Scots of 150 men. 

The States-General, etc. Having found good, because of 
the death of Captain Egger, that another fit and trusty person 
should be appointed to take command as head and captain 
over the company of Scots infantry, formerly led by the 
deceased, be it known that owing to the good report we have 
received regarding the person of Robert Bercley, and relying 
on this, as also on his ability and military experience, he 
having served for some time as lieutenant of the company of 



1 See State of War, 1595, p. 54, note 2. 2 Ibid., 1598, p. 57, note 2. 



94 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1595 

Colonel Murrey : at a consultation of the Council of State of 
the same United Lands, have placed and appointed the same 
Bercley, etc., as captain over the said company of the late 
Captain Egger to the number of 150 men, etc. 
The Hague, the 21 November 1597. 



Act of' Commission 1 for Captain Brogh z as Sergeant- Major 
over the said auxiliary. 

The States-General of the United Netherlands. To all 
those, etc., whereas we, for the service of the King of France 
and of these Lands, have found it good and necessary to 
appoint a sergeant-major over the two regiments of infantry 
ordered to go to France to the relief of the town of Camerijck, 3 
under the conduct and command of the noble and trusty 
Jonker, Justinus van Nassau, Admiral of Zeeland, general of 
the said auxiliary, so for the good carrying out of this we 
have taken the person of William Brogh, captain of a com- 
pany of Scots soldiers and sergeant-major of the Scots 
regiment, and believing his ability, valour, and experience to 
be certified, vouched, and assured, we have appointed and 
commissioned, and do hereby appoint and commission the 
foresaid Captain Brogh to be sergeant-major or Wachtmeester 
over the foresaid two regiments of infantry, giving him full 
power and authority to lead said force during its campaign in 
France, to take service of, and exercise the same, and to take 
the word of command concerning it from the said general, and 
to give it to the officers who shall be on duty in said expedi- 
tion, to take the sharpest heed that among the soldiers good 
watch, ward, and war discipline shall be maintained, as well 
by day as by night. To listen to all complaints, and to report 
them to the authority whose business it is to attend to them 
that they may be seen to as is fitting ; and further, to do all 
that a good and faithful sergeant-major or Wachtmeester 
ought, and is in duty bound to do ; on a pay of a hundred pounds 



1 From the Commission Book of the States-General. Commissions 1586- 
1625. 
8 See State of War, 1595, p. 54, note 3. 3 Cambrai. 



1595] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 95 

of xl. great pieces per month (his ordinary pay of sergeant- 
major special over the Scotch regiment therein included) to 
commence the first of October next. It is therefore ordained 
and commanded to all and sundry whom it may concern that 
they are to recognise, respect, and obey the foresaid Captain 
Brogh in his foresaid quality on pain of our displeasure 
inasmuch as we have found this to be essential to the service 
of the Land. 

So drawn up, etc., the 27 th September 1595. 



96 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1586 



IV 

EXTRACTS RELATING TO THE CLAIMS OF 
COLONEL BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR AND 
THE POSITION OF THE SCOTTISH OFFICERS. 
1586-1594 

Council of 1586, Septr. %. On account of the arrival of 150 soldiers at 
state. 1 Amsterdam [from Scotland], and of those which are still 
expected ; orders about their transport ; also the authorities 
of Amsterdam are requested to receive them, and to pay them 
per head, a captain 1 florin [ = 1 guilder], a lieutenant 10 patars 
[=14 pence], an ensign and sergeant 6 p. each, a cadet, cor- 
poral, clerk 6 p. each, and every soldier 3 p. daily. 

Novr. 15. Est ordonne que les capitaines Ecossois seront en 
deux colonnels et sous le commandement de Balfour et Palton, 
et le traitement party en deux moities, a moities egalement, 
et que commissions soyent faits in forma. 

1587, January IQth. On General Norris's proposal, it is 
resolved to retain in service the company of Captain Rally ; 
and with reference to this it was mentioned that before the 
departure of his Excellency [the Earl of Leicester] it was fixed 
that thenceforth not more than 2000 Scots would be kept in 
service. 

Dec. ISth. At the request of Colonel Balfour and Captain 
Patson 2 for a resolution about the interests of his regiment 
and other Scots regiments, gentlemen are nominated to enter 
into negotiations with them thereanent. 

Dec. 13^. Report : It was fixed that Colonel Balfour shall 
have in his Regiment the 10 Companies mentioned here, each 



1 Generale Index op de Notulen van den Raad van State, 1584-1600, door 
A. Bogaers. Deel 3. P Z. 

2 i.e. Aristotle Patton. See pp. 26 and 46. 



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 97 

containing 150 men, and the Colonel's company containing 
200 men. Regarding his pay, it shall be at the rate of 40 
guilders per month paid to him for each company. It was 
also resolved that Captain Arobel Patson shall be colonel of 
the four Scots companies here mentioned, and to send him his 
commission ; lastly, to consider as to how many officers shall 
be henceforth in each company, and what arms officers as well 
as privates shall bear. 

Addendum, Dec. QQth. The salary of colonel was fixed at 
400 guilders, of the sergeant-major at 80, and of the provost 
at 50. 



ACTA CONSILII STATUS PRO VINCI ALIUM CONFOEDERATORUM. 
Differences between the States and Colonel Balfour. 

1588, Saturday, May 28. Colonel Balfour was asked to 
come in, and was informed that their Honours understood he 
and his captains and officers felt themselves aggrieved at being 
asked to accept pay at the rate of 32 days for a month (nothing 
else, he must recollect, was undertaken during this war, in par- 
ticular, too, in respect of the Scots, and so likewise with his 
comrades and other regiments brought over for the service of 
the land), and it being well known that he was a lover of their 
Fatherland, their Honours did not doubt but that he would 
be willing to put up with that, and give no occasion that 
through him the generally accepted footing be infringed upon. 
After various allegations brought forward by the colonel, and 
among others that he had persuaded his captains so far that 
they had been altogether willing to be reasonable, but that 
they had allowed themselves to forget many things, he ulti- 
mately undertook to urge his captains to rest contented with 
the arrangement. 

And it having further been intimated to the colonel that 
great complaints had been made by certain people who had 
been fetched by his soldiers from Maas and Waall, he answered 
in effect that it had been done through a misunderstanding, he 
not being aware that those peasants were under Sauvegarde ; 
but having ascertained this, he had given orders that satisfac- 



98 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

tion should be made to the peasants; and he would take 
measures so that such complaints should cease, or would be 
himself answerable for them. 

1588, Monday, June 13. Captains Wm. Meurrey, Nysbeth, 
and Waddel, having compeared, the resolution of the Lords 
States-General and the Council was communicated to them, 
with the intimation that they should render their accounts, 
and would receive a month's pay, and henceforth they would 
be paid each 48th day by the authorities of Holland. Where- 
upon they answered that they were willing to go and to serve 
the country, but that they must have the means to make their 
soldiers willing and to satisfy them. Being asked what means 
they desired, they explained that they desired to get some 
security about the settling of accounts. Whereupon it was 
explained to them at some length that they had no reason 
to insist upon that, or to refuse to serve the country on that 
account, and they were again charged not to fail to have 
their companies ready to march. So then the said captains 
left the Council to have a consultation. And thereafter it 
was resolved that the foresaid Scottish captains shall be pro- 
vided with new commissions in the name of my Lords the 
States-General, containing the express stipulation that they 
must be satisfied with a pay of 48 days for a month, and 
thereupon take a new oath. And should any objection be 
made by them to accept this commission, or take the oath, 
that they should be given their leave and discharge. 

1588, Wednesday, June 15. The Scottish captains having 
yesterday undertaken to declare their opinion to-day as to 
whether they should, under the terms of the commission 
offered to them yesterday, continue in the service of the 
country or not, it is resolved to summon them to appear 
before the gentlemen who were also present yesterday, and 
ask for their declaration. 

June 15. The Scottish captains being called in, their declara- 
tions anent the commissions offered them yesterday were 
asked for. Whereupon they answered that they could not 
accept any change in their commissions before the arrival of 
their Colonel; and it having been represented to them that 
such pretexts were oo frivolous, and that the distress of the 



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 99 

country could not bear any delay, but that the soldiers must 
be employed now against the enemy, they were urged there- 
fore to give the matter further consideration. And mean- 
while it was resolved that, having heard their declaration, the 
captains not agreeing to the terms should receive their dis- 
charge at once. The captains, having come in again, declared 
that they were willing to serve the Lands, but as they wished 
to give some satisfaction to their soldiers, they asked to get 
with the accounts some written security, particularly on the 
part of Holland, as otherwise they dare not go back to their 
soldiers ; and if they could not get such security they would 
prefer to be discharged and leave the country, and for that 
"they made request for ships and provision. On this the 
meeting was adjourned, and it was resolved to come to a 
decision in presence of my Lords the States-General in the 
.afternoon. 

Afternoon. As, after many consultations, the Scottish 
-captains would not accommodate themselves to what is offered 
them in polite and reasonable manner, but have, after repeated 
discussions, finally declared that they could only remain 
longer in service on condition of receiving security for their 
accounts, it was necessary at last to declare that the States 
would not hinder them, willing or unwilling, from departing, 
and gave them their discharge. And in case they should 
insist on departing with their companies, it was intimated 
that the companies would be disbanded, and every soldier 
might then do as he liked. Which they would not accept, 
saying that they had paid the companies' way from Scotland 
at their own expense, and they desired that a rendezvous 
should be granted where all the companies might be brought 
together, to depart also together. The captains having left 
'[the Council chamber], it was resolved that the disbanding 
rshall be proceeded with, that commissioners should be deputed, 
who would discharge every company in each town in the 
country, and announce to them at the same time that every 
one who might still desire to remain in the service of the 
country would be treated, as hitherto, as an honest soldier. 
It being not at all advisable to allow them a rendezvous, but 
it is considered better to embark the discharged companies 



100 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 

one after the other, with [a] reasonable [amount of] provisions. 
And of this action and the necessary resolutions notification 
shall be sent to all the provinces and governors, as also to the 
Count of Hohenlohe and Colonel Balfour, with the explanation 
that the Council has been forced to do so, and if they would 
have accepted any reasonable satisfaction the Council would 
have been willing to retain them in the service. And it is 
also resolved that those of the Scottish captains shall be 
written to that are elsewhere, and in this action have probably 
been in sympathy with the other captains, as for instance,. 
Nysbeth, Dallachy, Cant, Hay, to inform them of what has 
been decided ; but that, as they were not present with, nor 
included among the others, they were not to be considered as 
discharged, and could therefore continue in their service,, 
marching or in garrisons, as ordered. 

1588, Friday, June 17. Colonel Balfour having come in v 
begged to be informed of all that had been discussed and 
transacted between their Lordships and the captains. And 
after he had been asked whether he had received the letter of 
the Council, and he declared that he had not, the minute was 
then read to him, and all that passed with the Scottish cap- 
tains on the previous day was told to him at length, and even- 
tually he requested their Lordships to allow him to confer 
with the captains, and promised to give as soon as possible a 
report of his conference. 

1588, Saturday, June 18. There was also read a certain 
remonstrance of Colonel Balfour and his captains, appearing 
to indicate that it would not be agreeable to him if the 
Scottish companies, lately determined to be discharged, were 
to leave the service of the country for want of the necessary 
security, but that he would prefer that he should enter into 
negotiations with them in order that his own and the others'* 
companies should still continue in their service, with reasonable 
concessions. Which also the Advocate of Holland, Barneveldt, 
being present before the States-General, reported that he had 
that day been led to understand by the said Balfour. There- 
upon, by the States- General together with the Council, it was y 
after deliberation, resolved that the decision arrived at three 
days before shall take effect, but in such a manner that the 



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 101 

despatches already sent for the discharge of the companies 
shall be executed, and that the captains of the companies in 
reference to which a despatch was not sent, who, however, were 
present in the Council when the entreaty and protest of the 
Scottish captains was made three days ago namely, Waddell 
and Traill may, if they choose, continue in the service as 
before, and that the despatch and the effect of discharge shall be 
as respects them cancelled. And in regard to the request for 
some security for their accounts, this is still to continue in 
terms of the act of the States-General by which the settlement 
is promised. Whereupon Colonel Balfour, coming in and 
being spoken to on the subject, answered that it was a strange 
way to deal with the captains who had served so long, the 
more as they are content to continue their service on reason- 
able conditions ; and when it was said to him that it was a 
matter of certainty that by far the greater portion of the 
soldiery who were to be discharged would wish very much to 
stay in the country, he answered that peradventure they might 
be mistaken, as he indeed was sure that not a single one would 
remain here. And, besides, he had also been specifically in- 
formed that the captains, as to whom the despatches of dis- 
charge had been already sent away, were, the two Murrays, 
John Balfour, Blair, and Prop. 

June 18, afternoon. The matter of the Scottish captains 
and companies was discussed again in the presence of the 
Advocate of Holland, Oldenbarnevelt, Colonel Balfour being 
present also, who earnestly insisted that these captains and 
their companies should be retained in service, representing in 
his speech that they had for years long done good service, that, 
though they had made their demand indiscreetly, the Council 
should be pleased to consider that they were soldiers, and that 
the Council ought to put into use its wisdom and discretion 
against their indiscretion, to secure that the service of the 
country should not be harmed by such a little cause. Finally, 
they seemed to incline to the view of the said Advocate, that 
those who were designated before should be discharged ; and 
no despatch of discharge should be sent regarding the others, 
those, namely, like Trail and Waddel; and regarding the 
remainder that, in order to preserve authority, they should 



102 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

cause them to embark, and so make evident some tokens of 
obedience ; but that, thereafter, some resolution may be arrived 
at regarding their retention in service. 

1588, Thursday, June 23. The States-General being met, 
it was announced that Colonel Balfour, having been present 
yesterday, had requested information as to what further 
arrangements had been made in the case of the discharged 
Scots companies, and that the said colonel had been told that 
their Honours could make no alteration in the resolution 
taken by the States-General; thereupon he again requested 
that further consideration might be given to the matter, and, 
should they not see fit to retain the discharged soldiers and 
companies any longer, that at least some satisfaction might be 
given them ; he recounted also the wearing service rendered by 
Captain Blair to these Lands. Which, being taken into delibera- 
tion, it was resolved that in order to maintain authority, the 
three companies already discharged were to remain discharged, 
and orders were promptly issued that ships and victuals be got 
ready for those of them who wished to return to Scotland ; 
and to give them some satisfaction, an agreement was to be 
made with said captains as to their arrears of pay, the furthest 
practicable day and terms to be fixed, namely, eight to ten 
years. And regarding the other companies which also are 
designated for discharge, this not being as yet carried out, it 
was for certain considerations resolved that, if by the captains 
or colonel in their name a request should be made that they 
be continued in the service, they should be retained, provided 
that they, captains, by solemn deed, in the first place shall 
renounce the combination entered into by them mutually, and 
promise, moreover, that they will always, without any refusal 
or excuse about their colonel or otherwise, put themselves at 
the disposal of the service of the country, where such shall be 
ordered by the States-General or by the Council of State. 
And that they will content themselves with the pay of a month 
each forty-eighth day ; and that they, also, during the time 
of their service, will make no pretension to get any security for 
their account or terms of pay ; on condition that, if the state 
of the country should require the discharge of some of their 
companies, that these captains will be treated in the same 
manner as the captains who were discharged. 



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 103 

Afternoon. The resolution taken this forenoon in the busi- 
ness of the Scots was communicated to Colonel Balfour, he 
being present, and he insisted and begged much that the 
officers of the three dismissed companies should be placed 
under the flags of the others, and some support should be 
granted them. It was resolved to enrol and distribute under 
the other flags the lieutenants, ensigns, and sergeants of the 
three discharged companies, and with a view to this their 
names are to be given 'up to the Council, and that every 
lieutenant is to receive twenty pounds [= guilders], every 
ensign eighteen, every sergeant eight pounds, in addition to 
the salary of 10 pounds a month. 

1588, Friday, the 24 June, afternoon. Considered and 
read the Requests of Captains Blair and Murray, resolved that 
the discharge decreed is to take effect, but Blair is to be 
retained in the service for a time till some order and arrange- 
ment can be made as to his arrears and the payment of them, 
not the United Provinces alone being held bound in the large 
sum that he fixes as his amount of arrears. And as to Murray, 
as he is a nobleman of high rank, and has behaved himself 
always with great discretion, without meddling much with the 
protest of the Scottish captains, is resolved that he, therefore, 
is to be retained on a reasonable monthly pay till opportunity 
occurs of employing him again either by permitting him later 
on to form a new company out of the disbanded Scottish com- 
panies, or by appointing him to a vacant company. 

1588. Declaration to be subscribed by the Scottish Captains. 

Since, owing to the corruptions that arose among the 
soldiery and to other troubles occurring, the State of the 
United Netherlands has been weakened and injured, so that it 
is necessary to provide against the recurrence of such corrup- 
tions and troubles by the best and surest means, therefore, 
we, the undersigned colonel and captains, together and 
severally, with special regard to the receipt of our accounts in 
the service of the said United Netherlands, made up to the 
last day of April last, and likewise of our new commissions, of 
our own free will and to show the good Christian zeal we have 



104 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

to the true Christian religion and the welfare of said lands, 
generally and particularly, for which the heavy charges of war 
are borne, and for which we have taken up arms, have promised 
and do promise in good faith, honourably and devoutly by this 
declaration, for ourselves and our soldiers under us, that we 
shall honestly and faithfully serve the States of the said lands 
after the tenor of our new commissions aforementioned, and 
shall be content and satisfied with receiving a full month's 
pay at intervals of 48 days, whether in more than one 
payment or delivery as may be most convenient to them (but 
not counting five or six days which sometimes elapse before 
payment, as often happens when provisions and other neces- 
saries are delivered which cannot quickly be liquidated) ; and 
on these terms maintain good military discipline ourselves and 
among our soldiers under us, in accordance with the rules of 
war and the oath we took, and that we shall not, because of 
the third part of our pay (which in future service is to remain 
for us and our soldiers in arrear) or even because of what the 
lands owe us for services rendered, refuse any service or permit 
or suffer any corruption, but oppose such to the uttermost of 
our power. We having entire confidence that the Sovereign 
States, according to their Highnesses 1 resolution, will settle 
accounts with the whole soldiery for their past services, and 
take action from this date, and that said reckonings be made 
in accordance with the wealth of the Government of the 
country, we, as regards times of security and payment, to be 
treated and favoured as others who have rendered the like 
services: and as regards our future arrears, they are to be 
reckoned and satisfaction given as in the case of others. And 
to uphold this we have pledged and do pledge each one of us 
our respective persons and goods, and in witness signed the 
beginning with the year 1588. 

[On 24th June 1588, the following officers signed this 
declaration : J. Balfour, John Prop, David Cant, William 
Waddel, William Hay, William Murray. The Dutch text is 
as follows : ] 

Alsoo den Staet van de Vereenigde Nederlanden duerende d'alteratien 
ontstaen onder het volck van oorloghe ende andere voorgevallen 



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 105 

swaricheyden geswackt ende gecreuckt ; dat nootlick tegens gelycke 
alteration ende swaricheyden by de beste ende versekertste middelen 
dient voorzien. 

Soo hebbeii wy ondegescreven Colonnel ende Capiteynen tsamen ende 
elcx byzonder int ontfangen van onse affrekeninghen, van den dienste 
der voorsz, vereenichde Nederlanden tot den laetsten April lestleden 
toegedaen, mitsgaders van onze nyeuwe commissien wt onse vrye wille, 
ende omme te thoonen den goeden Christelicken yver die wy hebben 
totte ware christelicke Religie, ende den welstande der voorsz. Landen. 
Int generael ende byzonder, daer vooren de beswaerlicke lasten van den 
oorloghe gedraghen wordden ende voor de welcke wy de wapenen ge- 
bruycken, ter goeder trouwen by eere vromicheyt belooft ende beloven 
by dezen voor ons ende onsen onderhebbenden crychsluyden, dat wy 
volgende de voorsz, onze nyeuwe commissie den Staten vande voorsz 
Landen zullen vromelick en getrouwlick dienen ende ons tevreden 
houden ende genoughen, mits van Achtende veertich tot achten veertich 
daghen (onbegrepen vyff oft zes daghen dat somwylen de betalinghe 
zoude moghen verloopen. In regard dat dickwils vivres ende andere 
behouften gelevert wordden, die zoo haest niet en comen wordden geli- 
quideert) ontfangende een voile maendt solts tzy van eene oft meer 
betaleugen oft leveringhen naedat hen best zal wesen gelegen, ende 
daerop mit onse onderhebbende crychsluyden ons in goede dissipline 
militaire te houden, ende te achtervolghen de ordonnancien van der 
oorloghe ende onsen gedanen eedt, zonder dat wy ter oorsaecken van het 
derdeudeel van onze besoldinghe (welcke wy voor ons ende onse onder- 
hebbende Crychsluyden voor de toecomende dienste ten achteren blyven 
sullen) oft oyck voor tghene de Landen ons van onsen voorgaenden 
dienste schuldich zyn, eenighe dienst weygeren, f oft eenighe alteratie 
toestaen, oft gedoghen zullen, maer nae onse wterste vermoogen deselve 
beletten Ons volcomelick betrouwende dat die Heeren Staten volgende 
Haer E. resolutie mit alle het volck van oorloghe tot affrekeninghe van 
voorleden dienst voortaen zullen doen procederen ende dat deselve 
affrekeninghe gedaen synde nae het vermoge ende den staet van den 
Lande, wy zoo inde termynen van betalinghe als versekeringhe zullen 
getracteert, ende gefavoriseert wordden, als yemandt anders van gelycke 
diensten, ende dat ons van tgene wy voor den toecomenden tyde ten 
achteren zullen blyven, als anderen affrekeninghe en contentement zal 
wordden gegeven, ende van het onderhoudt van desen hebben wy ver- 
bonden en verbinden by desen een yegelick onse respective personen 
ende goederen, ende ten oorconde dese geteyckent den 
beginnende met den jaare 1588. 1 

1588, Saturday, Sep. 10. Resolved : to inform Captain 
Muray, by Secretary Huyghens, that he is offered eight 

1 Instructie Boek van den Raad van Staaten. 



106 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592 

hundred guilders with permission to depart for Scotland as 
requested, and to leave his company to Captain Muray, his 
brother ; l and if he accepts this, that the States of Holland 
shall be communicated with and induced to grant him pay- 
ment of this money. 2 



Sir Bartholomew Balfour and the King's Commission. 
Resolutions of 1592, December 14. Compeared the Conservator of Scot- 
land and delivered a certain letter of His Majesty, dated 
St. Croix [Holy rood], the 24th Oct. last, in which His Majesty 
declares that he makes and appoints Sir Bartholomew Balfour 
one of his lords-in-waiting as colonel-general and captain- 
in-chief of all His Majesty's companies of foot and horse. 

N.B. Extract from the Conservator's Letter of Instruction. 

. . . Qu'aucun general ou colonel ne soit recognu sur noz 
subiects presentement en service soubz les Estats, excepte 
seulement Colonel Balfour. 

Qu'il rendra paine et negotiera que les dits Estats prennent 
quelque pied pour le soulagement de la pauvrete de nos sub- 
jects, illecq en leur service, affin de faire cesser leurs con- 
tinuelles doleances. 



N.B. Extract from the answer of the States-General 
to the Conservator. 

. . . Les dits Estats remercient le Roy bien humblement de 
ce qu'il Luy a pleu leur permettre, comme ont fait aussy autres 
Roys, Princes et Republicques chrestiens, qu'ils se soient serviz 
a la soulde de ces pays de leurs subiects, avec lesquels les 
Estats ont accoustume de traicter sur le faict de leurs com- 
mandemens, commissions, instructions et payemens, tant en 
qualite des Colonnels et capitaines que d'aultres, ainsy quails 
ont aussy faict avec le Colonel Balfour et feront encore d'icy 



1 See Commission, p. 89, notes p. 50. 

2 On Sept. 20th, 1596, the States of Holland resolved 'henceforth to pay the 
companies every 42 days in the place of every 48 days.' 



1592] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 107 

en avant de temps a aultre comme sera trouve convenir pour 
le plus grand bien et service de ces pays, selon les occasions et 
occurences. 

1592, December 18. Colonel Balfour was asked whether he 
held any commission from the King of Scotland to assume 
here in this Land command of the Scottish companies. 

He declared that it would not be his first commission of 
that kind, that he has had other commissions and appoint- 
ments from His Majesty in Scotland. 

Finally, that the Conservator of Scotland had a certain 
commission for him from His Majesty, which he had seen, but 
not yet received the authority of the States-General not 
being prejudiced. 

Whilst here in this Land, he desired no other commission 
than that of their Highnesses, with which he would be well 
contented; but that the foresaid commission from the king 
must be of service to him should he go to Scotland, against 
those of his nation whom he had commanded, and the friends 
of those who had died, or been executed by him in justice and 
otherwise. At the same time, he did not presume to make a 
practical use of the same in these Lands, otherwise than only 
with the advice of his lords and masters. 

After consultation on this, the said Balfour was informed 
that their Highnesses the States felt completely assured of the 
good judgment of the King of Scotland, and his earnest desire 
for the preservation of the government of these Lands, and 
the maintenance of the common cause of the same ; also of the 
trustworthiness of the said Balfour in the service of the Lands. 
And since it behoves the States to see carefully to the main- 
tenance of equity in the Land and order in the same, and con- 
sidering that in the foresaid commission there were divers 
points in conflict therewith, which their Highnesses would not 
conceal from him, that they could not permit him to make 
use of the same in their Lands, and therefore desired that he 
should hand over in writing his ultimate opinion on the sub- 
ject, which, having been declared, further injunctions might 
be given accordingly. 

Dec. 18, post prandium. Compeared Colonel Balfour, and 
exhibited, according to the desire of the States, a certain 



108 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592 

memorial in writing, containing his declaration respecting the 
Commission sent to him by the King of Scotland. 

The foresaid memorial having been read, it was resolved 
that the said Colonel Balfour be to-morrow told authorita- 
tively that the States are convinced that he cannot serve in 
this country (the rights of the same remaining conserved) 
except on the Commission of their Highnesses the States- 
General ; that he must therefore declare whether he will serve 
on the commission of the same and no other, or not ; and that 
the agent from Scotland be handed a memorial in writing, 
giving the reasons why it can't be thought of, that the said 
Colonel should serve in these Lands with such said commission 
from the king. 

Memorandum of the States to Mr. Denistoun, on account 
of Col. Balfour*s commission. 

Les Estats generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, 
Aians veu et examine Toriginale commission qu^il a pleu au 
Serenissime Roy d'Escosse envoier au Colonnel Balfour par les 
mains du S r Denistoun, Conservateur des privileges de la 
nation Escossoise en ces Pays Bas, pour commander aux com- 
pagnies Escossoises qui sont en leur service, datee le xxi 
Novembre Mil cinq cent quatre vingt et onze, declairent qu*il 
ne peult subsister avecq le droit et authorite du pays, que 
aucun colonnel ou capitaine qui s'est mis volontairement au 
service de ces pays soubz la soulde d'Icelluy, se serviroit aux 
pays d'aultre commission que des dits Estats generaux, oultre 
ce que en lad. commission se retrouvent plusieurs pointz con- 
trarians directement au droict, authorite et louables usages 
des ditz pays, comme : 

De faire la soulde des soldats, d'autant qull y a un ordre en 
cela au pays selon lequel tous les Colonnels et capitaines sont 
tenuz se regler. 

Letter of Colonel Balfour to the States-General. 

MESSEIGXEURS, Mess es Les Estats generaulx des Provinces 
Unies des Pays Bas. 

Le Colonnel Balfour desirant donner contentement a vos 



1592] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 109 

Seigneuries sur la proposition que luy a ete faicte par Icelles, 
touchant Texecution de la commission qu^il a pleu a sa Ma te 
d'Escosse, son Prince Souverain, luy envoier. 

Declare ne s^en volloir prevaloir au prejudice de I'authorite 
de voz Seig 168 , ny des ordonnances militaires de par decha, mais 
seulement pour augmenter son authorite et tenir soubz meil- 
leure discipline les troupes commises soubz sa charge. 

Et combien que la formalite de la comission soit par quelques 
circonstances dissemblables au stille des commissions de par 
decha, si est qu'elle n^est aultre que toutes elles que sa Ma* 6 a 
de coustume depescher en tel faict, affin que son authorite soit 
recognue entre ses subiectz, quelque part qu'ils soient. 

Parquoy, suivant la bonne preuve que le dit Colonnel a faict 
de la fidelite et versance envers vos Seig ies et la cause duquoy, 
est resolu persister jusques a la fin, vos S ies se peuvant reposer 
sur sa prudhommie et le serment preste a Icelles. 

Et si par quelques circumstances contenues en la dite com- 
mission, voz S ies . 

Item, de lever et casser des capitaines et aultres principaux 
officiers. 

Item, d'ordonner et faire les moustres des compagnies, des- 
quels deux pointz la disposition appartient au pays. 

Item, de recevoir et payer la soulde des compagnies d'aultant 
que Ton n'est accoustume de payer es mains du colonnel que la 
soulde de sa propre compagnie, oultre son tractement de 
colonnel, et a chacun capitaine la sienne. 

Item, de faire et enioindre telle discipline, reglement et loix 
qu11 advisera estre requises parceque les loix et ordonnances sur 
la discipline militaire se font de temps a aultre de la part des d. 
Estats generaux, suivant lesquelles s^administre droit et justice. 

Faict a Tassemblee des dits Sieurs Estats Generaux a la 
Haye en Hollande ce dix huictiesme jour de Decembre, L*an 
mil cincq cens vingt et douze, soubzcr. par ordonnance des ditz 
S* 8 Estats. (Signe) AERSSEN. 

Having consulted about the request presented by Colonel 
Balfour, as well for himself as for the captains of his regi- 
ment, it was resolved, that he be told in the assembly, that 
he has no reasons to complain in respect that he and the 



110 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592 

captains of his regiment receive their pay every 48 days, 1 
as they had been informed they should. And if they have 
not had the best pay in France, on the other hand, in other 
quarters and garrisons within these Lands, it has been better. 
However the States desiring to deal with the foresaid regiment 
in all reasonableness, notwithstanding this, have resolved and 
granted the foresaid colonel, for his extraordinary expenses 
incurred in the march to France, six hundred guilders, and to 
each of his captains three hundred guilders in one payment, 
and more than that, are willing to make payment in clothing, 
when the petitioners shall desire it, to the extent of one 
month's pay for each company, that thereby the soldiers may 
be brought up to the mark in accoutrements and order, so as 
to be of service to the Land, always with the understanding 
that said month's pay shall be deducted from the pay of the 
'foresaid Company, during the next six months, a sixth part 
thereof every month. Wherewith the above-mentioned colonel 
and captains shall have to content themselves. And touching 
the remaining points of his request, they will be gone into at 
a fitting time. 

Request of Colonel Balfour. 

Lectum, November 21, 1592. A Messeigneurs les Estatz 

generaulx des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas. Remonstre en 

Collection of toute reverence et humilite Colonel Balfour^ tant en son propre 

to* the States* nom ( l u ' ai1 nom ^ es Capital nes de son Regiment. 

General. Que passe un an ou environ se trouvantz surcharges de 

debtes crees pour Fentretement de leurs compagniez, comme 

ne pouvant suffire la paye de 48 par mois, Ils presentment 

requeste a voz Seig ies , tendant au contentement que leur fut 

promis au mois d'Apuril 1588 pour le deu de leur service avecq 

leurs compagniez, depuis leur sortie d'Anvers, iusques au 

premier May 1588, dont ils ont descompte arrestez. Sur 

laquelle req te fut donnee responce de dilay, et depuis survenant 

le voyage de France, les dits remonstrants ont tellement aug- 

mente leurs debtes, si pour Fequipage qu'entretennement 

extraordinaire de leurs compagnies, durant le dit voyage, 



1 See note p. 106. 



1592] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 111 

avecq la recrute qu'il leur a convenu mander d'Escosse pour 
le supplement de leur nombre perdu au dit extraordinaire 
service, qu'il leur est du tout impossible se depettrer des dites 
debtes, ne jouissant que des payes ordinaires, ce qui les a faict 
esperer estre fondes en leurs preventions representes en leur 
requeste puis n'aguerres a vos Seig ies , de laquelle req te n'est 
sorty le fruict espere, mais au contraire un simple renvoy a 
Messeig 8 les Estatz de Hollande pour leur paye de 48 jours 
par mois. En quoy leurs S ies ont consent! d^entrer en liquida- 
tion a la charge que tout ce que Ton trouvera par les ditz 
remonstrantz avoyr este recu tant en argent, vivres, qu'armes, 
excedant la dite paye de 48 jours, qu'il sera deffalque de leur 
paye courante. Lesquelles extremitez recherchees centre eux, 
seroyt cause de leur totalle ruyne et dissipation de leurs 
trouppes. Ce qu'il n'esperent estre les mercedes ou recom- 
pensse de leurs tant fidelles et loyaux services. Et comme 
a rayson de la presente necessite et serieuses debtes qui les 
accablent, lesquelles sont procedantes du dit extraordinaire 
et non oblige service, ne se trouvent aulcunement accomodes 
de la paye ordinaire de 48 jours, laquelle comme diet est, ne 
peut suffire pour Tentretennement quotidien de leurs com- 
pagnies, sont contraintz de recheff suplier vos S ies entrer en 
descompte advenant 32 jours par mois, suivant le contenu de 
leurs derniers contracqs, et en conformite des promesses a eux 
faictes a la despeche de leurs derniers descomptes, entrer en 
traicte pour Tasseurance du payement de leur entier deu ; 
desquelles lettres d'asseurances ils se pourront servire pour 
subvenir a leurs necessitez, payement de leurs debtes et entre- 
tennement de leurs soldats au service du pays. 



Continuation ofBalfour's business. 

Dec. 19. The Conservator of Scotland compeared, and the 
foresaid resolution was communicated to his lordship, the 
clerk being charged to hand it over to him in writing. 

Colonel Balfour compeared, and was informed of the resolu- 
tion arrived at regarding the memorial handed in by him in 
reference to the commission sent to him by the King of Scot- 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592 

land. He declared that he does not wish to make use of it in 
these Lands, nor to serve in virtue of any other commission, 
but only on the commission of the States-General, his lords 
and masters. 

Dec. 20. Colonel Balfour compeared and presented his 
answer to the offer made by the States to him and the 
captains of his regiment, which answer is inserted below 
as follows : 

* Response de Monsieur Balfour, Colonnel et ses Capitaines, 
sur la proposition a eux faicte par Messeigneurs les Estats 
Generaux. 

<Le dit Colonel et ses Capitaines declarent ne chercher 
aultre chose de mesditz Seigneurs, sinon de voir leurs soldatz 
soulagez par quelque convenable moien de leur presente 
necessite. II a pleu a mesditz Seigneurs de faire un offre 
d'un mois en drap pour chacune compagnie et estre rabatu 
en six paiemens ; sauve la correction de vos S ies , le soldat ne 
sera en cet endroit soulage, puis plus tost charge davantage, 
quitant la sixiesme partie de sa paye, Tespace de six mois. 

6 Mais s'il plaisoit a mes d. Seig 8 de vouloir accorder un mois 
en drap en tant moins et a bon compte de ce qui est deu par 
d'escompte faicte, ou sera trouve deu par d'escompte de leur 
present service, alors le diet Colonel et Capitaines obliger de 
remercier vos S ies . 

' Us remerchient aussy voz S ies de Foffre faicte a leurs per- 
sonnes en recompense des grands frais par eux faictz durant 
le voiage en France. Us ne sauront avecq si petite somme 
donner contentement a leurs crediteurs, car ils desirent plus 
tost de voir leurs soldats soulages que leur particulier. 

'Touchant d'entrer d'escompte avec voz S ies et quieter un 
sixiesme, le dit colonnel et capitaines ne sauront ceder a ceste 
poinct sans meure deliberation et advis de leurs officiers et 
soldats, et aultres respectz. 

6 Quant a la commission expediee par sa Ma w d'Escosse au 
Colonnel, cela tend plus pour se guarantir centre aucuns qui 
vouldroient prendre action centre luy en Escosse, comme il 
a desia declaire par escript. Car il est prest de continuer a 
voz S ies le service, comme il a faict. Pour tant prient bien 



1593] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 113 

affectueusement led. Colonnel et Capt e8 , qu'il plaise a Voz 
Seig ies considerer la longue et fidele service par eux faicte par 
decha, et Tintime affection qu'ilz ont de continuer jusques au 
dernier de leur vie et leur accorder moitie en drap en tant 
moins et a bon compte comme dessus. Car voians leurs 
soldatz soulagez, ils sont prestz en union et bon accord de se 
soubzmettre a toutes choses qifil plaira a Messeigneurs leur 
commander pour le prouffit et service du pays.' 

Dec. 24. The foresaid answer having been considered, it was 
resolved to declare in regard to it that the States by no means 
understand that he is at liberty to serve and help himself in 
any manner in these Netherlands, with any commission, in his 
position as colonel in command of the Scottish companies, 
they being in the service of these Lands, other than with 
the Commission of the States only, in conformity with the 
foregoing declaration made respecting this. 

Then as regards the deduction for the clothing or accoutre- 
ments agreed to by the States, that the same shall be carried 
out according to what shall be found to be just and reason- 
able. 

1593. Alleged Plot of the Scots Transaction with Balfour. 

Dec. 2. On the remonstrance being made, that apparently Resolution of 
some plot might be entered into by the Scots, which in future States - General 
times might tend to injure the condition of the Land, it was, 
during a long consultation suggested and advised in what 
manner this might be dealt with, so that the Land might be 
assured of their services ; and with that end in view several 
plans and suitable methods were proposed. Thereafter nothing 
else was resolved on than that his Excellency [Prince Maurice] 
should be advised to divide the Scottish companies in the 
garrisons, and post them in such places, that they may not, 
and cannot do any ill. 

Dec. 4. A consultation was once again held as to how in 
time to come they could be assured of the service of the Scots. 
And it was thought good in the first place to try to satisfy 
Colonel Balfour, concerning the payment requested by him of 
the arrears of his salary ; and for that end to offer 1000 dollars 
ready money, and further 1000 dollars yearly, till paid in full. 

H 



114 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593 

Item. To sound the intention of the said Balfour, in regard 
to his accounts of his company. Also what is due him for the 
services afterwards performed by him, with the foresaid com- 
pany ; and to resolve, that it shall be accumulated with the 
principal, till report shall have been made and heard, of what 
has occurred concerning this. As to this, it being well under- 
stood that the system be still insisted on of keeping the com- 
panies apart, and that they ought to be placed in such garrisons 
that it shall not be in their power to do any ill. Finally, in 
order that the foresaid Scots be fitly treated, the act shall be 
renewed, signed by the captains. 

Feb. 12. The Council was requested to go to the Assembly 
of the States-General, and went accordingly. And there 
Colonel Balfour, Captains Murray, Dalachy, Brog, Prop,. 
Egger and Waddel were informed that since they will not 
content themselves with the settlement, of which an offer has 
been made them severally, nor otherwise with such pay as the 
other captains are in receipt of, that therefore they are dis- 
charged from their service, and loosed from their oath. But 
should any one among them desire to continue in the States' 
service, it is devised that he shall come to an agreement with 
the same. 

Dec. 6. The Lord Advocate of Holland was commissioned 
and authorised to treat with Colonel Balfour, as to the pay- 
ment of the outstanding salary of the same, for the sum of 
1500 guilders ready money, and 1500 guilders a year till said 
salary be paid in full. 1 

1 See States of War supra y and also p. 245. 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 115 



PAPERS RELATING TO THE CLAIMS AND EM- 
BASSIES OF COLONEL SIR WILLIAM STEWART 
OF HOUSTON, SIR WILLIAM MURRAY, AND 
OTHERS, AND REPORTS OF THE DUTCH EM- 
BASSIES TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND IN 
1588, 1589, AND 1594. 

1588-1595 

Transactions with Colonel Stewart.^ 

1588, August 20. There appeared before the assembly a council of 
person claiming to be an ambassador of the King of Scotland, state< 
and after preliminary greetings and compliments on the part 
of His Majesty, he briefly intimated that he was charged to 



1 Colonel William Stewart of Houston, by whom this claim was made, was 
(according to Douglas) the second son of Thomas Stewart, fourth Laird of 
Galston, in Ayrshire, descended from Alexander, brother of John, first Lord 
Darnley, and first Earl of Lennox of the Stewart line. But it seems doubtful 
whether he was legitimate. Sir Walter Scott describes him as a relation of 
Captain James Stewart, created Earl of Arran in 1573, whom he seems to have 
succeeded as Captain of the King's Guard. He must be distinguished from 
Arran's brother, Sir William Stewart, who was dead before Stewart of Houston 
became Sir William. The Earl of Arran was the second son of Andrew, third 
Lord Ochiltree, and it is a curious fact that, obnoxious as he was to the party of 
the Kirk, his sister was the young wife of old John Knox. 

The first record of William Stewart's military service is a request in October 
J S7S t purchase arms in England, having received a captain's commission under 
the Prince of Orange. After the Pacification of Ghent, he is said to have served 
the town of Dantzick against Poland with a regiment (or some Scottish com- 
panies), which he brought to Flanders on the resumption of hostilities with Don 
John of Austria, and which was taken into pay by the associated provinces. 
In June 1577 he is described as 'captain of two companies and L t -colonel 
of the Scottish regiment.' In one list of 1579 his regiment is said to consist of 
eight companies (Balfour's being given as of eight also), and in one of 1580 of 



116 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

speak in reference to the debt due to Colonel Stuart for his 
past services rendered to these Lands, and since he could not 
very well lay that matter before them in a speech, he intimated 
that he has drawn up a statement in writing, which he had 



five Balfour's regiment being stated in the same list as consisting of eighteen 
(Renom de France). In one document the establishment of his regiment as 
from ist March 1579 to April i8th, 1581 is given as ten companies, of which one 
was latterly commanded by Patton, and in December 1586 the command of 
the Scottish companies was re-arranged, Barthold Balfour being given ten and 
Patton four. Stewart's final settlement with the States in 1593 was made for five 
companies, apparently the strength of the regiment on passing from the employ- 
ment of the associated provinces to that of the Northern Union in 1579. 

Stewart apparently married when serving in Flanders, for in noticing some of 
the good things that fell into the hands of the foreign adventurers, Lettenhove 
says, *Le Colonel Stuart obtient la main de la veuve du Comte de Manderscheidt. ' 
He afterwards married, in Scotland, the widow of Halkett of Pitfirrane. 

Mr. James Melville descrfbes Colonel Stewart as ' a pensioner of the Prior of 
St. Andrews ' ; and Calderwood says that, having been a colonel in Flanders, he 
was ' brought home and in credit with the king by the Earl of Cowrie's moyen, 
of purpose to counterpace the greatness and credit of James Stewart, Earl of 
Arran.' When the Duke of Lennox approached Edinburgh in November 1582, 

* Colonel Stewart, with the men of war lately taken up, watched in the abbey.' 
He went on an embassy to England in 1583, and subsequently accompanied king 
James in the sudden move to St. Andrews which emancipated the king from the 
control of the Cowrie faction. In August 1 583 he had been made Commendator of 
Pittenweem. It was to him that the plain speaking of the Rev. David Ferguson 
was addressed in one of the interviews of the Presbyterian ministers with the king : 
' Assure yourself if yee counsell him to place and displace the nobilitie as yee 
please they will not bear it at your hands, who is but a meane man.' * The 
Colonel,' says the narrator, * stormed at first, but grew calm incontinent.' The 
Commendator of Dunfermline is said to have sent him a purse with thirty gold 
pieces. The colonel informed the king, and gave the pieces to thirty of the 
guard, who wore them in their hats as they marched from Perth to Falkland, 
with the purse upon a spear-point. In November 1583 he appeared before the 
Presbytery of Edinburgh, and ' purged himself of having carried a double message 
to England,' and in the following month an alteration was made in the coinage, 
'to get silver to Colonel Stewart to pay the waged men of war.' 

In February 1584 he was * sent to St. Andrews as a spy to entrap Mr. Andrew,' 
and alleged to the king that Andrew Melville had ' compared his mother to 
Nebuchadnezzar, who was chased from the kingdom.' He subsequently appeared 
as Melville's accuser, ' wha bruikit that name for ignominie many yeares after, 
" Wilyeam Stewart the Accusar," ' and two months later rode with some horsemen 
to arrest the Earl of Gowrie at Dundee. Upon the earl resisting he promptly 

* bringeth ordinance out of the ships,' and with the assistance of the town of 
Dundee besieged the house and secured his prisoner. On the demonstration by 
Cowrie's friends at Stirling, Stewart at once rode there with five hundred men, and 
the army of the Lords melted away. He was with the king at Dirleton in May 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 117 

handed, together with an authentic copy of the commission and 
charge given him by the King. This being in Latin was read, 
and it was found to conclude with a protestation that, in case 
of failure to pay, His Majesty would consent to grant letters 



1585, where ' they passed the time with the play of Robinhood. 5 On the return 
of the banished Lords in October, he went against them with a hastily raised 
company to Jedburgh, but fell back, rinding them too strong. At the taking of 
Stirling he * made some shew to have resisted,' and 'was followed so hardlie ' 
by Mr. James Haldane, that Haldane, * as he was laying hands on him was 
shot by the Colonel's servant. ' The king's stipulation for his life on the surrender 
of the Castle of Stirling was not assented to, and Calderwood gives this account 
of him : * Colonel Stuart was, as is constantly reported, first a cloutter of old 
shoes. He went to the Low Countries, where he served in the wars, first as 
soldier, then as a captain, at last as a colonel. He returneth home, and was 
employed by the king to apprehend any subject in any corner of the kingdom 
that the Court had any quarrel at. He wanted not likewise his reward, for he 
was gifted with the Priory of Pittenweem, and married the Lady Pitfirrane, not 
without suspicion of the murder of her former husband.' Both the Earl of 
Arran and Colonel Stewart were obnoxious to the clerical party, and the state- 
ments of the ecclesiastical historians in regard to them must be taken cum grano 
salts* Mr. James Gibson, minister of Pencaitland, had a lively interview with 
King James for having said 'he thought it had been Capt. James Stewart, 
Colonel William Stuart, and Ladie Jesabell that had long persecuted the Kirk, 
but he saw that it was the king himself, because he passed forward in that cursed 
course that they began.' In 1585 he was suspected by the English of being 
' the principal dealer in Scotland ' between King James and the Jesuits, and on 
his dismissal in the end of that year his movements were closely watched. He 
was preparing shipping ; was expected to go and serve the King of Spain ; was 
again in great favour in February, and expected to be ambassador to Denmark 
(St. Pap. Border). He had previously obtained an Act of Parliament (1584, 
c. 49) deputing a commission to the Estates, urging them to make payment 
of the arrears due to him, * having served during the space of ten or twelve 
years'; and in December 1586 he was with the King of Denmark, who was 
' urging the States to make him satisfaction for injuries and restore his wife's 
provisions.' In April 1587 he was said to be ' in great credit with the Prince of 
Parma, who had restored him to all his wife's living again.' The movements of 
his messengers were reported on. He had sent a ship for one Nisbet, and one of 
his friends had boasted that ' within two months the Colonel would himself be 
with the king at whose return other news would be known than were yet ' (Border 
Papers). But a little later it was acknowledged ' so as where we thought it was 
Colonel Stewart that had been the doer of these matters, it is Colonel Sempill 
that had been the doer with the King of Spain.' Stewart returned by Den- 
mark, and kept himself very quiet, but in the eventful year 1588 was credited 
with ' very boldly and openly ' urging King James to accept the King of Spain's 
offers, and declaring that he would ' find more dalliance than gain ' from Eng- 
land. ' But it is said that the king's answer hath little pleased him * (Border 
Papers). In 1588 Lord Huntly, then in favour, recommended his restoration as 



118 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

of marque ; he, nevertheless, not having any intention to break 
any point or clause of the accord and treaty of peace existing 
between His Majesty and the Lands. Whereto the reply was 
promptly given that he had addressed himself to the wrong 
quarter, and that he ought to apply to the States-General, to 



Captain of the Guard, and he was specially mentioned along with Lord Huntly 
as one of ' the papists and apostates which shall happen to resort to Court or to 
the town of Edinburgh,' who were to be proceeded against by order of the 
Assembly^ Restored to favour, he obtained the letters of marque against the 
Dutch ships, which were to prove far more effectual than the representations of the 
monarchs of Scotland and Denmark. In 1589 he went to Denmark along with 
the Earl Marischal, the ambassador, in connection with the royal marriage, and 
was again sent to sea to search for the Queen's fleet ; and in the following year 
he again took over a ship to bring the King and Queen home. In 1590 he * took 
^"500 from the Queen of England to the King of Scots,' and went as ambassador 
to 'the partes of Almany,' and in 1591 had a lawsuit with John Shairp of 
Houston. In 1592 an act was passed acknowledging * his great services in 
foreign parts,' and he was warded in the castle because * the Queen used him as 
an instrument to disgrace the chancellor.' He was again, in August I59 2 > warded 
in reference to an accusation brought by him against the Laird of Spynie, who 
' offered the single combat,' for which a day was assigned. In 1593 he went on 
an embassy to Holland, and succeeded in getting his claims settled, and on 
1 9th December he was present at one of Mr. Robert Bruce's sermons. In 1596 
he received a commission of lieutenancy in the Highlands and Islands, obtained 
authority in August to levy 1000 men, and in November reported his proceedings 
in Kintyre. In January 1597 it was reported that 'the king would have him 
Constable of Dumbarton,' and in 1598 he acted on a commission for erecting 
towns in the Highlands, went as ambassador to Denmark, and was one of the 
' undertakers for the Lewis.' P. C, Reg. , passim. 

His son, Frederick Stewart, was created Lord Pittenweem in 1609, but died 
without issue. 

The substantial question between Colonel Stewart and the Estates was as to 
whether the Northern Union was liable for all the arrears, including those for 
services to the whole United Netherlands, in the campaigns in the time of Don 
John of Austria. The States contended that the Colonel had had a commission 
from Holland and Zealand in 1576 as a captain, that after the Pacification of 
Ghent he had been commissioned by those States 'among others,' and that 
afterwards he' was in the service of the States-General of the other provinces, 
from whom he received his colonel's commission. They complained also that 
he demanded payment of Colonel Patton's debt, who had betrayed Gueldres. 

The ultimate arrangement was that Stewart was to give up his claims for 
services beyond the Meuse, reserving his action against the other provinces, to 
demand nothing for services prior to March 1579, to assign certain claims 
which he and his officers had for the period from 1st March 1579 to the date 
when 'they were licensed,' which the States might recover from the reconciled 
provinces, to surrender the letters of marque, and to deliver the ' record made 
at Delft in January 1581,' and the States to pay him 56,000 florins. 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 119 

which his commission was addressed ; that it was not in order 
to produce a protestation of that kind here. Notwithstanding 
lie persisted, saying that his orders included a special instruc- 
tion that, in case the States-General were not in Session, he 
was to address himself to the Council of State, and he wished 
to show this instruction, and desiring that his declarations 
should at all events be taken down in writing and minuted. 
Which the Council refused, being unwilling to take any cog- 
nisance of it. Whereupon he desired Captain Blayr, and two 
other persons who had entered with him, to bear witness of 
how he had done his duty, and of how he had been treated ; 
and on that footing he left. The secretary Zuylen being sent 
to the States- General to inform them of it, reported that he 
found nobody there. 

Thursday, August 25. A summary was given of the 
copy of a mandate brought here to this chamber some days 
ago by a Herald of the King of Scotland, and of how he 
received his dismissal, and the matter was taken up at a 
meeting of the States-General, where it was in place, and also 
the resolution taken thereanent by the S tates- General : it was 
agreed, as to said nobleman, that all the documents that can 
be got that are in anyway connected with the accounts of 
Colonel Stuart are to be placed in the hands of the Lord 
Chancellor, so that a reply to His Majesty thereanent may be 
drawn up, in which, above all, it is to be proved that the 
Herald in his procedure has greatly exceeded the powers given 
him by His Majesty, that also the States of these Provinces 
are not aware that they owe anything to Stuart, and should it 
be the case that they owe him anything, he should take legal 
proceedings to recover it (a refusal of which was never made, 
though His Majesty's mandate is founded on that), and no 
potentate or prince could, so long as the war was going on, 
fully satisfy the soldiers' claims of arrears, nor had any of 
them up to this time consented to grant open reprisals or 
letters of marque, that they prayed His Majesty, in this acting 
according to the true Christian religion, not to grant them, 
... as shall be more fully and minutely fixed and resolved in 
the Council, nevertheless they agreed to summon the Assistant 
of the said Herald, and inform him of the irregular procedures 



120 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

of the said Herald ; and that he had as little requested audi- 
ence of the States-General as caused them to assemble for that 
business ; that he would have been well received both by them 
and as well by this Council. 

Van der VocMs proposed visit to Scotland. 

1588, Tuesday, September 27. Mr. Lenert van der Voecht, 
Pensionary of Delft, having been summoned and appeared, 
was informed that, in spite of the written representations of 
his principals, he cannot be excused, and he was requested and 
ordered, accordingly, to prepare himself for the journey to 
Scotland with all diligence, the business being of great import 
to the Lands; and after consultation it was agreed, on the 
advice of Advocate Barneveldt, that he is to go by way of Eng- 
land ; and the Agent Ortel is to be charged to assist him there, 
and to travel with him to Scotland, so that together they 
may bring matters to a favourable issue; and the Recorder 
Aerssens is ordered to seek for, and extract from the registers 
of the previous business of the allied States, all such minutes 
and duplicates as may have some reference, and be of service, 
to the said business with Scotland, to prevent the issue 
of the letters of marque; and similar orders shall be given 
to the Recorder of Holland, de Rechtere ; for which purpose, 
likewise, the Master of Accounts, de Bye, and Advocate van 
der Necke, might also be heard and examined as to their 
knowledge of past transactions, as they were at that time 
Deputies of Holland and Zeeland in the Assembly of the 
Allied States. 

Resumption of the business of Colonel Stuart. 

Friday, September 30, afternoon. Minutes were read in 
reference to the business of Jan de Jonge, Scotsman, agent of 
Colonel Stuart, and the advice of the Advocate Barneveldt 
having been communicated by Counsellor Valck, it was resolved 
to summon said Scotsman to the Cleves chamber next to the 
CounciPs, and inquire of him through their notary and wit- 
nesses, in presence of Secretary Zuylen, whether he does not 
possess, in addition to the mere copies handed in by him, 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 121 

some original, authentic, or other copies of the obligations, 
accounts, or specifications whereby the said Stewart might 
authenticate his pretended arrears for services alleged to have 
been rendered to the Lands, and whether he would be willing 
to produce the same. Also thereafter again to try and per- 
suade him to take to the King the letters written by the 
Council containing a full reply to all the requests made by 
His Majesty's Herald in regard to the said pretended arrears : 
the said notary was instructed to draw up in writing, from the 
answers of Jan de Jonge, a statement thereanent, with inser- 
tions of all documents that the said agent has already delivered, 
or may yet hand in. 

October 1. Resolved that Mr. Voocht, who shall travel to 
the Majesty of Scotland, may take with him three servants, 
and that there shall be given to him one thousand guilders for 
travelling money, and an act of security that he shall be freed 
in case of captivity. 



1588-1589. First Report of Pensionary de Voocht, sent to 
England in connection with the case of Colonel Stuart. 

HONOURABLE, NOBLE, WISE, LEARNED, MOST PRUDENT SIR : In accord- 
ance with the charge and Commission given me by the, my Lords 
Councillors of State, on the part of your Highness, I, Leonard Voocht, 
Pensionary of the town of Delft, on October 18th last travelled from the 
Hague to Zeeland, and after having waited there, in the town of Middel- 
burg, for favourable winds, betook myself on the 29th of the same month 
to England, where I arrived at the Foreland, on the last day of the 
month, and having taken the ordinary post to Marigat [Margate?], I 
entered the city of London on the 2nd November, and after I had 
addressed myself to Mr. Ortel, and shown him my aforesaid charge and 
Commission, went next day in pursuance thereof, accompanied by the 
said Mr. Ortel, to the house of Mr. Douglas, the King of Scotland's 
ambassador to the Queen of England, and there I handed over to him 
the letters of Your Hon., and informed him very fully of the situation of 
the business of Colonel Stuart, together with his pretended [arrears]. I 
also showed my further orders to repair to Scotland, and on behalf of the 
States to kiss His Majesty's hands, also personally to inform His Majesty 
of the said business in such a manner, that the connived-at execution of 
the letters of marque granted to Coloiiel Stuart might be averted from 
the states and that all good friendship and unity between His Majesty 
and the States might be preserved. Whereupon His Excellency declared 



122 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

that he, having been informed some time ago by Mr. Ortel of the situa- 
tion of the said business, had notified His Majesty about it, who in 
a certain missive of September 14th last (which His Excellency showed 
us) had charged him to declare to the said Mr. Ortel, that nothing 
would be more pleasing to His Majesty than to maintain all good friend- 
ship with the States ; but that His Majesty could not shut his eyes to the 
manifold complaints, made not only by the said Colonel Stuart, but also 
by many others, and among them divers widows and unfortunate people 
who had risked their persons and lives in the service of the States, that 
some citation be granted in virtue of which Your Hon. might be 
summoned to give some satisfaction to the persons aforesaid ; charging, 
however, the said Mr. Douglas to settle the matter by the best measures 
possible. But when, on the contrary, I had shown that from various 
reasons, the States, and especially those of Holland and Zeeland, were 
not involved in the said debts ; and that I was not the least in the world 
authorised to enter into any composition or agreement about them, but 
only to offer remonstrance to His Majesty in regard to the great wrong 
done by Stuart, His Excellency declared that if I had no other charge 
from Your Highness to the King of Scotland, it would be unnecessary 
at this time of the year to proceed on the journey to Scotland. But that 
His Majesty, on being rightly informed by letter of the reasons adduced 
by me, would, doubtless, suspend the execution of the said letters of 
marque ; and to that end His Excellency also in fact offered to write to 
His Majesty, but, as I explained, I was minded to give effect to Your 
Highness's commission, and so for that day I took leave of His 
Excellency. 

On the 4th of the same month, accompanied as before, I waited on 
Lord Borlay [Burleigh], First Lord of the Treasury, and Lord Walsyngam, 
first secretary of Her Majesty, etc., ... I very earnestly requested their 
Lordships graciously to use their best endeavours, that in furtherance of 
my intended journey to Scotland Her Majesty might grant me suitable 
letters, both of passport, and especially of petition, to the King of 
Scotland, so that, by Her Majesty's intercession, the execution of the 
said letters of marque, wherewith the States were threatened so unjustly, 
might be averted from them. 

This having been promised me by their Lordships, thereafter, on the 
6th of the said month, Lord Walsirigam requested me to put the 
principal points and motives, in justification of the States against the 
pretensions of Stuart, into writing, in order that having been handed to 
their Lordships they might be communicated to Her Majesty, and that 
a resolution might be arrived at concerning them such as Her Majesty 
might find most serviceable to the interests of the country. In accord- 
ance with this request, I arranged the said points in writing, and 
delivered them to His Lordship on the 7th of the same month, and also 
strongly recommended him to lose no time in the matter. 

Having been summoned on the 9th to Court, Lord Walsingam there 
announced to me the resolution of Her Majesty and of the Counsellors 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 123 

of Her Majesty, regarding the said points handed in : namely, that Her 
Majesty having perceived that Colonel Stuart was in the wrong, had 
resolved to write with her own hand a strong letter to the King, in order 
that the connived-at execution of the said letters of marque might be 
cancelled and suspended ; that also the members of the Council had 
earnestly charged His Lordship to write to Mr. Absky [Wm. Asheby], 
Ordinary Ambassador of Her Majesty to the King in Scotland, with full 
instructions to remonstrate to His Majesty about the wrong done by the 
said Stuart ; and that I should abandon my proposed journey till the King 
of Scotland should answer the said letters of Her Majesty and should 
have declared his intention regarding the remonstrance of the said 
Ambassador, not doubting that the King would come to such a resolu- 
tion as to said matter that the States need expect to suffer no loss or 
prejudice from the said Colonel Stuart. 

On the same day I had also access to Her Majesty, and after I had, 
with all due respect, on behalf of your Highnesses, kissed Her Majesty's 
hands, I briefly recounted the principal causes of my embassy to Scotland 
and very sincerely thanked Her Majesty for her good resolution adopted 
regarding it, announced to me by Lord Walsingam on behalf of Her 
Majesty, and I declared that I would, nevertheless, fain proceed on the 
said journey ; especially because the King of Scotland had been in- 
formed of my coming, and it was plain the postponement thereof might 
cause some dissatisfaction to the King of Scotland, and be of disadvan- 
tage and prejudice to the States. Thereupon it was declared by Her 
Majesty that the King of Scotland might well forbear to bestow a single 
execution of letters of marque in favour of one individual as against Her 
Majesty's friends and allies^ and that Her Majesty had expressed all that 
very strongly in a letter written with her own hand. Nor did I omit to 
remonstrate with Her Majesty on the condition of the town of Bergen-op- 
Zoom, etc. ... As to that, Her Majesty declared that the Council had 
issued foolish orders in the business referred to. And therewith having 
taken leave of Her Majesty, the following day we came to Court with the 
said Mr. Ortel to talk over with Mr. Bodsley and Walsingam the business 
of the powder. Lord Walsingam handed to us the letters from your 
Highnesses to the King of Scotland, despatched by Jasper the messenger, 
and stopped at Barwyck, and conveyed back to Her Majesty at Court. 
And after we had given orders about the discharge of the said messenger, 
I waited on the said Mr. Duglas on November 10th, and communicated to 
His Excellency the resolution of Her Majesty and also the duplicate of 
the said points, requesting that His Excellency might kindly add to his 
letters the letters of your Highnesses addressed to the King of Scotland ; 
all the duplicates, both of the said points concerning the case of Stuart, 
and of a certain memorial concerning the case of the Earl of Orkenan, 
and to despatch for the purpose a special messenger, in order that he 
might be sure to hand them to His Majesty, that, from the contents, His 
Majesty might be fully informed of the circumstances of both the cases 
mentioned. That also His Excellency might be pleased to write to 



124 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

certain of the principal gentlemen of the Council of His Majesty, who are 
well disposed to the States, with assurances that the States would not 
neglect in a fitting time and way to recognise the said service of His 
Excellency. His Excellency, in pursuance of this, appointed a certain 
Nobleman specially for the purpose, and sent him to Scotland on 12th 
November with all the said letters. Of all which I have not neglected to 
advise Your Highnesses. In the meantime, having received certain infor- 
mation that full commission and instruction had not been granted 
either to the'Lord General Noreitz [Norris], or to Mr. Bothley to give 
the Lands proper satisfaction regarding the said points as to which redress 
was previously sought verbally by me on behalf of your Highnesses both 
from Her Majesty and from the Lords of the Council ; that, likewise, 
the actions of Your Highnesses are very basely misrepresented to Her 
Majesty, both in regard to Colonel Schenck, etc. . . . And having 
heard, on December 6th, that Her Majesty had received letters from the 
King of Scotland, I requested through Lord Walsingam that I might 
have access to Her Majesty, both to hear the reply of the King of Scot- 
land to the letters of Her Majesty, and to bring certain matters to the 
notice of Her Majesty on behalf of Your Highnesses touching the state of 
the country. Having been admitted on the 8th of the same month, Her 
Majesty declared to me that it was unnecessary to proceed on the said 
journey to Scotland, that the King of Scotland had suspended the 
execution of the letters of marque, that Her Majesty would not allow 
such ways of procedure against Her Majesty's allies, that the King of 
Scotland, at least, would certainly abstain from granting them against 
the States, without Her Majesty's foreknowledge and consent. Whereof, 
after I had profusely thanked Her Majesty on behalf of Your Highnesses 
I delivered to Her Majesty, etc. 

Having been summoned on December llth to Mr. Douglas, His 
Excellency informed me that he had heard from the King by letter, that 
His Majesty was expecting me, that my coming would be very agreeable 
to His Majesty, and that His Majesty would give the States all proper 
satisfaction ; but that His Majesty could not comprehend how that could 
be brought about by the intercession of Her Majesty of England, or of 
any one else, telling me, moreover, the King of Scotland had been highly 
offended at the messenger being stopped at Berwick, who was sent by 
Your Highnesses to His Majesty, also at the letters addressed to His 
Majesty being taken out of the hands of the said messenger and sent 
back to the Court here, and that His Excellency had been ordered to 
remonstrate about the injustice thereof to Her Majesty, or to Her 
Majesty's Councillors. Accordingly, I made all possible and formal pre- 
parations to proceed on the said journey, and by letter informed Lord 
Walsingam, who was at the Court at Greenwich, both of the above noti- 
fication made by Mr. Douglas on behalf of the King of Scotland, and of 
my intention to proceed on the said journey at the first opportunity, in 
accordance with the expectation of the said King and the command of 
Your Highnesses. I very earnestly entreated his Lordship that he would 



1589] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 125 

graciously intercede with Her Majesty, that, for prosecuting the said 
journey, proper letters of passport and recommendation might be granted 
me, in order that all further inconveniences might be prevented, which 
by longer delay and postponement of the said journey might be caused 
to the detriment of the States. 

Having come to Court on the 16th, to ask for the resolution of Her 
Majesty regarding the aforesaid missive, I was informed by Lord Wal- 
singam, that his Lordship had communicated the said missive to Her 
Majesty and the members of the council, but that as yet Her Majesty 
had taken no resolution regarding it, that he would not neglect to hasten 
it on, and to inform me immediately thereof by some of his servants. 
Next on the 18th December, Mr. Barford, first clerk of his Lordship, 
came to me, and informed me that Her Majesty, for certain reasons which 
influenced Her Majesty, could not see why the said journey should be un- 
dertaken. That Her Majesty would again write in strong terms to the 
King of Scotland ; that the States need not look for any difficulty ; also that 
she would write to Your Highnesses for my discharge and the withdrawal 
of my commission. And as on the same day I had been very earnestly re- 
quested, and Mr. Ortel likewise, by the Earl of Essex to come and visit his 
Lordship the following day at Court. Accordingly, being then at Court, 
and Mr. Ortel being present, I asked Lord Walsingam himself about the 
said resolution of Her Majesty, and he declared that Her Majesty's resolu- 
tion was exactly that communicated to us on the previous day by his clerk, 
and showed us a certain missive, minuted by his Lordship in English, 
which was to be sent to the King of Scotland, the contents of which, Mr. 
Ortel declared were written very much to the point, but I could not 
obtain a copy of it. And after his Lordship had made certain statements 
to me, especially regarding the excessively great expenses borne by Her 
Majesty since the Treaty, where through Her Majesty had exposed her 
state to great risk, and after, in reply, I brought forward other 
arguments, thereupon I took leave of his Lordship. And on the follow- 
ing day I waited on Mr. Douglas, and earnestly requested His Excellency 
to be so good as oblige the States and Your Highnesses, by making 
excuse to His Majesty for our delay in the letters of His Excellency. In 
order that Your Highnesses, being advised thereof, might issue such 
orders as the circumstances of the case, and the rendering of satisfaction 
to His Majesty might be found to require. Accordingly we drew up a 
certain letter, and despatched it along with the letters of His Excellency 
to Scotland on the 24th, by a certain Nobleman appointed for the purpose 
by Mr. Douglas. His Majesty's reply thereto is still expected. 

And so to Mr. Ortel on the 28th were delivered, etc. . . . 

On January 9th Mr. Douglas informed me that His Excellency had 
received letters from Scotland from the first clerk of His Majesty, to 
whom His Excellency had recommended the affairs of Your Highnesses. 
That the King had resolved to give Your Highnesses every reasonable 
satisfaction ; and that the letters for that purpose would have been 
despatched, but that, on account of some obstacle placed in the way by 



126 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589 

Colonel Stuart, they, as well as the nobleman of Mr. Douglas, are yet 
detained. He did not doubt, however, but that His Majesty would 
persist in the resolution he had taken, and, at least, defer the precognitions 
on both sides in the affair till a suitable opportunity. He also deemed it 
was unnecessary for me to wait for the said despatches, especially as, in any 
case, the journey to Scotland could not be promoted from any quarters, 
but that the said despatches would be addressed to your Highnesses ; or 
in case they should be sent to His Excellency, that His Excellency would 
not fail to hand them over to Mr. Ortel to be despatched immediately by 
express messenger to Your Highnesses ; according to which advice I have 
thought it right to regulate my conduct, and hasten on my return to these 
quarters ; the more because My Lords the Councillors of State had 
recalled me by their letters of November 28th last. And because Lord 
Walsingam, having sent me on January llth the reply of Her Majesty 
to the aforesaid points delivered by me on December 8th last to Her 
Majesty, likewise my passports and other despatches addressed on the 
part of Her Majesty to Your Highnesses, earnestly entreated me to set 
out on my journey to our parts and procure from Your Highnesses that 
the promised assistance agreed to by your Highnesses the 20th January, 
stilo anglice, to further the projected voyage to Portugal, might be kept in 
readiness, lest by longer delay any detriment to the said voyage might 
occur. To this Messrs. Noreitz [Norris] and Draech [Drake] respec- 
tively exhorted me daily very earnestly, so leaving London on the 15th 
inst., I arrived in Zeeland on the 18th. And after I had there with the 
states of Zeeland discussed certain points, recommended to me by the 
Council of Her Majesty, I arrived here on the 25th. 

All which, Right Honourable, Noble, Wise, Learned and Most 
Prudent Sir, is what was transacted by me in England with Her Majesty, 
both regarding the case of Colonel Stuart and in respect of the points 
delivered to me as instruction at headquarters. 

Dated at Delft, January 25th, 1589. l 

(s.) LEONARD VOOCHT. 

ANN EX A 
A 

Articles exhibes a Mess le Grand Thesaurier et De Walsyngem le 9 de 
Novembre 1588 ; le double desquels sont envoyes vers le Roy d'Ecosse le 
12 du diet moys. 

Que le Colonnel Guillaume Stouart est venu environ Tan XV C LXXIV 
es provinces d'Hollande et Zelande sans service ou charge, et que par les 
geurs Estats des dits Pais, a la requeste du S r Ortell, par recommandation, 
du feu S r Eduard Chester, luy a este accorde' et paye pour son entretien- 
nement traictement de XXV florins par mois. 



1 On Dec. 3Oth, 1588, Roger Aston wrote from Edinburgh, that 'the king was 
much offended at the stay of the ambassador from the Low Countries.' Cal. of 
St. Pap. Scotland. 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 127 

Que puis le d fc Stouart estant pourveu par les dits S rs Estats d'Hollande 
et Zelande de commission de Cap ne d'une compaignie de gens de 
pied, en 1'an XV C LXXVI, apres la pacification a Gent, par les dits S rs 
Estats a este licentie entre aultres, et du tout satisfaict de ses services 
passees. 

Depuis cela le dit Stouart s'est donne en service des Estats generaulx 
des aultres Provinces et a receu d'iceulx commission de Coloimel sur 
quelques compaignies Ecossoises, desquelles services pour le present sont 
praetenduz par le dit Stouart et ses complices les dits arrierages. 

Que ceulx d'Hollande et Zelande au mesme temps ont faict subside 
aulz d s Estats des aultres Provinces de XXV compaignies d'Infanterye 
et V c chevaulx a leurs despens, sans qu'en regard de la generaulte ils ont 
este tenuz ou obligez en aulcunes oulterieures charges de guerre. 

Si que le dit Stouart debvroit legitimement demander et pourchasser 
le pavement de ses arrierages pretendus et non par voyes extraordinaires 
de repressailles ou de constringer les dits pays par aultres voyes inde- 
centes a satisfaction. 

Qu'oncques au dit Stouart par les dits S rs Estats du pays a este refuse 
droict ny Justice. Rien estre vray que le dit Stouart a aultre fois par 
requeste et puis aprez le Roy d'Escosse par importunite d'Iceluy faict 
interpeller par le Conservateur de la nation Ecossoise, demeurant a 
Quandfeu [Campvere] en Zelande, les dits Seigneurs Estats du pays a cause 
du dit payement ; mais qu'estant sur cela par les dits S rs Estats rescribe 
en pensoit au meme temps avoir donne deu contentement a sa Maj t6 . De 
sorte que la dite requisition et interpellation respective a este seulement 
extra indiciatis, laquelle n'a peu constituer les d s S rs Estats en ung cas de 
si grande importance in mora. 

Signament d'aultant que la voye de justice a touiours este ouverte au d fc 
Stouart laquelle les d ts S rs Estats mesmes obeissent Joinct que les debtes 
praetendues illiquides et qu'au d* Colonnel Stouart ne compete que rata 
emeriti stipendii et aulx aultres Cap nes et souldats leur portion a 
1'advenant. 

Que la plus part des d ts Souldats et aulcuns des d ts Cap nes sont morts, 
enfuys ou encores presentement en actuel service du pays et que 
solemnelement ils ont promis de ne refuser aux d ts pays aulcun service 
a causes des dites arrierages. 

Et quand bien les debtes pouroyent estre entierement liquides (ce 
qu'on soutient que non) que toutefois on debvroit faire surcheance du 
payement jusques a la fin de la guerre. 

D'aultant que les plus puissants Roys, Princes et Republicques sont 
reliquatores et continuent journelement de beaucoup de millions a cause 
des guerres menees ou par eulx mesmes ou leurs praedecesseurs (si, 
qu'encores aujourdhuy le payement de pareilles arrierages par iceulx est 
diffe're'. 

Et encores qu'on le vouldroit prendre a toutes extremitez si estre que 
ceulx d'Hollande et Zelande seroient de leur coste reduables au payement 
des d s debtes non plus que leur contigent ne porte. II est a presupposer 



128 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 

que le payement des d es praetenses ensemble 1'execution des d es repre- 
sailles, en ces conjuctures est procure a 1'instigation du Prince de Parma 
et aultres semblables tant secrets que publicqs ennemis de la cause com- 
mune, Ann de contraindre les d 8 pays de se de'fendre extraordinairement 
a 1'encontre des proce'dures extraordinaires et si irraisonnables, et 
employer leurs vassaulx de guerres tant a 1'encontre la puissance des 
ennemis que particulierement centre iceulx qui vouldroyent empescher 
la negociation par mer. 

Par ou non seulement seroyent empesches le service de Sa Ma t6 et 
retarde touts aultres bonnes actions, mais aussy les moyens des pays 
(lesquels par le regard des charges ordinaires des guerres pre'sentes n'en 
ont que trop a porter) dissipez, au grand praejudice des bons inhabitants 
du diet pays et oulterieure ruyne de leur present estat. 

Que les d s procedures se facent a 1'instigation, ou pour le moins par 
praeadvertance des ennemis communs, cela ce peult appercevoir ou con- 
jecturer par diverses circumstances. Veu que le dit Stouart laisse 
entierement immoleste les autres Provinces, comme Brabant, Flandres, 
Artoys, Haynault, Malines etc., des dictes praetenses; nonobstant que 
les d es Provinces ayent principalement contracte avec luy et que luy 
mesme par diverses fois depens n'aguerres s'y est trouve. 

Et sans aulcung respect et honneur, avance a demander entre aultres 
la debte du Cap ne Paton, lequel (contre le serment preste au d fc pays) a 
meschamment trahy et rendu es mains de 1'ennemy la bonne ville de 
Geldre. 

Pareillement sera a considerer que la citation n'aguerres faicte de la 
part du Roy d'Escosse a 1'instance du diet Stuart par certain herault n'a 
este exploicte si debuement comme il appartient. 

A cause qu'icelle debvroit estre faicte aulx Estats gene'raulx, avecq 
lesquels le S r Stouart principalement avoit traicte, lesquels estats au 
temps de la d te citation n'estoyent assemblez. 

Que le diet herault au moins cut deu attendre 1'assemblee des d s S rs 
Estats et a eulx mesmes debuement faire 1'exploicte de la d e execution. 

San proceder par affichement de d te citation a la chambre du Conseil, 
ou d'user aultres voyes extraordinaires, soubs praetexte du nom et Cou- 
verture du Roy, pour causer esmotion emmy le peuple. 

Qu'aussy le d fc he'rault desalors debvroit exhiber le contrait ou obliga- 
tion praetendue par le d fc Stouart ou pour le moins copie authentique 
d'icelle, afin que les S rs Estats les ayant veus y eussent peu prendre telle 
resolution qu'ilz trouveroynt convenir selon 1'exigence du faict. 

Specialement d'aultant que ceulx du pays declarent qu'ilz ne scavent 
parler d'aulcun contract ny obligation gene'rale ny particuliere, ou bien 
qu'avecq le d fc Stouart on aye faicte contract ou passe obligation a son 
proufit, et encores qu'il n'en pourroit avoir, que les memoires et papier 
sont demeurez au pays de Brabant. 

Si que sur les raisons sus dictes et signament qu'il n'est en la puissance 
du d fc pays de payer tels praetenses extroyues, sans ruiner totalement le 
praesent Estat d'iceulx, il plaira a voz S ies d'y prendre tel regard, que par 



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 129 

intercession et authorite de sa Ma te les d s repressailles comminatoires 
decernees sur la requisition subiective du dt Stouart soyent du tout 
divertiz, si bien des Estats Generaulx, que especialement de ceulx 
d'Hollande, Zelande et leurs inhabitans en particulier. 



B 

Copie de la lettre de sa Maieste, envoye au S. Roy d'Ecosse le 10 de Nouembre, 

stylo AngL 

My deere care for yo hono and good estate (my deere brother) per- 

mittes me not to overslip anie cause wherein I suppose anie deminution 

to fall to either and driven by a good grounde it will not dislike yo (I 

make me suer) if I write to yo my mynde in such a case. And this it 

is the States of the Lowe Countries, whom you are not ignorant I have 

and do aide to keepe them in breathe from the extreame ruyii that is 

ment them, finde themselves sorly agree ved that at this tyme of theire 

greate neede to releive their owne danger theire countries losse and 

theire continuwall well nighe importable charges, yo that professe the free 

religion and proteste such inwarde affection to advance that cause cannot 

finde in your harte so greate neglecte of them and their wantes as at 

this season so out of season for them to make claime of debts owinge to 

yo subiectes which when I hearde I could do no lesse then make it knowen 

into yo (my deere brother) how sory I was to heare of such a preposition 

togeither with the menace of Ires of marc if not spedeler it were not 

answered. Consider I beseeche you of yo dealinges in this sorte how 

yo shall wound yo frendes glad yo foes and wronge your self; who 

will believe that yo passe of religion that suffer the professo to perrisse ; 

who will suppose that your amitie is founde to me when yo afflirte my 

parte ; nay I praie God the enemy who careth for neither of us, maketh 

not skorne of our frendship as thinckinge it full faint and feeble. I 

meane not herby that it is not reason for a Kinge to righte his subiectes 

wronge and to procuer in time conveniant suche seemelike remedies as 

maie fitt his place and helpe his vassails losse. But the moste of this 

consists in the time and for the persons. Ffor as yo shall perceive a 

great some of this greate valewe is not theire debte, but of other countries 

and captaines whom theie rule not, according as at length my seruant 

hathe in charge to tell you with my moste affectuous desier and earnest 

request that you more regarde the cause and time then anie private sub fc 

sute. And that it maie please you alle theise thinges well waighed to 

surceaste anie preparation that might make shewe to annoye. Albeit I 

doubt not but theie mighte defende themselves againste a farre greater 

force. Yett lett no man say that by yo hande theie be afflicted that have 

miserie enough. And this I ende with my moste affectionate petition, 

that theise lynes maie be considered accordinge to the harte that writes 

them, who never ceaseth to praie for your beste, as God is witness. By 

yd moste affeconate sister and cosen. ELIZABETH REGINA. 

I 



130 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588 



Copie de la lettre envoy e au Ser. Roy de Ecosse, le 14 Dec. S. A. 1588 

SIRE, Nous ne faisons doubte que V. Ma t6 soit plus que suffisamment 
informe tant par les Ires des S rs du Conseil d'Estat des Provinces unies du 
pais has, que par les memoires quelques jours passez par nous envoyez, par 
le moyen du S r Ambassadeur de Votre Ma t6 Mr. Duglas, avecq quel tort 
le Colonnel Stuart, si bien en son nom prive comme aultres (praetendants 
arrierages des services faictes aulx S rs Estats gnralx des dits provinces) 
avoit obtenu de vre Ma w Ires de represailles pour non seulement par 
icelles executer leurs injustes praetenses, mais aussij particulierement 
susciter des malentenduz entre votre Royalle Ma te et ceulx du d fc pays, 
qu'oncques n'ont desire aultre chose, qu'en temps et lieu convenable 
faire paraistre a vre Ma t6 1'envie qu'ilz ont de faire a icelle et son Estat 
tous humbles et fideles services. 

Et combien qu'avions (suyvant la charge a eu nous donnee) expresse'- 
ment delibere voire appreste et aller trouver et baiser les mains de vre 
Royale Ma t6 , si bien au nom de noz dits superieurs qu'en nre particulier 
ensemble plus specificquement 1'informer si bien de 1'Estat des dits 
affaires comme aussi de faire oulterieur ouverture de nre charge. 

Si estre toutefois que nre dicte venue et singulier desir a este differe 
iusques a ceste heure contraire toute expectation pour des causes que 
nous ne scaurions repeter, mais vre Ma t6 pourra entendre si bien par Ires 
de la Reyne d'Angleterre, comme particulierement par le d ct S r 
Ambassadeur. 

Tout nonobstant n'avons obmis d'aduerter les d fcs S rs Estats en toute 
diligence du succes de noz aifaires, comme aussy particulierement de la 
retenue le leur messagier et Ires a Berwyck, si que pour le present ne 
pourions que suppleerl vre Ma t6 tres humblement (qu'ayant esgard a 
1'acquite de la cause principale et present estat des d s pays, ensemble a 
la singuliere affection qu'ils ont tousjours porte et portent envers son 
service, comme aussy a notre d s retardement ; II luy plaise de sa grace 
effectuelement et absolument faire descharger et annuchiller les d s re- 
presailles avecq 1'execution d'icelles, pour le moins pour tel terme de six 
ou huict mois que les d s S rs Estat y pouvans mestre ordre convenable 
d'ung coste et vre Ma t<5 estre plus suffisamment informee de la verite de 
1'aultre, tous malentenduz puissent estre assarejuz et d'icy en avant 
estre vre Ma w et le diet pays toute bonne et inviolable union, corre- 
spondance et amitie, taut plus aussy que les d s S ies par ceste faveur 
puissent tant mieulx estre encouragez en temps et lieu (et quand quelque 
bonne occasion se pourroit presenter) de faire a vre Ma te en son par- 
ticulier et a son Estat en genal des bons et signalz services, nullement a 
comparer a iceulx de personnes particulieres. 

Au reste, ayants entendu par le diet S r Ambassadeur le bon plaisir de 
vre Ma t6 touchant le batteau de guerre du comte d' Orcnay ne fauldrons 
incontinent procurer des d s S rs Estats la restitution d'iceluy, ensemble 



1589] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 131 

le renvoy des prisonniers, soubs ferme confiance que vre Ma t6 mesme 
disposera d'iceulx comme icelle par les circumstances du faict et de la 
teneur de leur confession en acquite et justice trouvera convenir, mo- 
yennant que par le d* S r Comte soit premierement donne acte de descharge 
qu'a cause de la prinse du d fc batteau il ne fera ny consentira estre faicte 
aulx d ts pays ou a leurs inhabitans aulcune oulterieure recherche moins 
d'aulcunes petites meubles si quelques ungs a la prinse du d* batteau 
pourroyent defaillir Estans baisans tres humblement les mains de vre 
Royale Ma te et attendans etc. 

D 

Letter of Queen Elizabeth to the General States on account of 
Scottish affairs. 

Messieurs nos bons Amys, L'estat present de nos affaires qui lie vous 
sont point incongneuz, nous a faict appeller le S r Ortel pour luy communi- 
quer quelques occasions importantes pour faire remettre le voyage de luy et 
du S re de Vooch votre Commissaire pour Escosse a un aultre temps plus 
propice. Ce que toutefois nous n' avons faict ung soing qu' avons du bien 
des affaires tant du Roy notre bon frere que des votres, avecq lesquelz 
nous estimons les notres conioinctz. Car nous avons desia donne charge 
expresse a notre Ambassadeur restant en Escosse de moyenner la sur- 
seance de la procedure qu'avoit encommencee centre les sujectz d'iceulx 
pays bas, le S r Guillaume Stewart, et en abolissant aussy des lettres de 
represaille que led. Stewart avoit sollicite avec toute instance. Sur 
quoy poura que led. Roy ne nous a parfaict entier refuse, ains en 
usant de quelques petites remises differer sa plaine resolution sur la venue 
de votre Commissaire en Escosse. Nous 1'avons de rechef prie de vouloir 
remettre le voyage en Escosse au printemps, a celle fin que nous 
puissions ce temps pendant tant mieulx accommoder nos affaires com- 
munes. Ce que ne faisons doubte que led. Roy notre bon frere ne 
nous accorde, comme requeste tres raisonnable, et que vous pourriez 
peult-etre avoir occasion cependant de vous servir des bons offices et 
clebvoirs du S r de Vooch, nous 1'avons bien voulu licencier pour se 
retourner vers vous requerant vouloir trouver bonne la procedure qu' 
avons tenu en la charge que vous luy avez baillee, et luy impartira de 
vos faveurs selon que ses bons debvoirs en votre service meritent. Qui 
fera 1'endroict que nous nous recommanderons bien affectionement a voz 
bonnes graces. Priant le Createur vous tienne tousiours en la sienne. 
Escript a notre Chateau de Greenwich, le xm Jour de Decembre, 1588. 

Votre bonne Amye, 

ELIZABETH R. 

1589, Wednesday, February 15. The recorder Aerssen was council of 
further informed that the Council judges it necessary that state * 
the States-General should resolve to send an embassy to Scot- 



132 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589 

land and write about the matter to Her Majesty of England. 
The said Recorder hereupon replied to Secretary Huyghens 
that the Lords States-General had resolved with reference to 
it, that Ortell [the Dutch ambassador at the Court of London], 
should remain in England, and that de Voocht and van de 
Warck should travel to Scotland. 

[On 4th March 1589-90 a commission was granted to Sir 
Robert Melville and others to c sight ' the ' instructions com- 
mission and answers returned from the Estates of the Low 
Countries of Flanders, to certain letters direct to them in 
favour of William, Commendator of Pittenweem, and others 
who served in the wars under his regiment in the said Low 
Countries, as also the instructions, etc., which are to be directed 
with Mr. John Skene, advocate, to the said Estates.' Pr* 
Co. Reg.] 

Report of Leonard Voocht and Jan de Warck, about their 
embassy to the King of Scotland. Anno 1589. Presented 
to the Meeting of the States-General of the United Nether- 
lands, on August \\th, 1590. (According to Resolution) 

REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS during the Embassy to Scotland, and of 
what was treated of and negotiated with His Majesty the King- of 
Scotland James the Sixth, by the Deputies of the States-General of 
the United Netherlands, according to the instructions given them on 
March 20th, 1589, and commissions dated April 24th of the same 
year, stilo novo. 

Inasmuch as the Lords Councillors of the Admiralty, invested with the 
charge of Zeeland had chartered two men-of-war, the one of Captain 
Legner of Flushing, and the other of Captain de Haen of Hoorn, the said 
Deputies at the same time, namely, as soon as the ships were ready, and 
the wind favourable, set sail from Flushing on May 13th, 1589, on a 
Saturday, in the afternoon about three o'clock, and after a fortunately 
prosperous voyage arrived at Leith on the 17th of the same month, 
namely on a Wednesday evening very late between nine and ten. 

Having arrived in the hotel there, we were immediately visited by the 
two ministers of that place, who came to confer with us in regard to the 
business of our embassy and other matters, and passed the evening in 
our company. And in accordance with their advice we sent the following 
day to the Provost of Edinburgh, who is also provost of the said place or 
harbour of Leith, to inform him of our arrival so that we might be pro- 
vided with a lodging. 

He expressed his pleasure at our arrival, and had us quant a quant 



1589] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 133 

provided with lodgings, namely the same where formerly Sir [P ?] Sidney, 
Ambassador of the Queen of England had been accommodated. 

Thereafter we came immediately into Edinburgh, where my lord, the 
Chancellor, did with all respect inform the King's Majesty of our arrival, 
with a view to ascertain when we might obtain audience of His Majesty. 

Thereafter on the 19th of said month His Majesty gave us to under- 
stand through Dr. Joannes Sceineus 1 that our arrival in his kingdom 
was very welcome to him, that he was glad we had had so prosperous a 
voyage, and that the following day, being the 20th, he would give us 
audience, in the afternoon at two o'clock. However His Majesty sent 
an excuse by the said Sceineus, to the effect that we could have no 
audience that day at the appointed hour, by reason of other pressing 
matters which had come up for His Majesty to deal with ; but at last, 
the 21st, being Whitsunday, was granted us, namely at five o'clock in 
the afternoon, after the sermon. 

At that time we were conducted by the said Sceineus, accompanied by 
some others, and audience was given us in the garden of the Chancellor, 
in whose house the King lodged at that time ; and that in the presence of 
all the courtiers of His Majesty, and of every one who desired to be 
present, yet in such a manner that we were heard only by the King and 
the Lord Chancellor. 

After paying due homage and respects, and on the part of the Sovereign 
States their humble commendations and proffers of all service and friend- 
ship possible, and after having delivered our credentials, which were 
read by His Majesty, we, speaking in French, disclosed to His Majesty the 
business we were charged with in the best form and manner we possibly 
could, following our commission and instruction with appended docu- 
ments, explaining besides the proposition thereauent drawn up in writing 
by ourselves. 

But although in our instruction aforesaid it was mentioned that we 
were to present to His Majesty four horses, afterwards increased to six, 
yet we neither did so, nor did we mention that we were expecting them, 
as the horses, which had been shipped in the district of North Holland, 
had not arrived, and we were totally uncertain when they might arrive. 

His Majesty replied,, also in French, to our proposition extremely well 
and wisely, just as we recorded the said reply afterwards in writing; 
His Majesty declaring, amongst other things, that he would appoint com- 
missioners who would confer with us regarding the business we were 
charged with and our commission. 

On the following day, the 22nd, we repaired to the Chancellor's, and 
commended to him the object of our embassy, and prayed that he would 
be pleased to use such efforts with the King that the commissioners who 
were to confer with us and enter more minutely into our business should 
be appointed. 

Thereupon the said Chancellor declared that he was keeping our busi- 
ness in good and favourable recommendation, and that His Majesty would 
very soon appoint commissioners. 

1 Sir John Skene of Curriehill. 



134 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589 

But notwithstanding that we daily brought great pressure to bear for 
that purpose, through the person of Adrianus Damannus, formerly 
professor at Leyden, who we understood was a favourite with His Majesty, 
with the said Lord Chancellor, and other principal personages,, yet, on 
account of certain important affairs, which caused great anxiety to His 
Majesty and the members of his Council, commissioners were not 
appointed before the 25th of the said month, namely, Messrs. Scarpius, 1 
Prestonius 2 and the said Sceinius. 

Thereupon we entered into negotiations and conference with the said 
gentlemen in the Chamber of Session or Parliament of Scotland, on the 
26th. 

But as Colonel Stuart had entered with the said gentlemen, and sat down 
next them, we first of all requested that the said Colonel should be obliged 
to withdraw, and leave the said gentlemen alone with us, as we had 
nothing to do with him, and had not come to meet him, nor were we 
authorised to enter into any discussion or controversy with him, but had 
been sent solely to His Majesty to make overtures to him touching our 
difficulties in the matter of letters of marque, which was not a private 
concern but public, affecting the government of the kingdom of Scotland 
and of the United Netherlands, and we expected in reference to it not 
any legal decision, but such a kindly answer from the Royal Majesty 
as was demanded for the preservation of the alliance and good neigh- 
bourly relations between the two countries. 

That we, therefore, did not understand that these negotiations or 
conferences had any object further than that His Majesty, through the 
report of the said Commissioners, and from other and more particular 
information, might be able more satisfactorily to give our principals and 
superiors a favourable and fruitful answer. 

Thereupon the said Commissioners replied, the said Sceineus being 
spokesman, that this matter was not so public, that it did not also concern 
the said Stuart, both as he was interested in it, and because we desired 
to accuse and bring charges against him. That he, therefore, ought in 
justice to be heard against these, and be present, in order to reply to 
what we should bring forward, and adduce his contrary reasons. 

In reply to this we again said that we had no orders to enter into any 
discussion whatever with Stuart, much less to accuse him ; and although 
many public affairs naturally involved private persons, that, nevertheless, 
they were public and concerned the government of the country ; that we, 
therefore, refused to disclose the business of our commission to any one 
except to those appointed by the King for the purpose. 

The result was that after some more arguments had been brought 
forward, now by one side, now by the other, the said commissioners 
ordered the said Colonel Stuart to withdraw, and this without his having 
said a word on the subject, or having even understood the discussion 
regarding him, for we and the said commissioners carried on our discus- 
sion in Latin. 

1 Mr. John Shairp, advocate (mentioned in P. C. Reg.) 

2 Probably John Preston of Fentonbarns, appointed a judge in 1595. 



1589] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 135 

After his departure we declared that we had not insisted upon it, 
because we did not wish him to hear our reasons, on the contrary we 
should have been glad to let all the world be present at the conference, 
but in order that the business might be carried on more freely, and also, 
chiefly, because it should not seem as if the said Stuart having been present 
we had entered into a judicial controversy or discussion with him, and we 
still declared and protested that we were not authorised to do so, and 
that we were only justified in making our overtures to the gentlemen 
present there as Commissioners of His Majesty, that they might report 
concerning them to His Majesty. 

And in the same declaration we recounted to the said gentlemen all 
the reasons contained in the proposition made to His Majesty. 

And as we understood that the said Stuart was in good favour with His 
Majesty, and, in fact, one of his Lords-in-waiting, and that in the previous 
year he had been Ambassador jn Denmark, we had in our proposition to 
the King and at our first interview avoided arguments which might in 
any way have been understood as aggrieving the said Stuart ; as, for 
instance : 

That the said Colonel Stuart with the captains under him had taken 
part in several dangerous mutinies to the great and irreparable harm of 
the country. 

That also some of his captains had surrendered to the common foe the 
places of which they were in charge. 

That the said Stuart had himself been for a long time with the common 
foe the Prince of Parma so that one could not but suppose that he had 
there rendered all sorts of bad offices against the United Netherlands. 

That this was sufficiently vouched by the fact that he had never asked 
for letters of marque, until after he had returned from the Prince of 
Parma. 

That he had asked for the said letters of marque only against these 
Lands, where he had received so much honour and profit, and which he 
well knows were forced to take up arms to preserve their ancient privi- 
leges and rights, and in order to maintain the reformed true Christian 
religion. 

At the same time, leaving free and unmolested the provinces which are 
subject to the Prince of Parma, which he has served, and which would 
chiefly be the debtors of his pretended arrears. 

That he also wished to have the said letters of marque executed at the 
time when the Armada of Spain was on the way to attack England and 
these lands, in order by those means to do the greater injury to the 
United Netherlands. 

And when we had requested that the said gentlemen would be pleased 
to recount to His Majesty the said reasons and others which we had 
before placed before His Majesty, and which we had set forth at length 
to the said Commissioners, and to do as much as would lead to us 
receiving soon a favourable answer from His Majesty. The said Com- 
missioners replied : 

That they had listened with interest to the reasons stated by us on 



136 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589 

behalf of our principals, and that they had noticed, amongst other things, 
what was said about the contracts,, which had been made between the 
Kings of Scotland and the House of Burgundy ; and desired to know if 
we had brought them with us. 

Thereupon we declared that we did not doubt that the said treaties 
were in the possession of the King among other original documents of 
the Kingdom ; that, nevertheless, we had brought a copy of it with us, 
and had it with us, and we offered to have it read. 

But as some of the gentlemen declared that they had seen it, they 
further desired that we should commit to writing the reasons against the 
letters of marque, in order that they might the better present their 
report. 

We consented to do so, but on the express understanding that we 
made no claims for ourselves, nor might we submit to any judicature 
whatever, but that, for the rest, we would await His Majesty's gracious 
reply. 

Thereafter we immediately, that is, on the following morning, delivered 
our reasons in writing to the said Commissioners. 

On the same day we were at the Chancellor's, and declared to him 
what had been transacted between us and the Commissioners, and that 
we, according to their desire, had presented to them in writing our 
arguments regarding the principal matter, that of the letters of mark ; 
and we requested that the said Commissioners might be ordered to make 
their report so that His Majesty might thereafter give us such a favour- 
able reply and dismissal as was justly due to us, as well as to the 
consequence and importance of our charge and commission. 

The said Lord Chancellor replied very favourably, declaring that he 
would recommend the expediting of our business. 

On the same day also we visited the Ambassador of England who 
resided there at Edinburgh, and gave him a summary account of what 
had that day been done in the matter, and requested that he would 
kindly recommend our business and commission to His Majesty, as well 
as the early despatch thereof; since we did not doubt that Her Majesty 
of England had ordered him to do so, and had written previously about 
it at length to the King. 

To this the Ambassador replied very favourably, that he had orders 
from Her Majesty, his mistress, and that she would also willingly employ 
him otherwise in our interests should he find our business founded on 
right and equity ; adding that he was so certain of the graciousness and 
justice of the King, and of his great zeal for the reformed religion, that 
it was certain he could give us no other but a favourable and fruitful 
answer. 

The same evening we were visited by the afore-mentioned gentleman, 
Joannes Sceineus, who declared to us that he, with his fellow-Commis- 
sioners, had seen good to place our written statement in the hands of 
Colonel Stuart, seeing that he wished to be heard against it, and that 
apparently he intended to hand in a document to the contrary effect, so 



1589] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 137 

as to prolong the business to a great length, and detain us with our 
ships of war. We answered that we had before declared and still de- 
clare that we had no authority to enter into any lawsuit or discussion 
with Stuart, or to reply to any of his writings. Yet we would not prevent 
His Majesty and those of his Council from obtaining information regard- 
ing our proposition and reasons from Colonel Stuart or in any other 
fashion they pleased. That we, therefore, intended taking all the 
responsibility of it on ourselves, to solicit and prosecute a reply from His 
Majesty. 

On the last day of the said month of May the said gentleman, Sceineus, 
came again, telling us that Colonel Stuart had drawn up a certain writing, 
first in Scotch, which was afterwards translated into Latin ; but that he, 
having looked it over with the other Commissioners, had found it 
irrelevant and otherwise unseemly, so much so that they had corrected 
and altered it ; and it would have to be properly rewritten ; which would 
be done within a day or two, and desiring that we should speak to my 
lord the Chancellor about it, and pray him that the Commissioners might 
have their audience. This we afterwards did, and continue to do, through 
the afore-mentioned Adrianus Damannus. 

Then, understanding in the meantime that the said Colonel Stuart was 
talking loudly and boasting that we had been too late in stating our 
reasons against the letters of marque he pretended to, inasmuch as they 
liad already been granted in all due form, and that the King would not 
now recall what he had done with the consent of the Estates, we went to 
the Chancellor and again refreshed his Lordship's memory regarding the 
reasons which we had laid before His Majesty on that subject ; and in 
order that he might have something to show in writing, we gave the said 
Lord Chancellor a document in French thereanent, in order that he 
might be pleased, when the Report of the Commissioners should be 
considered, also to make reference to it ; praying also for a final 
dismissal. 

In the meantime there came to us the Deputies of the towns, who 
were assembled at Edinburgh with the clergy and nobles to welcome us, 
and to assure us of their affection ; and that they wished nothing more 
than to maintain good relations with the United Netherlands, in order to 
preserve the freedom of the trade, which they intended not to have 
obstructed ; and so far as they had intelligence as to our commission or 
might by us be further informed, they would be glad that we should 
make use of their services. 

We, in return, thanked them, making similar protestation ; and, 
further, declared that the object of our embassy was known to every one, 
as tending to come to a settlement about certain pretended letters of 
marque sought by Colonel Stuart, in order to obstruct free trade by 
means of them, that we were commissioned to address ourselves to the 
King on the subject ; that we had done so, and set forth at length our 
reasons. That we had not had an opportunity of addressing these, save 
to the Commissioners, whom His Majesty had appointed to meet us. 



138 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589 

Praying none the less, that the said Deputies would be pleased to do all 
in their power, not only to further the quick despatch of our business, 
but also that a good and favourable answer might be obtained, all which 
they did choose to perform. 

The Deputies of the city of Edinburgh did in particular greet us ; and 
on the next Sunday evening invited and very sumptuously entertained 
us, as also previously the Ambassador of England had done, and after 
him M. le Baron de Wynes [Wemyss ?], who had been in the service of 
the King of Navarre, and who, to judge from appearances, was well 
disposed to the States and, especially, His Excellency of Nassau. 

Thereafter we learned that the Lord Chancellor had propounded our 
business in the presence of the King and the Estates of the Kingdom at 
the time assembled ; and that the said Estates had commissioned three 
out of the clergy, three out of the gentlemen and nobles, and the deputies 
of three towns, viz., Edinburgh, Tondien [Dundee?], and Glasco. And 
while we regretted that this second appointment of other commissioners 
had been made, we nevertheless thought good to request audience of the 
said gentlemen, especially as we understood they had received full powers 
from the King and the Estates. But seeing that they were also commis- 
sioned to give a decision in regard to the deed of the gentlemen who had 
taken up arms, as well as of the marriage of the king, a long time elapsed 
before the said gentlemen could arrange to hear the Commissioners who 
had negotiated with us. At last they heard them, and communicated 
everything to the Session or Parliament of Scotland, who made no 
further resolution than that the writing drawn up by the said Colonel 
should be delivered to us, and that in regard to it we should say whatever 
we deemed best. In especial, the treaties made between the Kings of 
Scotland and the Princes of the Netherlands having been read by the 
said gentlemen, they had found that these also spoke de militibus aut 
stipendariis, and that as regards these letters of marque might also be 
granted. While neither the King's Majesty, nor the said Commissioners 
of the Estates, nor the members of the said Session, nor even the first 
Commissioners made any objections to the said treaties, nor hinted that 
they concerned only the Princes and not the States [Netherlands] ; but, on 
the contrary, they plainly acknowledged that the said treaties were to 
the advantage of the Provinces. His Majesty and the said gentlemen 
likewise took the same attitude, and acknowledged the provinces as 
allies and confederates. 

And in so far as in the last contract made at Bins mention is made of 
the soldiers, it is irrelevant, as the said treaty lays down, that in case the 
paid soldiers of one side or the other be injured, in that case letters of mark 
should be granted against the offending parties. But this has no relevancy 
here ; for although Colonel Stuart and his regiment had been wronged, 
which is not the case, that could not have befallen them as soldiers in 
the service of the King of Scotland, as the said Stuart and his Regiment 
were soldiers of this country. 

And as we did not think it advisable to reply to the writing drawn up 



1589] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 139 

by the said Stuart, we were at last told that we would once again have 
audience of the first Commissioners, except that in place of Sceineus, 
who was engaged in the business of Denmark, would be substituted 
Lintseus, 1 a member of the Session or Parliament. 

This was the reason that on the 13th of June we were again at the 
Lord Chancellor's, complaining of the delays which were made in our 
case ; and of being detained with the ships of war, which ought to be 
serving the States in other affairs against the enemy. That we could not 
comprehend how there was any need to hear us further, as we had 
roundly and sincerely disclosed our commission, with the reasons for it. 
That they were sufficient to show at once that the letters of marque had 
been obtained by evil and underhand means ; and that the said Stuart 
ought to have pursued, and still ought to pursue, his claims in the 
Netherlands ; that we, nevertheless, would not refuse to receive such 
reply or other writing, and the other documents which the said Stuart 
had promised to hand over so as thereanent to report to our principals 
and superiors ; especially since therein were contained many allegations, 
and many documents were given, of which we had received no informa- 
tion, nor could receive, seeing that Your Lordship had not seen them 
before. That we, therefore, and for many other reasons, which we 
mentioned, prayed that His Majesty would be pleased to give us final 
dismission, and that the said Lord would be pleased to do his best to 
obtain it. To which the said Chancellor replied that, as we declared 
that we had no further instructions, he also thought that any further 
audience or conference was unnecessary ; and that, accordingly, he 
would report everything to the King, and obtain for us our final 
dismission as soon as the King, who was gone for one or two days' 
hunting, should return. 

In the interval there was delivered to us the writing of Stuart, as well 
as various documents which he thinks serve his purpose ; of which, on 
the one hand, he gave us a memorandum in his own handwriting, and, 
on the other hand, we made a certain inventory. 

And as some of the said documents are original, we acknowledged 
faithfully that they had emanated from the States-General ; but declared 
that they were irrelevant, for reasons stated by us at length. 

The said Colonel Stuart founded greatly on certain contracts of the 
22nd and 23rd, made in Delft in the year 1580 ; and said that in virtue 
of them he had been drawn from a very good garrison of the State of 
Brussels, through remaining in which he would certainly have received 
his payment, and that he was quartered in a vile place, viz., at 
Vilvoorden. 

That in these United Netherlands were many rich and powerful 
merchants, and that this was a greater reason that each of them should 
give something to pay his valid arrears rather than that he and his 
regiment, and many widows and orphans, should any longer be dis- 



1 John Lindsay, parson of Menmuir, a Senator of the College of Justice, father 
of first Lord Lindsay of Balcarras. 



140 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589 

appointed. That he would not like to take up arms against those whom 
he had so long 1 helped to protect; and that he hoped that no cause 
would be given him to do so ; with other reasons of the same kind. 

The King having returned did through Mr. Melville recommend to us 
the widow and orphans of Henry Balfour ; and the present husband of 
the said widow and a brother of the said Balfour, 1 with his two children, 
came to us, and delivered to us a copy of the record of their claims. We 
replied to them that we had no instructions with regard to those and 
other similar matters, but that, nevertheless, in order to please His 
Majesty, and in consideration of the faithful services rendered by the 
said late Henry Balfour to the country, we would be very willing to 
make a favourable report. 

Thereafter, namely on the 17th of the said month, after several solici- 
tations, and after the Ambassador of the Queen of England had spoken 
to the King in reference to our business and recommended to him a 
speedy settlement thereof, the King sent for us, to give us our reply and 
final dismission. On that occasion we appeared before the King in the 
Presence-Chamber, in the afternoon at two o'clock ; and after due 
homage and reverence, we summarily recounted what had up to the 
present been done by us, and said that we were expecting nothing else 
from His Majesty than a gracious reply, in accordance with the proposi- 
tion made by us and what was just and reasonable, and as was expected by 
us from our firm confidence in His Majesty's wisdom and prudence. We 
also added the recommendation of the State of this country, and the 
offer of every possible and humble service. 

To which His Majesty gave us a reply and dismission in the form 
recorded in writing. But as we found a grievance in the period of two 
months, we explained to His Majesty that we hoped, notwithstanding, 
that it was not His Majesty's intention to bind our principals to it 
strictly. His Majesty furthered declared that he would not make a 
point of that, and he desired to be advised of further resolutions as soon 
as possible after the expiry of said time, wind and weather serving. 

The said Stuart having been informed of this answer, complained that 
His Majesty had granted two months, after we should have given in our 
report and been discharged from our commission. And this, when His 
Majesty, to please the said Stuart, as we also took care to do in the 
missive written to their Highnesses the Estates, and which we take back 
with us, altered many things, as is plain from the tenour of the said 
missive and from said verbal answers and dismission. 

On the following day we took leave of the Chancellor, commanding to 
him the affairs of these lands. 

And seeing that, during all the time that we were in Scotland, we had 
received no tidings of the six horses which we had been ordered to 
present to His Majesty, and that, nevertheless, everywhere at Edinburgh 

1 Duncan Balfour, formerly an archer of the Scots Guard in France, and 
younger brother of Colonel Henry Balfour, was in 1582 tutor to his sons William 
and Henry. He is described in 1592 as 'bailie in St. Andrews, brother to 
Colonel Bartilmo Balfour.' 



1589] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 141 

as well as Leith, there was a report that we were commissioned to present 
His Majesty with some horses, and that the King and all the Court had 
information about it, we saw fit to explain the circumstances briefly to 
the Lord Chancellor, namely that the horses had been shipped in another 
quarter, and that the orders about them had been given to Captain 
Balfour, in order that the said Lord Chancellor might kindly excuse us 
to the King, as we did not doubt that the horses would (save for possible 
accident at sea or otherwise) arrive very soon. The Lord Chancellor 
replied that he would always hold the affairs of these lands in favourable 
recommendation, and that the King, his lord and master, would also be 
pleased to do the same in all conceivable circumstances, not only on 
account of the common trade and religion, as well as their relations as 
neighbours, but also on account of the treaty which the Queen of 
England had made with our Lands, taken in connection with the claim 
which he had to the succession to the Crown of England. The Lord 
Chancellor made no remark about what we had said regarding the 
horses ; and we then took our leave. 

Thereafter, we went to Leith on the following day, to embark with 
the first favourable wind. 

There the Deputies of the city of Edinburgh came to see us, and 
explained that they had been charged to bid us farewell in Edinburgh ; 
but as we had left, they had followed us up chiefly to assure us that the 
city of Edinburgh had no other wish than, along with the other towns 
of the kingdom, to maintain good relations with the United Netherlands ; 
and to preserve free navigation and traffic. Further, that some grievances 
had been laid before them by their citizens, whose goods had been seized 
at sea, as related in the declaration which they handed to us, and they 
besought that, at the earliest convenience of the country, the matter 
might be attended to, in such a way as to lead to the reparation of the 
damage suffered by their citizens. We replied that they might be 
assured that on the part of the United Provinces the most cordial 
relations would always be maintained, and that, further, we would not 
be unwilling to report about the said grievances ; but that we were not 
authorised to receive any complaints or grievances, as we had only been 
sent to point out the great wrong which Colonel Stuart was seeking to 
do to the Confederated Provinces, in virtue of certain pretended letters 
of marque of his, not only to the prejudice of the said lands but also of 
the citizens of the said kingdom, as the free mutual intercourse and 
traffic would thereby be entirely hindered and ruined ; desiring, as had 
been promised us before by the said city of Edinburgh and other towns, 
that they would always do their utmost to prevent it, and that the 
inconveniences, which would thence arise, might be averted. 

And, as the wind became favourable, we embarked on the same day 
about ten o'clock, and, with favourable wind and weather, arrived on the 
2Gth, early in the morning, at nine o'clock, in the harbour of Flushing. 

(s.) JAN VAN DE WARCK. 
LEONARD VOOGHT. 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1593 



of State. 



Visit of WILLIAM STEWART, as Ambassador from the King of 
Scotland, to the STATES- GENERAL. 

Resolutions 1593, April 19. Mr. Stuart having come as Ambassador 
of the Council with credentials from the King of Scotland, both to the States- 
General and to the Council of State, and having delivered 
them, and communicated orally the substance of his charge, 
it was thereon replied to him, that they were sorry to hear of 
difficulties in the affairs of Scotland and of the King, but were 
glad to know that things are now better ; that they begged to 
thank him for the trouble he took to communicate this to 
them ; that they will commit his proposal to writing, in order 
the better to attend to what he says should be done in refer- 
ence to his principal instruction ; then they requested from 
him a copy of it alone. 



Council of 
State. 



1593, June 17. Having deliberated on what was done 
yesterday, in the business of Ambassador Stuart, it was re- 
solved, that the said Stuart be induced to come to the 
Council, in order that his more extended knowledge may be 
at their service. Whereupon, having come to the Council, he 
declared, that in so far as the foresaid troubles in Scotland are 
concerned, that the same will appear clearer, from the deposi- 
tion of a nobleman in Scotland, lately executed ; which 
deposition translated, he handed over some time ago, to the 
Advocate of Holland, Barneveldt. And as to the affairs of 
Germany, he declares, that the King of Scotland being in 
Denmark, had proposed there, that peace might be made 
between the King of Spain and other Kings and Potentates 
and Republics, having an interest in the religion. But should 
such not be achieved, that as a counterpoise to the King of 
Spain's ambition for monarchy, a counter-league made with 
the Princes of Germany was needed, to whom he, Stuart, says 
that he has been sent. He says that he found the said Princes 
very favourably disposed, and that being sent chiefly to the 
Elector of Saxony, he also showed himself very favourable, but 
persisted in the opinion that the Elected Princes were by their 



1593] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 143 

oath prohibited from entering into any league without the 
Emperor; but that he, as well as the other Princes, would 
give every assistance to the league existing between the King 
of Scotland and Denmark, and also at need stand by the King 
of France, and help in action. Further, offering to hand over 
the deposition of the executed nobleman to the Council, if 
they could not get that of the Advocate of Holland. After- 
wards he gave in writing the names of the Princes of Germany, 
to whom he had been sent the King of Denmark, the Elector 
of Saxony, of Brandenburg, the Pfaltz, Count of Brunswick, 
of Wurtemberg, of Pommeren, of Hesse, of Mecklenburg 
d'Anhalt, of Luneburgh, the Administrator of Magdenburg, 
the Duke Jan Casimir. 

1593, July 3. Stuart delivered his credentials, in which Resolutions 
much was written about the intrigues of the Jesuits in Scot- 
land, with a proposal for forming a Protestant counter-league 
against Spain and the Pope. 

[The ' Instruction pour le loial et bien ayme Conseiller 
Guillaume [Stuart] Commandeur de Pettywane, dirige a M rs 
les Estats Generaux et Conseillers d'Estats des Provinces 
Unies,' and the Answer of the States to the King, dated 7th 
July 1593, contain nothing directly relating to the Scots 
troops, except the following references to Colonel Stuart's 
claims.] 

Extract from the Instructions. 

'Quant a son particulier nous esperons que tant pour le 
regard de noz requestes que a cause de ses merites vous y don- 
nerez si bon ordre que tout en sortira a son contentement : 
que nous sera tant agreable que daultant plus vous accroisterez 
nostre affection a ladvanchement de voz affaires dont vous avez 
particulierement preuve en la permission de faire levee et 
transport de noz subiectz soubz la charge et conduite de nostre 
conseillier pour vous en servir par dela selon vostre requeste, 
que ne octroierions point si amplement voluntiers a daultres 
sans son advis.' 



144 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593 

Extract from the Reply of the States 

" Pour aultant que louche le particulier dudict Sieur Ambas- 
sadeur r lesditz Estats ne veuillent pas doubter, ou sa Ma te 
considerant meurement les raisons continues en leur responce, 
et lettres escriptes a sa Ma te le douziesme de Novembre qualtre 
vingtz et dix, s'en contentera et acceptera lune ou lautre pre- 
sentation. 1 

19 July. On the request of the States- General to have 
advice touching the private claims of the M r Ambassador 
Stuart; the Council has declared as their advice that their 
Highnesses should account the business and request of the 
said Stuart of very great importance, and of peculiar conse- 
quence ; and therefore the Council find it difficult to come to 
a resolution thereanent. But since a beginning of negotiations 
with the said Steuart has already been made, the Council 
would advise that it might not be inexpedient, if they could 
make an agreement with him, for fifty or sixty thousand 
pounds (to be assigned to him on the income of Brabant at 
long terms, said contribution, however, would, on account 
of its being garrisoned by the enemy, be likely to come in 
even very sparely. Provided it take place as secretly as could 
possibly be managed, as, for instance, through a third person ; 
and that he, Mr. Stuart, should promise on oath to keep the 
same secret, and not reveal it, should also deliver up the 
letters of marque, and bind himself and promise not to annoy 
or oppress the inhabitants of the Province, in any way, because 
of this. 

July 21. The Messieurs van Oldenbarnevelt, Vooght, and 
van de Warck report, that according to the resolution of the 
States, they have again been in conference and communication 
with Colonel Stuart, Ambassador of the King of Scotland. 
And, finally, after many troubles and difficulties, have come to 
an agreement with the same, to pay him the sum of 56,000 
guilders in all 14,000 of it in ready money, and thenceforth 
from year to year likewise 14,000 guilders ; the conditions to 
be drawn up later in writing, and afterwards inserted ; and, 
further, the said Lords Deputes have told him, that his hotel 



1593] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 145 

expenses are to be defrayed at the Lands' expense, to the 
extent of ^2400 ; and over and above he is to be complimented 
with a gold chain. 

1593, July 21. Read and fixed the act of transaction made 
between the Lords General States and the Colonel Stuart, 
Ambassador of the King of Scotland. 

' Comme il ait pleu au Roy d'Escosse, d'envoier par decha vers 
Messieurs les Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays- 
bas, le S r Guillaume Stouart, son Conseiller et Commandataire 
de Pettewie pour son Ambassadeur, afin de leur faire ouverture 
de sa part de certaine pointz concernants Testat publicq qu'il 
luy avoit donne en charge. Aiant sa d e Maj t6 aussy recom- 
mande aux d ts Sieurs Estats les pretensions particulieres du dit 
S r Ambassadeur, au regard desquelles les deputez des dits 
Estats avoient par plusieurs fois estez en communication et 
conference avecq luy et sont finalement, apres plusieurs diffi- 
cultez representees de part et d'aultre, tombez d'accord en la 
maniere que s'ensuit. Scavoir, que le dit S r Guillaume Stouart 
promettra, comme il promet par cestes, pour le regard que les 
dites provinces unies, scavoir Gueldres, Hollande, Zelande, 
Utrecht, Frise et Overyssel, ont tousjours soustenu qu'elles ne 
sont aucunement obligees pour les services faictz par dela la 
Meuse, qu'il ne demandera rien aux provinces unies pour soy, 
ses capitaines, officiers et soldats du service par eux faict es pays 
bas avant le premier de Mars xv c soixante dix noeufF, mais en 
reservera son action contre les aultres provinces qui se sont 
separees et tiennent presentement encores le partie de Tennemy, 
tenant les dites provinces deschargees pour aultant que besoing 
soit de tout ce que pour luy ses haultz Officiers et aultres de 
sa Compagnie Colonelle pourroit estre pretendu du dit service 
et des obligations qui en ont este pour ce donner et oultre ce 
le dit S r Stuart a faict transport irrevocable aux S rs Estats et 
a leur prouffict propre, comme il le faict encores par cestes, les 
sommes cy dessoubz expressees, afin qu'ilz les pourroient re- 
couvrer des dites aultres Provinces separees par telles voies 
qu'ilz trouveront convenir assavoir les arrierages de son traicte- 
ment de colonel et de ces haultz officiers montantes quarante- 
ung mille six cens septante deux florins : 

K 



146 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593 

6 Item de sa Compagnie Colonnelle soixante six mille cent et 
seize florins. 

' De celle du Cap n Jacques Stuart mille huit cent quarante 
huict florins : et 

6 d'Andrieu Stuart mille huict cents cinquante neuf florins, 

6 Du Cap n Tamson dix noeuff mille noeuff cens trente neufF 
florins. 

6 et du Cap" Anstruches quinze mille cinq cens soixante deux 
florins. 

' Revenant ensemble a la somme de Cent soixante trois mille 
florins respectivement pour tout le temps de leur service depuis 
le premier de Mars 1579 jusques au jour qu'ilz ont ete licenties. 
Aiant a ceste fin Iceluy S r Stuart promis comme il promet par 
cestes de faire tenir aux S rs Estats et de laisser en leurs mains 
les originelles lettres de represaille contenants la somme de 
six cens et quatre vingtz mile florins qu*il a obtenus sur son 
nom et les Capitaines de son Regiment de Sa Ma t6 d'Escosse 
avecq tous les aultres enseignemens aux dites lettres servantes, 
dedans le terme de six mois prochainement venants, les tenant 
des a present pour cassees et annullees, sans que en vertu 
d'Icelles ou aultres semblables on pourra pretendre aucune 
chose desdits s rs Estats ou les manans et inhabitans des dites 
provinces unies en aucune maniere. Comme de faict aussy le 
S r Stuart est tenu de delivrer aux Estats 1'accord faict a Delff 
au mois de Janvier Tan quatre vingtz et ung avec tous les 
escomptes qu*il a des debtes et services y dessus specificiees. 
Promestant par cestes ulterieurement de tenir la main vers le 
Roy d'Escosse que nulles lettres de represaille soient doresna- 
vant accordees au prouffit de qui que ce soit et qu'il aura 
tousiours les affaires des dites provinces en bonne recommenda- 
tion. Et movemant ce que dessus ont les ditz S rs Estats pour 
le respect qu'ilz portent a sa dite Ma t6 d'Escosse et le desir 
qu'ilz ont a luy faire service, ensemble de complaire a la nation 
Escossoise et de traicter avecz le dit S r Guill 6 Stuart raisonable- 
ment, estez contens de promettre comme ilz promettent par 
cestes de furnir et faire compter a iceluy S r Guillaume Stuart 
ou a ses aians cause sans aucune defalcation et francq de tous 
arrestz pour le regard des personnes qui demeurent et se 
trouvent presentement hors desdites provinces unies et aultres 



1593] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 147 

de la nation Escossaise qui ont fait service soubz sa charge, 
la somme de cinq six mille florins de quarante gros pieces, les 
quastorze mille contant et d'an en an encores quartorze mille 
florins jusques a la parpaie de la somme de 56,000 florins, la- 
quelle ils ont assignee et assignent par ces presentes sur leur 
Receveur general Philippe Doublet et tel aultre qui pourroit 
succeder en sa place afin de faire le d* paiement aux termes que 
dessus, selon les quatre ordonnances qui en seront depesches 
et delivres au S r Stuart. Obligeans les ditz S rs Estats pour 
Taccomplissement et furnissement de ce que dessus tous et 
chacuns les biens et revenus des dites provinces unies, et le S r 
Guillaume Stuart sa personne et tous ses biens presens et ad- 
venir. Remercians respectivement a toutes exceptions et subter- 
fuges au contraire, et generalement a Texeption partante que 
generale exeption n'a poinct de lieu si la speciale ne precede. 
En tesmoing de ce ont les dits S rs Estats ceste faict signer par 
leur Greffier et cacheter de leur cachet ordinaire et a luy S r 
Guillaume Stuart signe et cachete la presente de son nom et 
armes. La vingtiesme de Juillet Tan mil cincz cens quatre 
vingt et treize. Soubzcript par ordonnance des ditz S rs Estats, 
signe C. Aerssens, et cachette de leur cachet. Etoit aussy 
signe William Stuart et cachete de son cachet.' 

July 28. It is found expedient that there be sent to the 
Agent Caron, the copy of the proposal made by Colonel Stuart, 
Ambassador of the King of Scotland ; also of the replies made 
to the said Stuart. Also as to the transaction, which was 
entered into with his Ex cy , regarding his private pretensions. 
And he be told by letter, that he must hear how the said 
replies shall taste there and be taken up and endured. And 
it being understood that the said Stuart desires to journey 
through England to Scotland, his Ex cy shall (on being re- 
quested) direct further and assist, so far as lies in his power, 
the business on which his Ex cy was sent hither by the king ; 
and shall further assist himself with the arguments inserted in 
the foresaid transaction, and so far as he may understand that 
in England this transaction is likely to be used as a precedent in 
respect to others who likewise may have served these Lands. 

July 29. Mr. Ambassador Stuart came to take leave of 
the Council, thanking them for the good resolution which the 



148 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1593 



Council had come to by the States-General, as well as in refer- 
ence to what he proposed, on the part of the King of Scotland, 
as to his own private affairs ; promising to give a good report 
of all, and to commend the affairs of these Lands very strongly 
to His Majesty. And as to his person, he proffered all good 
affection and service. He was thanked for the trouble he 
took, and the affairs of these Lands were commended to him, 
and he was also requested to make good report on everything 
to His Majesty ; with the offer to be good neighbours with His 
Majesty, and hold his Person in good commendation. 



Book of In- 
structions 
given by 
States- 
General. 



From the ' Second and Secret Instructions Jor Adrian Damman.'' 

[In January 1594 Adrian Damman l was appointed Agent 
for the States at the Scottish Court. In his Secret Instruc- 
tions occurs the following passage, illustrating the value of the 
Scottish troops, and the conditions of their earlier service :] 

' It having been the case for some time that proposals have 
to be made in regard to the service of the soldiers of the 
Scottish nation in these lands, you are to endeavour to give good 
information on their employment here, being every way pro- 
fitable to His Majesty and the kingdom of Scotland, and that 
they have voluntarily entered the service of these Lands, and 
that no proposal shall be directly or indirectly entertained by 
which they shall in any way be led into anything against 
their will, or anywise be hindered in their service, which would 
be to the great disadvantage of the common Christian interests, 
and to the lessening of the honour of the Scottish nation, as 
well as of the favour in which it is held in these Lands. You 
are to assure them that not only the foreign nations, who are 
in the service of these lands, but even the inhabitants of this 
land are not better treated here than the Scotch have been 
treated during recent years, but that it is impossible during 
the troublesome and difficult wars to satisfy everybody accord- 
ing to his desire. 



1 Damman made himself most agreeable to King James, and not only to him, 
for, the usual order of things in the incidental alliances which accompanied the 
national co-operation being reversed, there occurs among the list of pensions in 
1609, ' Lady Margaret Stuard, widow of Agent Damman.' 



1594] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 149 

' You are further to endeavour to make them clearly under- 
stand over there the difference that exists between the States- 
General of the United Provinces who are at present carrying 
on war with the common enemy, and the States-General of the 
Netherlands who on the Pacification of Ghent carried on war 
for some years with the common enemy, in order that it may be 
clearly understood that the United Provinces are not implicated 
in the debts of the States-General of the Netherlands for 
services rendered in Brabant, Flanders, Artois, and Hene- 
gouwe. That the confederated or United Provinces after the 
Union effected at Utrecht divided their government on the 
east side of the Maas, and have kept it separate from the 
Government of Brabant, Flanders, etc. That all documents 
and verifications of what has passed in the government of 
Brabant and Flanders have remained there, and that this 
government has no knowledge of it. 

4 You are on every occasion to inform us of all occurrences 
that concern the state of this country, and communicate all 
secret business in cipher or in some other secret and secure 
way. Dated, January 4th, 1594.' 

[In June 1594, Sir William Keith, gentleman of the King's 
Chamber, and Captain William Murray, Provost of St. 
Andrews, arrived at the Hague on a special embassy from King 
James. On 6th June they presented a letter to the States- 
General, which contained the following passage relating to the 
services of the Scottish troops :] 

'Finalement il souvient a Mess, que par la permission et Resolutions 

i o it r * 11 i . of toe States- 

conge obtenu de Sa Ma te un grand nombre de ses subiectz ont General. 

ete transportez par deca pour leur service, auquel beaucoup 
ayans finy leurs jours, ceux qui restent soubz la charge de 
Mess, estans employez comme Messieurs trouvent expedient 
a Thazard de leurs vies journellement et aultres demeurans en 
Escosse comme vieulx, orphelins et ceux qui sont faict'inhabiles 
par la guerre se plaignant a la Ma t6 de leur mauvais traictement 
et dilay du payement, Sa Ma t6 se voyant journellement fasche 
par leurs grievs complaints et estant touche d'une pitie 
naturelle envers ses subiectz a trouve bon de recommander 
iceux a voz Seign. et qu'il plairoit a Mess, apres avoir compte 



150 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

avec les capitaines et commandeurs, les dormer tel contente- 
ment de leur , come leur fidel service a merite, et la 

requeste de sa Ma t6 faict par nous en son nom peuvent procurer. 
Recommandant en particulier les affaires de Cap ne Witschart, 
et ceux quy nous avons en charge pour recommander par bouche. 
Signe W. Keith, W. Murray. 1 

[The letter addressed to King James by the States- General 
on 28th June 1594, conveying their congratulations on the 
birth of the Prince of Scotland, contains no reference to the 
Scots troops in their service. 

The representations made by the Ambassadors were, however, 
referred to in the answer of the States-General to the King 
dated 1st July 1594, as follows :] 

6 Quant au pretendu payement des services faictz a ces pays 
par quelques ungs de la nation Escossoises, Lesditz Estatz 
asseurent sa dicte M te que telz ses subiectz ont este traictez si 
favorablement par deca pour le regard dudict payement que 
aulcuns aultres de quelle nation ilz ayent estez, mesmes beau- 
coup mieux que aucun de ces pays et que pour ladvenir tandiz 
quilz seront en leurs service ilz continueront a leur donner 
contentement selon que sera convenu avec iceux, et la disposi- 
tion de leurs affaires le pourra aucunement permettre. Ainsy 
que nommement a aussy este faict au Cap ne Witssart pour le 
regard de ce que luy pourroit competer de la Generalite estant 
en quil pretend ulterieurement de la ville du Bommel une chose 
particuliere quy ne touche aux Estats recommanderont neant- 
moins tres voluntiers son faict au Magistrat dicelle ville affin 
quilz luy donnent tel contentement comme en raison et 
equite ilz trouveront convenir. . . .' 

July 5. On the request of Margaret Penicuik, widow of 
Andrew Murisson, Scotsman, brought over and recommended 
by the Lords Ambassadors of Scotland, it is appointed : 

Combien que les Etats Generaux des Provinces Unies des 
Pays Ba ne sont en aucune maniere tenus au payement du 
pretendu de la suppliante, si ont ilz toutefois par pure com- 
miseration faict presenter a Icelle, comme Ilz presentent encore, 
la somme de cent florins une fois, saulf qu'elle promecte de 
ne les plus molester. 

On the request of William Hunter de Menhal about pre- 



1594] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 151 

venting him holding transfer from the widow of David Treyl 
[Trail] over the service arrears of the same, likewise brought 
over and recommended by. the foresaid ambassadors it is 
appointed : 

Les Etats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas, 
aians examime le contenu de ceste requeste, declarent que 
apres le deces ' de feu le capitaine David Treyl, aiant sa 
veufe faicte poursuite pour le payement des arrierages des 
services du d. son mary, Icelle a este grand ement favorisee, 
tellement que pour ceste consideration et que lad. veufe est 
natifve de ces pays, elle ne debuoit ny peult faire aucun trans- 
port valide de semblable action a quelqu*un estranger au 
prejudice de Testat ains patienter, comme aultres et la garder 
plustost pour une assurance du douaire promis a Icelle par 
led. feu Capitaine David Treyl. 

On the request of Alexander Wishart, brought over as afore- 
said, it is appointed: 

Les Etats Generaux etc. aians examine cette deuxieme re- 
queste du suppliant, declarent qu'ilz luy ont presente, comme 
ilz le font encores, de recommander ses affaires au Magistrat de 
la ville de Bommel, affin de luy donner tout raison de contente- 
ment, comme estant un faict particulier qui aultrement ne 
leur touche. Si neanmoins il ne se contente avec ceste de- 
claration, ains ayme mieux poursuivre sa pretension contre le 
Magistrat ou quelques autres particuliers par voie de justice, 
sont aussy contens de recommander a la cour ou Magistrat, 
ou il conviendrat, que brieve et bonne justice luy soit ad- 
ministree, selon que en droict et equite sera trouve convenir 
au pretendant quelque action particuliere contre les Estats 
de Hollande, de Zelande, s'il la desire poursuivre les ditz 
Estats generaux luy feront toute Taddresse a eux possible, la 
et ainsy qu'il sera besoing. 

July 5. Received a letter from the King of Scotland, dated 
at Edinburgh the last day of April, in favour of the widow 
of Walter Cant, heir of the late Captain David Cant, in order 
that the same should receive arrears of payment for services of 
said captain. 

Item. Another letter from the foresaid king, dated at St. 



152 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

Croix [Holyrood] the 8th May, in favour of the son of the late 
Captain William Renton who formerly served the Lands in 
Brabant, regarding arrears of payment for the services of the 
same. 

The Lords Ambassadors of Scotland handed over a certain 
written statement, of which the tenor, hereafter inserted, 
follows : 

( A Messieurs les Estats generaux des Provinces Unies des 
Pays Bas. 

4 Les Ambassadeurs de Sa Majeste d'Escosse, estant en charge, 
tant par leur commission que par credence, de recommander 
au nom de Sa Maj 6 a vos Seigneuries le contentement et satis- 
faction de ses subiectz, aiant faict service en ces Pays bas, et 
considere plusieurs difficultez qui se peuvent mouvoir en la 
liquidation d^icelles debtes, a raison qu'elles sont de diverses 
natures, prient de pouvoir entendre par escript Tintention de 
voz S ies sur les pointz suyvans. 

' Scavoir, comment ilz entendent de traicter ceux qui sont en 
arriere pour le service faict par dela la Meuse, avant la ren- 
dition cTAnvers, si comme les heritiers de feu Henry Balfour, 
colonel, et de feu capitaine Renton, avecq leurs semblables, 
tant vefues que aultrement. 

'Es comme ilz entendent avec ceux qui ont faict service par 
dela la Meuse depuis la rendition d'Anvers, si comme les 
heritiers de feu Capitaine David Treyl et leurs semblables, a 
ce qu'ilz puissent donner contentement a Sa Maj 6 sur ce faict.' 

Answer of the States- General 

Which writing being read, it is thereafter resolved as 
follows : 

1594, July 5. Les Estates Generaux des Provinces Unies 
des Pays Bas, pour satisfaire a la requisition de Messieurs les 
Ambassadeurs du serenissime Roy d'Escosse, declarent sur les 
deux points de cest escript, qu^ilz ont tousiours soustenuz et 
par plusieurs lettres et escripts remonstre aud. S me Roy, mesme 
par Fenvoy de leurs deputez en Escosse, que les dites Provinces 
Unies n'estoient aucunement tenues paier aucunes debtes, si 
peu des services des gens de guerre que aultres faicts et con- 
tractez par dela la Meuse, pour les raisons par eux amplement 



1594] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 153 

et largement deduites et alleguees centre les pretensions du S r 
Guillaume Stuart et aultres, lesquelles Ilz s'asseurent que Sa 
Ma te aura advoues, tellement que les pretendans denommez en 
ce premier point dud. escript, s'en doibvent contenter sans 
qu'ilz ont matiere de pretendre quelque chose contre eux pour 
les services faictz par dela la Meuze. 

Sur le II e . II a este convenu et accorde sur quelques con- 
ditions et articles avecq les Capitaines Escossais, sur lesquelz 
ils sont entrez avec leurs compagnies au service du pays par 
dea la Meuze, lesquels leur ont aussy este tenuz et satisfaictz, 
comme ilz le seront encores tandiz qu^ilz seront au service 
desditz Estats, en tant que la disposition de Testat le pourra 
aucunement permectre. Et pour le regard des arrierages en 
sera use comme font tous Roys, Princes, Potentatz et aultres 
Republicques, en reservants les payemens d^icelles jusques a 
la fin de la guerre, bien entendu advenant qu^il y eult aucun 
des capitaines qui, ne pouvant attendre ce temps, se presentoit 
laisser traicter raisonnablement et qu^il y eut quelques con- 
siderations particulieres pour lesquelles on les pourroit ac- 
comoder. Les ditz Estatz monstreront en tel evenement aux 
Escossois, comme ilz ont tousiours faict plus de faveur que a 
aucune aultre nation. 

1594, July 5. On the report made by the Advocate Olden- 
barnevelt and the Recorder Aerssen, that they, on the footing 
of the foregoing proposal and intentions of the States, as to 
which they had a charge committed to them, fully carried out 
the transaction about the payment of accounts which was 
made with Sir William Murray, Ambassador of the King of 
Scotland in Antwerp, the 10 September "83, he being Captain 
of a Company of Scots, and to be paid for the services done 
by him and said Company since the 4 March 1582 till the last 
of August 1583 ; said account amounting to the sum of 
twelve thousand and two pounds, ten shillings, and ten pence, 
on the same footing as the transaction with Colonel Stuart, 
viz. for the eight and a half pence, a sum amounting to 
fourteen hundred and twenty-three pounds, fifteen shillings, 
and three pence, and over and above, as a complement to the 
sum of altogether two thousand pounds ; a deed of transac- 
tion being drawn up was now read and signed by the foresaid 



154 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

Captain Murray, in so far as it may please the States to 
approve and agree to the same. 

The foregoing transaction having been read, the same was 
approved and ratified, and it was resolved that the Receiver- 
General should be commissioned by two injunctions to pay 
the said two thousand pounds out of the moneys received by 
him from the contributions of the Provinces. The foresaid 
c J 1423, 15 s. 3 p. in discharge of the foresaid account, and 
the balance of the said 2000 to be employed for certain 
services to the advantage of the Land, and in such manner 
that on both sides it is promised that the matter shall be kept 
secret. 

[The States, who had been invited by King James to act as 
sponsors at the baptism of his son, sent Walraven, Lord of 
Brederode, and Mr. Jacob Valcke, Treasurer-General of Zea- 
land, to represent them at the ceremony. 1 Their instructions, 
dated 19th July, contained nothing relative to the Scottish 
troops, but their Report, given on 7th November, on their 
return to Holland, contains several allusions to the officers, 
and is of such general interest that it is given in full.] 

Resolutions 1594, November 7. In a meeting of the Sovereign States- 

of Holland. General a report was made by the Lord of Brederode and the 

Treasurer Jacob Valck, of how they had fared in their Legation 

in Scotland, and thereanent they communicated their official 

statement as follows : 

RELATION of what happened and was experienced by us the undersigned 
Ambassadors of my Lords the States-General to His Royal Majesty 
of Scotland, in and during our legation, from day to day, following 
the new style. 

It having pleased my Lords the States-General aforesaid to commission 
us Walrauen, Lord of Brederode, etc. , and Jacob Valcke, Treasurer of 
Zeeland, to travel to the King of Scotland, James the Sixth of that name, 
with Credentials and Instructions consisting in three principal points : 



1 These ambassadors carried ' magnificent presents to the infant prince, and 
an annual pension for life, the contract for which was presented in a gold box. 
. . . On the departure of the ambassadors, 1500 Scots were sent over to Holland 
to augment the Brigade. ' Hist. Acct. For a full account of the ceremony see 
Calderwood's Historie, vol. v. p. 342. 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 155 

to wit, in order to assist at the baptism of the young Prince of Scotland, 
to renew the old alliances and friendships between Scotland and these 
Lands and to negotiate a secret treaty with the other Princes against the 
usurpations of the Spaniards in such manner as stands more fully related 
in the prescribed Instruction. So it came about that on the first of 
August fifteen hundred and ninety-four, after having taken leave of my 
Lords the States-General, and having received our despatches and neces- 
saries, we left the Hague for Veere, arriving there on the third, and as we 
did not find the ship named The Dolphin there, and also learnt that the 
captains of the two pinnances were at Zierikzee, we wrote to them respec- 
tively, and the following day both the captain of The Dolphin with his ship 
and the other captains there put in an appearance, and thereafter they got 
everything so prepared that they were ready to sail with the first favour- 
able wind : so indeed we embarked on Monday the eighth of August and 
under God's protection set sail, encountering a variety of wind, weather, 
and other occurrences, but making such progress that we arrived on 
Saturday the thirteenth of August in the roadstead of Leith in Scotland : 
then it must also be told that in the interval an accident happened to the 
two pinnances of our voyage, they having run against each other and 
damaged each other, and that not without great danger. On the 
thirteenth foresaid, seeing we could not for lack of wind and tide come 
ashore, there came to us first the Agent Dammen and thereafter these 
gentlemen, Mr. John Scheneus, Advocate Fiscal of the King and Coun- 
sellor to the Queen, Mr. Robert Deneston, Keeper of Veere [Campvere], 
and Mr. David Lindesay, minister of Leith, with four of the King's 
trumpeters : and after having congratulated us on our arrival, in a good 
oration in Latin, embracing considerations concerning the new-born 
prince, and this having been briefly replied to by us, we stepped into their 
boat with this company and rowed to land, where on the shore waiting for 
us and receiving us we found the Lord Baron of Carmicle, chief equerry to 
His Majesty, and the gentleman James Melvin, knight, steward and coun- 
sellor to His Majesty, with nineteen of the King's horses : which gentle- 
men, after demonstration of our being welcome took horse to Leith and 
we likewise, and then to the inn, and were conducted to bedchambers 
since dinner was being prepared on the part of the King, and we were 
requested still to remain a day there at the King's expense, and while 
doing so, we advised my Lords the States-General of our arrival. 

On the fourteenth of August, being Sunday, we were conducted by the 
foresaid gentlemen and the magistrates to the preaching, where places 
were provided for us with spreads and cushions of velvet, and the preach- 
ing in Scotch being ended, the minister, after exhortation to the people 
in reference to us, addressed himself to us in the French language, 
thanking us in the name of the church for the honour of our presence, 
and then he briefly repeated the substance of his preaching, and we 
remained and lodged at Leith that day, as the lodgings at Edemburgh 
could not yet be got in order : we sent accordingly the steward Baten- 
burgh to Edemburgh to make provision for the kitchen, but he reported 



156 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

that he had been told by the counsellor of the King that this was not 
necessary, that provision was made on the part of the King, and that he 
was commissioned not to allow anything other to be done or come to pass. 

On the fifteenth about midday, after dinner, there came to salute us, 
besides the foresaid gentlemen, the Lord Steuardt Prior of Planterre 
[Blantyre] and Counsellor of the King, the Provost of the town of Edem- 
burgh, William Hume, with the Baron of Carmicle and others, and they 
convoyed us with the King's horses and brought us into Edemburgh to 
our lodgings and bedchambers with manifold and often reiterated proffers 
of every good thing ; and declaring our coming to be so welcome, yea ! 
more welcome than that of any other ambassadors, both to His Majesty, 
and also to the nobility, the church, and the commons, hoping from it 
some special virtue and service to the religion and the common cause : 
and further as to defrayment it has been provided for most excellently, 
along with all means for compliments and courtesies. 

On the sixteenth of August we found good to proffer our greetings to the 
Lords Ambassadors of England and Denmark respectively, and to declare 
that we should willingly come and greet their excellencies, but considering 
that this might be other than welcome before we should have had an 
audience of His Majesty, beg that the delay be looked upon in the best 
light by their excellencies, and so also that apology was accepted. 

The same day came to greet us the ministers and church council of the 
town, very heartily testifying their gladness and pleasure in our coming 
and therethrough hoping and expecting much good, etc. 

The same day we received a letter from the King through Captain de 
Lachy [Dallachy], and which is submitted among the documents belong- 
ing to this legation. It is written with his own hand and the contents 
bear how pleasant our coming was to His Majesty, and excuses himself 
for not more quickly coming to see us. 

On the seventeenth some of the forementioned gentlemen along with 
the Bailies and others of the magistracy came and fetched us and con- 
ducted us to the preaching escorted by twelve hallebardiers, etc. 

On the eighteenth as it was announced to us that the Ambassador of 
England, Sir Boows [Mr. Bowes] by name, along with those of Denmark, 
respectively desired to greet us, we sent to the said Lords respectively 
excusing ourselves on the ground that we following our devoir did not 
come and greet their excellencies before having had an Audience of the 
King, which their excellencies respectively took in good part, and did 
thank us with proffers of all good, and expressing great desire to enter 
into conversation with us. Similarly also it happened with regard to the 
Ambassador of Mecklenburgh and Brunswick, and he of Mecklenburgh 
sent his compliments to us desiring that he might go and see the ships of 
my Lords the States (that we came over in), which could not yet con- 
veniently be done, as said ships were under repair in the harbour of Leith. 

On the twentieth the Lord Chancellor of the kingdom, Metallamus 
[Maitland] (having come in late the evening before from his house to 
Edemburgh), gave us to understand that he would come and greet us, and 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 157 

although we had desired ourselves to have done that devoir towards his 
lordship, he was pleased not to suffer it, and came to us at our lodging, and 
after reciprocal greetings and welcomes he entered upon discourse about 
the condition of the United Provinces and their prospects ; how highly the 
friendship of my Lords the States was esteemed by the King his master, 
and how greatly also by his council, that therefore they had caused us to 
be invited to stand as witnesses at the baptism of the young Prince, and 
that he was at one with us in wishing to see, in opposition to the unrigh- 
teous pretensions and usurpations of the King of Spain, some good treaty 
made ; about which there was too much delay ; that likewise they had 
laboured in Denmark, Mecklenburgh, Brunswick, and with other Princes, 
by commission of the King his master, especially with respect of the 
right to the crown of England, His Majesty standing in the expectation 
that thereanent he should find intentions differ, indeed most tending to 
this, that any one of the said King and princes would prefer to see the 
others go before them, and then they would certainly be willing to 
follow : that he had found the Council of Denmark cool in the matter 
because of the minority of the King, and likewise the said other princes, 
and particularly he of Brunswick, who intimated his house was in alliance 
with the House of Austria, which alliance he on his part would not will- 
ingly be the first to break ; he told us also that those of Venice had 
given hints to His Majesty about a treaty against the King of Spain 
fearing the overgreat power of the same, concerning which negotiations 
were still being carried on at the present time by certain on the part of 
His Majesty, sent thither with answers for that sole purpose, as we other- 
wise also had come to know. Further, he said, that the Duke of Florence, 
Mantua, and they, were thereto agreeable : to all which was said by us 
in general terms, that it was to be wished that the Princes and Republics 
who were of the religion might in such a manner be united that the 
King of Spain with his partisans might be worsted in his projects. That 
also my Lords the States in order to effect this will neglect no means in 
their power to second His Majesty and other princes, etc. His lordship 
prolonged his discourse on the same subject to great length, and related 
to us how some time ago when the Spanish fleet was in their waters that 
having surprised a common lyre player they had been at him to win him 
over to the allegiance of the King of Spain, and to corrupt him, saying 
that the purpose of the said King of Spain was nothing more than to take 
vengeance on the Queen of England for the ill turns she had done him, 
that he would not interfere with Scotland whether in religion or other- 
wise, desiring to give to the King thereof good reliable promises and 
assurances, and that thereto it was replied by his Lordship that such 
moderation in the proposals was most unexpected, and that the Kingdom 
of Scotland too much dreaded having for a neighbour so mighty a prince 
as the King of Spain, not to mention the diversity of religion, and more 
reasons besides ; and discourses pertinent to the subject, touching some- 
times upon the intentions and policy of the Queen of England, etc. 
Thereafter his lordship, with great demonstrations of affection for my 



158 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

Lords the States and their affairs, took respectful leave of us, not wishing 
in any wise to be escorted by us, we caused his lordship to be convoyed 
by some noblemen to his lodging, and he departed the same day to 
Strevelingen. 

The twenty-first, being Sunday, the magistracy of the city in solemn 
procession with other gentlemen of his Majesty's council conducted us to 
the preaching and thence homewards again. 

The twenty-second August, the said gentlemen and magistrates con- 
ducted us in solemni formi to the place of studies, where some students 
in philosophy orated and disputed. With them was (and among others 
the young Count of Gowre disputed) my Lord Setton who accompanied 
us and the other said gentlemen homewards. 

The same day very late in the evening some gentlemen of the council, 
namely the abovenamed Prince of Planterre and Sir Robbert Melvin, 1 
Treasurer-Depute, being come from Strevelingen, came to announce and 
excuse that the day of the baptism was again postponed to Sunday the 
five and twentieth August old style, as His Majesty had received tidings 
of the coming of the Ambassador of France ; desired that they would 
take the delay in good part and declared that if said Ambassador 
should not by that time have arrived they would not put off longer. 

The twenty-third of August nothing special happened or was done 
worth remembering, except that we caused the blanks in the letter of 
De Reuter to the young prince for a godchild's gift to be filled up with 
the name of the Queen, in these words, Anna Fille de Denmarcque, in 
gold letters, which the open space demanded, and so well is it done that 
there is not the smallest difference between these and the other letters or 
observable in the combination. We acted as may easily be understood as 
best might uphold the honour of our country in regard to the nurse and 
others placed around the young prince. 

On the twenty-fourth we were conducted by the Baron of Carmickle, 
Equerry of His Majesty, with the King's and other horses, outside to the 
fields, to take a turn, fully about thirty horses, accompanied by the 
Councillor Melvin, the Conservator, the brother of the Earl of Orkney 
and the son of the Count of ... Abbot of ... In this 
excursion we saw a beautiful country domain, well cultivated, and so 
towards evening we came again to our lodging. 

The twenty-fifth, the Lord Ambassador of England came to greet us 
with presentation of all good things and services that were in his power, 
wishing that we might have had an audience of the King, and that he 
would be free to have some conference with us, letting us know that 
he was given to understand that the King would be in the town the next 
day and that we should then obtain an audience. Next day, the twenty- 
sixth August, we conveyed our thanks to the said Lord Ambassador, for, 
in especial, his good affection, and the trouble he had taken which he 



Afterwards first Lord Melville. 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 159 

had done (so he had declared to the Agent Dammen) on the said twenty- 
fourth, when we did ride out for a tour (notwithstanding his previous 
indisposition and that he is very old), he had sat on horseback having 
sought to meet us in the field, having even gone as far as the Aby 
Fountain without meeting us, which we were sorry for, besides that 
we also desired very much to confer with his excellency, and touching 
the arrival of the King that it was very agreeable to us to understand 
the same and to get an audience to shorten our stay, and to allow 
occasion to confer with his excellency. We also took steps to ascer- 
tain what opportunity there might be to return through England if it 
should be agreeable, time and business permitting. Having learned the 
same day and ascertained that the rumour of the King's arrival had 
proved vain, nothing came of it, and vexing ourselves that time was 
slipping away and nothing being done, we deliberated among our- 
selves whether, to save time, it would not be well to communicate to 
the Lord Chancellor, who that evening had arrived in the town, the pre- 
liminaries on the point of the confirmation of the aforesaid Treaty, and 
also to get to know what further intentions might be entertained, and so 
we had planned to send to his Lordship, when the Lord Conservator of the 
Scotch nation at Veere (who otherwise was always much with us com- 
plimenting and making addresses) came to say that the said Lord 
Chancellor had begged to come to us, and after usual greetings to say to 
us that seeing His Majesty was well aware the loss of time would vex us, 
his lordship had come into the town and desired along with some 
gentlemen of the Council to come and confer with us, so as to gain time 
and put through preliminaries while His Majesty was otherwise occupied 
at Streveling, the which we declared would be very agreeable to us, 
besides that we in pursuance of our devoir would wait on his lordship. 
To this it was answered, that this was for important reasons not desired 
by his lordship, and that he would come to us. We acted upon the 
hint of his lordship so as not to disturb him in his good consideration 
and expected him accordingly. At our instance the hour was fixed by 
his lordship at full afternoon, then on account of other occupations of 
the Council it was remitted to the following day at ten o'clock forenoon. 
Here and at intervals there was brought to our notice, as did also 
formerly happen to us, on the part or indeed in the name of the Earl 
of Bobwel, that by some nobleman we were besought to intercede with 
His Majesty in behalf of the proscribed lords, namely the Earl of Huntly, 
the Earl of Angous, and the Earl of Arol, to the end that they should 
enter the service and otherwise strictly bind themselves to the United 
Netherlands, should respect the King and obey as good vassals, and 
break off all alliances and communication with the King of Spain and his 
followers, adding that on the part of Her Majesty of England they were 
cordially invited to that course, but on conditions unacceptable to them, 
and lastly, desiring to be reconciled to their King, and would prefer to 
have that brought about by other means, as has been said : that they 
had already taken some steps to plead with His Majesty, that such a 



160 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

work would be honourable. Whereto we, after mutual discourse, re- 
solved to do nothing for reasons sufficiently notour and should we be 
further importuned to excuse ourselves in the same, with good motives. 

On the twenty-seventh, about ten o'clock forenoon, the Lord Chancellor 
with the Councillors Melvin, Treasurer, and Mr. Steuard aforesaid came 
to us, and after customary greetings and demonstrations of benevolence, 
the Lord Chancellor commenced by declaring that His Majesty being 
aware that the time of waiting must be very vexatious to us, had 
charged his lordship to make his excuses and forthwith to enter into 
conference concerning the affairs of our Land. 

We answered that excuses were uncalled for, that the entertainment, 
recueil, and the honour done us were indeed such that the delay had not 
caused us annoyance, although we were extremely anxious that our 
business should be pushed on so that we might return home as soon 
as possible, but that we also were well able to take into consideration 
that His Majesty (like other princes) had important affairs in hand and 
other reasons, wherethrough everything could not take place on the 
appointed time and day. In this we willingly expressed our content- 
ment, thanking His Majesty, and no less their lordships for their good 
care in advancing the business and in order to accomplish that which we 
were authorised to confer anent. And first of all we related that 
although the Agent Dammen was not included by name in our com- 
mission, etc., yet, nevertheless, as, after our departure, the continuation 
and prosecution of the business would be confided to him (as Agent 
General) request was made that it might please their lordships that 
the said Dammen might be present at the conference. Whereupon the 
Lord Chancellor highly commended the good conduct of the said Agent, 
and declared that he found it good and necessary that he should be 
present, and so it was decided. Having accordingly therefore entered 
into conference (the affair of the baptism of the young prince having 
been remitted reckoning there was time for that after) the renewal 
of the old treaties between Scotland and the Netherlands tendered by 
His Majesty was first spoken of, for which, while we expressed our 
thanks, we have, following our Instruction brought down the application 
of the same to the year fifteen hundred and fifty, whereupon the Lord 
Chancellor pointed out that the foresaid treaty had been mutually kept 
unbroken, having none the less had a sole existence of a hundred years : 
that also the questions out of which the foresaid treaty and others 
originated were not caused by either of the contracting parties, but by 
others, their respective allies, that being sufficiently acquainted with the 
contents of this one there should therefore be no difficulty in confirming 
said treaty ; and having in reference to it exhibited the Instrument de- 
spatched by my Lords the States including the Insertion, the which were 
carried to his lordship's house by the Agent Dammen, but it came to 
pass that it was not then sealed as his lordship departed to Strevelingh. 
The said Chancellor did in the said conference principally discourse at 
length on the expediency and necessity of a common league of the 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 161 

princes, devoted to the religion against the superstitions of the King of 
Spain and his adherents ; of the manifold devoirs by his King through 
him and others to various Kings and Princes in Germany, favourable 
thereto without hitherto much fruit : also of the minority of the elect 
King of Denmark as well as that some other princes said they were 
in alliance with the House of Austria, and about not wishing to be the 
first to break off, etc. Whereupon we answered that all the world knows 
how my Lords the States have continuously during many years carried 
on war against the Spanish tyranny, that they did not doubt in ought of 
the good intention and inclination of their lordships to so good a cause, 
provided that it was carried out along with others, with the goodwill of 
the Queen of England, with whom for her sake they were ready to 
come into closer communication under the oversight of the other Kings 
and princes ; that that was their commission, and after that had been 
promised and confirmed as good and adviseable by the said Lord 
Chancellor, the conference thereupon took end, and we thereafter went 
together to dinner and the Chancellor departed in the afternoon to 
Strevelingh as aforesaid. On the days immediately following nothing 
specially worthy of note occurred, only that on the twenty-ninth we 
wrote to my Lords the States, and besides that the day of the baptism 
was put oif because of the diverse and uncertain tidings about the Am- 
bassador of England, and that it was hinted we were to go to Strevelingh 
on Wednesday the last of August, and that the King begged us not to 
take it ill that the baptism was put off till the Sunday thereafter. 
On the said last of August we did greet the Lord Ambassador of England 
with due compliments, and hinted at our departure for Strevelingh, 
hoping that after our audience we should see his excellency there 
and speak with him. In answer, thanking us with reciprocal compliments, 
he let us know that he likewise would willing confer with us on matters 
touching the welfare of Christendom. The said journey, after some 
hindrance, was begun on September first, and we came in the evening to 
Lisco [Linlithgow], and next day, the second September, we arrived at 
Strevelingh, where the King was. Our arrival was honoured with three 
shots of artillery from the castle and the King's trumpeters came to meet 
us : we were escorted on the road from Edemburgh to Strevelingh by various 
gentlemen and noblemen thereto appointed by the King, and everywhere 
besides we met with many civilities and kind attentions, specially from 
the Baron of Carmicle, who kept us provided with good horses as far as 
Strevelingh, where we were brought to our lodging, being the house of 
the Earl of Argeil, where we were well accommodated with everything. 
The Baron of Hetten, Grand Steward of the King, and my Lord Laitdois 
[Lindores], son of the Earl of Rothes, were commissioned by the King to 
come and bid us welcome and they announced that we should next day 
have an audience of the King at ten o'clock forenoon. 

On Saturday, the third September, near about ten o'clock, the 
gentlemen, my Lord Hetton and my Lord Landois aforesaid came and 
fetched us and conducted us to the audience with the King, which took 

L 






162 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

place in the court of the Earl of May, where we found His Majesty, 
assisted by the Lords, Duke of Lemice, the Earl of Marn, the Earl of 
Montros and his eldest son, the Earl of Lencarne, my Lord Hui, My 
Lord Sincler, my Lord de Levingston, my Lord Hethone, my Lord 
Flammurgh, my Lord Helvistone, my Lord Semple and others. We 
made our reverence and kissed hands and with suitable compliments, 
from my Lords the States-General delivered our credentials to His 
Majesty having made known the reasons of our coming thither in 
accordance with the contents of our instruction. His Majesty answered 
thereto in substance, saying that he himself had been moved by two 
special reasons to call and invite my Lords the States to be witnesses 
and godfathers in the baptism of his first son the Prince of Scotland, 
the first, because of the fellowship and unanimity of the religion like- 
wise sought by other Kings and Princes, for in that cause the States of 
the United Netherlands had suffered much, arid in order to witness 
before all the world his right disposition to the religion, to the 
confusion of those who had asserted otherwise of him : and the other 
reason, owing to the friendship and alliance which the ancestors of 
His Majesty had maintained during a long period with the Netherlands ; 
that our persons were therefore welcome and agreeable to him, especially 
the Lord of Brederode as being a descendant of the family of the Counts 
of Holland, to which His Majesty also belonged, or was also descended 
from, and Valcke as an honour to the ambassage, he in that way getting 
a compliment : further, he testified very lovingly to the affection borne 
by His Majesty to my Lords the States, and afterwards falling into 
familiar talk, the King told how the Queen of England had taken the 
matter peevishly, and that she was complaining to all Ambassadors that 
His Majesty had invited my Lords the States to be witnesses and 
godfathers, thus putting those who, she said, were her subjects, on the 
same footing as Kings and Princes; and that thereanent His Majesty 
had told her he was of opinion that this should be more agreeable to 
Her Majesty than if he had invited the King of Spain for that purpose. 
Then we said, that Her Majesty had no ground for esteeming so little 
my Lords the States representatives of the Sovereignty of Dukes, Counts 
and Lords, much less to name them her subjects ; that besides, by the 
treaty entered into with Her Majesty and by other things the contrary 
was sufficiently evident. His Majesty said enough about that, and that 
it was a woman and we must forgive her sex. 1 Then after having spoken 
a little about the affair of Groningen and the war in the Netherlands, we 
took our leave with due reverences to His Majesty and other principal 
princes and lords there present. 

In the afternoon we caused it to be made known to the Queen that 
whenever Her Majesty pleased she might give us audience, which was 
remitted to the next day, the fourth September, between two and three 
o'clock after mid-day, in order that, after the audience, we might go to 
dinner with Her Majesty and the King. 

1 King Jamie thus had his revenge for the Queen's letter of 1588 (p. 129). 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 163 

The fourth September, after mid-day as aforesaid, the gentlemen, my 
Lord Simple and Mr. Alexander Hesvistone, came and fetched us and 
conducted us with the King's horses to the Castle or Palace of the King, 
where being brought into the presence of Her Majesty, and having offered 
her fitting reverences and kissed hands, we presented to Her Majesty the 
compliments and recommendations of my Lords the States in pursuance 
of our commission, which were very amicably and gratefully received by 
Her Majesty. Thereafter Her Majesty proceeded to ask after the welfare 
of his excellence, Count Mauritz of Nassau, as a blood relation of Her 
Majesty, and how his affairs prospered. To which we answered that we 
knew nothing but what was good, that we did not doubt but that 
his excellence would have written to Her Majesty through us 
had he not been engaged at a distance in warlike affairs and greatly 
occupied with the siege of Groningen, which now (by God's grace) was 
taken. Then, after some more informal conversation, we took leave of 
Her Majesty and were conducted to the quarters of the young prince, 
whom we saw there and kissed hands, and he appears to be a very fine 
thriving child as can be seen from the picture of him we brought over 
with us. Thence again we were conducted to the quarters of the King, 
whom we found in company with the Lords Ambassadors of Denmark, of 
Brunswick, and of Meckelenburgh, and after some familiar and general 
conversation on diverse subjects we went in to dinner. At table were 
their Majesties, the Ambassadors of Denmark, by name Christian Barin- 
couw and Steijn Bilde, the Ambassador of Brunswick, named Adam 
Crause, the Ambassador of Meckelenburgh, named Joachim Bassewits, 
and we two without saying more, there being besides there present many 
Lords-in-waiting, namely, the Duke of Lennox, the Earl of Mar, my 
Lord Hum, etc. The dinner passed off with many good and joyous 
dances of His Majesty and all the Lords and Nobles. When the meal 
was finished His Majesty, not without great pressing as we were present, 
set himself to dance, and that being ended, about midnight we were 
brought back from the Castle on horseback to our lodging. 

On Monday the fifth September we sought out and saluted with befitting 
compliments my Lords the Ambassadors of Denmark who reciprocally on 
their part met us therein with every civility and compliments. In the 
interval His Majesty did invite us to accompany him in hunting as those 
on journey had not come, for reasons before mentioned. About mid-day 
we went again, accompanied by various gentlemen, to the palace, and 
after some familiar conversation with His Majesty and the Lords Ambas- 
sadors aforesaid, His Majesty called the Ambassadors and us apart, saying 
that he wished to hold a consultation with us. It was to deliberate, 
according to custom, with the godfathers about the name to be given to 
the young prince. Whereupon, after various considerations and discourse, 
we all in common resolved, after having respect to the kinship and other 
things besides, on Frederick Hendrick, Frederick in respect of the grand- 
father 011 the mother's side the late King of Denmark, and Hendrick in 
respect of the Duke of Brunswick as of Meckelenburgh, grandfather of 



164 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

the Queen on the mother's side ; item, that the King of France is also- 
named Hendrick, so also is the father of the Queen of England, although 
her Ambassadors were not yet present. His Majesty said to baptize him 
with the name of Charles Jacques, but without wishing any heed to be 
paid to his words, he being of opinion and so many others that the name 
Jacques was unlucky, and he had for good reasons given up Charles. 
A festo Bartholemes 1572. Thereafter a dinner was given by their 
Majesties, and it was held with the same personages and in the same 
style as the former one : as also that if His Majesty in hunting should 
kill a stag he wished that we should eat of it next day, following up 
which the Ambassadors of Denmark with all honours and joyousness at 
the pleasure of His Majesty invited us against next day at noon. 

On Tuesday the sixth September we went as abovewritten to dinner 
as the guests of the Ambassadors of Denmark, and at table we were 
invited all together to supper at the Palace in the evening on the part of 
the Earl of Mar. There in the evening we all compeared and were 
entertained, and during supper the company was very heartily together 
and well served. His Majesty came there as prince and bore himself 
very happily and joyfully, showing, indeed, towards us even more than 
to the others his good inclination. In course of all this it continued to* 
be the resolution of the King to have the baptism done next day, then 
one other day it was put off because of the Ambassador of England, the 
Earl of Sussex, who was only to arrive this day, the seventh, in the 
evening, at Strevelingh. The seventh September, being Wednesday, 
we were the guests of the Lords Ambassadors of Brunswick and 
Meckelenburgh. 

The eighth September we went out to hunt in the Park with the King, 
and returning thence His Majesty gave audience to the Ambassador of 
England, and thereafter we sent to the Ambassador Ordinary, Mr. Boos, 
in order (as we had now had an audience) to make our salutations to His 
Excellency besides to the Lord Ambassador the Duke of Sussex. This 
we did on Friday the ninth September, and offered and received recipro- 
cally the compliments due and suitable to the occasion, remitting further 
conference to a better opportunity. 

On the ninth, as aforesaid, the baptism of the said young prince was 
solemnised with all ceremonies and solemnities fitting in the baptism of so 
high a prince, as preachings, first in Scotch and afterwards by the Bishop of 
Iverdin [Aberdeen] in Latin, with orations in Latin, first verses and there- 
after prose, among other things exhorting the Princes and States whereof 
the Ambassadors were present, tanquam actions sponsoria obligatos, to be- 
mindful of their vows in regard to the said Prince to help to bring him 
up and instruct and exercise him in the Reformed Christian Religion, 
and the name was given Fredrick Hendrick, Hendrick Fredrick. Here 
we may note that the King had caused to be hung over the heads of the 
Ambassadors respectively the coats of arms of their princes, and above 
us (without our knowing beforehand) the coats of Holland and Zeeland, 
and thus wrongly done, we caused the same to be taken down, and had 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 165 

the coats of arms of the six United Provinces that belong to the honour 
of the same portrayed in forma. 

The solemnities being accomplished, and the name of the prince being 
repeatedly announced to the people by the Herald with flourishes of 
trumpets, Largess was called out ; the King dubbed sixteen noblemen 
knights, whereof the first was William Stewart. After all which the 
Lords Ambassadors each in order made presentation to Her Majesty of 
the godchild gifts, we too, in accordance with our commission, and Her 
Majesty for this heartily thanked my Lords the States. Then after each 
had gone away a little on account of refreshments, we all went in to the 
Royal dinner and banquet. At table were His Majesty, the Queen, the 
old and new Ambassadors of England, and all the others aforesaid, in- 
cluding us, without saying more, and everything passed off to the evening 
with cheerfulness. 

The tenth September we sent the Agent Dammen to the King to say to 
His Majesty that since now the solemnity of the baptism of the young 
Prince was past, and we should very much like to return home at the 
first opportunity, we begged His Majesty, if it should please him, to give 
us his further commands in anything or to deign to come into conference 
with us on the subject lately entertained with the Lord Chancellor, or 
otherwise we held ourselves ready to proceed in accordance with His 
Majesty's good pleasure, and the said Dammen reported that the King 
said that the matter of two or three days was of no consequence, and 
that he had still something to speak to us about and that the Chancellor 
would need to be present at the interview, and that it should be at 
Edemburgh, and that he had given the Chancellor orders to arrange 
for that. 

The eleventh, being Sunday, the King let us know that we were to 
come to supper in the evening with His Majesty and, towards evening, 
being conducted by certain gentlemen of the Court to His Majesty's the 
same said to us before supper that His Majesty had been much hindered 
by leavetakings given to the other Ambassadors who had been there a 
very long time. Hence we were detained and he would give orders that 
we should leave next day in the afternoon for Edemburgh, where within 
five or six days His Majesty would meet us, and meantime he had given 
orders to the Chancellor to enter into conference with us on the subject 
of what still remained to be done as regards the proposals of His Majesty 
to my Lords the States; His Majesty further declaring that he had 
spoken with the Ambassador of England about the League, and it 
appeared the Earl of Sussex had no special commission on that point, 
but the Ambassador Ordinary certainly had, and he had said that he 
had still something to speak of to His Majesty, he supposing that it 
would be about that. His Majesty indicated the right to the crown 
of England that was due to him, and therefore the more desired to 
strengthen himself against the King of Spain through whose tyranny 
his kingdom was agitated by the sedition of certain, and that in 
especial in respect of the religion, which His Majesty protested he 



166 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

always heartily resolved to maintain, as he (if we waited ten days 
longer) would cause us to see in his actions, noticing his intended 
campaign against the prescribed lords living in the north quarter. 
Further, he said that he had caused representations to be made to the 
Queen of England about the League ; that she did request His Majesty 
to send the Ambassador to the Archduke Ernestus to the end that he 
should not raise trouble in His Majesty's lands, but that he had answered 
he did not approve this course for divers reasons, the said Archduke 
being no more than the lieutenant of the King of Spain, and that 
it would be a long time indeed before he would get any despatches on 
the subject from Spain ; thinking, also, that if such request were made 
or if he sent on that account that the Queen of England would therein 
find cause to blame him as if he had something else going on under 
cover of it. Further, he said that he had made representations about 
the league to the Ambassadors of Denmark, Brunswick, and Meckelen- 
burgh, and that during the winter season they could not expect any 
answer, but only get their answer as time went on. Thereafter we went 
to supper, namely, the King and Queen, the Ambassadors of Denmark, 
Brunswick, Meckelenburgh, and we, not saying more, also the Ambas- 
sador of England had been to dinner unexpectedly with His Majesty. 
The supper passed off with good discourse and services, and since nothing 
worth noting has happened save that the King came and spoke about the 
Agent Dammen, testifying extremely well of him. 

. On Monday the twelfth we made ready for our departure to Lidlsho, and 
there came to us my Lords the Lord Earl of Mar, the Baron of Tillieverme 
[TullibardineJ, Steward to His Majesty, brother of Alexander Murray, 
with other gentlemen, Keith, etc., recommending to us very specially and 
particularly the said Lord Earl, as they had already several times before 
done, as also along with them the Baron of Hun, the person of the fore- 
said Alexander Murray their cousin, praying that the same might be 
continued in the good grace of my Lords the States, and thanking them 
for the favour already shown to him ; and we again repeated the offer of 
all possible services and favours to His Majesty and in other respects 
where the same might be for the advantage of these Lands ; and the 
gentlemen aforesaid honoured us with their presence to dinner, the said 
Lord Earl of Mar strongly recommending to us the case of one Peter 
Douwglas that justice might be done him with despatch, according to 
the law of our land. 

The day previous the Earl of Orkenay did state to us that some of the 
herring fishers, above a hundred in number, had been guilty of much 
damage and insolence in one of his islands, requesting remedy therein, 
and we desired that the complaint be pertinently in writing given to us. 
in order that my Lords the States might be provided with information on 
the matter ; item, we had also a visit from the Lord Schineus by com- 
mission of the King, recommending us (but with great protestation of 
having unwillingly undertaken to do so) the case of Alexander Wichart, 
as to which we said nothing but what could be known out of the last 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 167 

Request (whereof a copy was given us to take with us) with the Appostille 
of the Sovereign States-General in reference to it, wherewith the said 
Wichart coming in was no way contented, we remitting everything to 
the good discretion of my Lords. We sent the same day to the Ambas- 
sadors of England, excusing ourselves for not coming to greet or say adieu 
to them before our departure from Strevelingh to Edenburgh hoping to do 
so better at Edenburgh, the which, the said Lords received with thanks, 
etc. And so we left, being honoured with three shots of artillery from the 
Castle, and so to Lidlsco on horseback, where we arrived in the evening. 

The thirteenth we left Ledtsko and arrived in the evening at Eden- 
burgh, where on our arrival we were greeted with three shots of artillery 
from the Castle, and were in that fashion accompanied by the lords, the 
Baron of Carmicle, Master of Horse to the King, the conservator as 
mostly always everywhere the said Melvin, the said Morray, Captain 
Dellachy. 

On the sixteenth nothing happened worth telling about. The Queen 
arrived in Edenburgh on the fifteenth. Nihil actum. 

On the sixteenth the King came to Edenburgh, and the Chancellor 
gave us to understand that on account of various considerations he had 
not spoken with us until the King should be present, but that now, if we 
wished it, he would proceed with our business. 

On the eighteenth the Chancellor gave us to understand through the 
conservator that he had begun to review the treaty of the year fifteen 
hundred and fifty, and had remarked some difficulties which on the 
following day in conference should be laid before us. 

On the nineteenth as we had consented and asked leave to go and 
compear at any place the Lord Chancellor would be pleased to designate, 
his excellency was again pleased to come to us at our lodging accompanied 
with the Lord Melvin, Treasurer, and the said Stewart called the Planteyre. 
After reverences and greetings done, he narrated in somma the good inclina- 
tion of the King His Majesty to my Lords the States, etc., and that he had 
looked over the Instrument of the Ratification of the Treaties, and in par- 
ticular that of the year fifteen hundred and fifty inserted finding the same 
to be relative to some foregoing and in particular to that of the year 
fourteen hundred eight and forty and . . . which he declared that it 
was not and that he did not properly know its contents, desired to have 
a look at it if we had it by us, and further if we had anything more to 
lay before him we might do so. That His Majesty and the Lords of the 
Council were well inclined to please us. We said, as we explained 
formerly, that our commission consisted in three principal points, the 
first touching the baptism of the young prince, which now by God's 
grace was accomplished, the second touching the renewal of the old 
treaties which were proffered on the part of His Majesty and thankfully 
accepted by my Lords the States in the form shown to His Highness, 
that we had no commission to do anything else or any request to make, 
that as concerning relative matters, we exhibited copies we had in our 
possession that they might be inspected by His Highness. And the third 



168 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

touching the Centra-League as to which we as before declared were com- 
missioned to enter into conference with his Majesty or his Council along 
with the Ambassadors of the Kings of France, England, and Denmark, 
provided they were thereto commissioned, and that not being the case that 
we could not enter into the matter singularly, but only as a conference. 
And that if it pleased their excellencies to make representation concern- 
ing certain points in the manner of proposals that generally their 
Highnesses my Lords the States-General could well confide in their good 
inclination to promote the common best of Christendom, the which their 
Highnesses now during so many years) continuously had opposed in 
deadly war against the King of Spain and his adherents. Their excel- 
lencies testified that in this they had been well pleased, explaining that 
the business might be carried through in conjunction with the other kings 
and princes, especially with the consent of the Queen of England and 
also of France, whose ambassador, according to the writing which he said 
His Majesty had thereanent, was expected the 15th October next. 
Further we discoursed on the necessity for the said League as we did 
formerly, and before the breaking up of the said conference, after other 
familiar talk we discoursed of the successful carrying through of their 
affairs by my Lords the States, namely, concerning the taking of the town 
Groningen, their equity in dealing with the vanquished, aiming at liberty 
and exemption from the tyranny of the Spaniards, etc. We prayed the 
said lords that a final resolution might at the first be come to as we 
were very anxious to depart, etc., having promised ourselves to do so. 

That evening we were invited to supper at the Earl of Orkenays and 
were very royally received and entertained with demonstration of good- 
will towards my Lords the States. 

On the twentieth we sent the Agent Dammen to the Chancellor in order 
that he might by all possible means seek a good and short leave-taking, since 
now the Ambassadors of Brunswick, Meckelenburgh, and Denmark had 
gone, having sailed this day in the morning, and the English one was also 
preparing everything for his departure. That our waiting on was very 
hindersome to us, and might possibly cause suspicions with the Queen of 
England, etc. Whereupon the said Dammen reported as his answer 
from the said Lord Chancellor that His Majesty had promised that we 
should receive an answer at latest on Thursday the twenty-second of 
September. 

The twenty-first September we entertained us with the said Earl of 
Orkenay, etc., Captain Jan Balfoer, and took leave of the Ambassadors 
of England, who this afternoon took formal leave I mean the Earl of 
Sussex to Her Majesty and the next day, the twenty-second September, 
the Lord Ambassador the Earl of Sussex took his departure. 

During this interval we were advised by the Conservator that in regard 
to the expediting of the confirmation of the old alliances and friendships, 
certain difficulties had come to the surface, which we, Colonel Stewart 
being commissioned thereanent to explain, understood to be that the 
Instrument with the Insertion held that the King through his Ambassador 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 169 

Sir William Keith, etc., had made the request to the States thereanent, 
which the Lord Chancellor afterwards likewise himself said was the case, 
and though it was so (although these were affairs of long ago and charters) 
regard must be had to the reputation of the King, and thereanent it was 
found good in expedition of the despatches so to arrange (that the busi- 
ness might not be left undone) that there should from neither side be 
any request, and on that matter we were obliged to employ our commis- 
sion and authorisation in order to renew, etc., without insertion and on 
this followed the agreement (our original commission thereto serving us) 
in accordance with the copy of it also herewith attached, and it is to be 
noted in this that the Lord Chancellor had asked us in what name the 
prescribed agreement had to be drawn up, whether of the whole Nether- 
lands or of the United Provinces only. Whereto we, after deliberation 
and conference, answered on the part of the United Provinces along with 
others that in future might be willing to unite with them, which clause 
we added for good reasons which my Lords the States can consider for 
themselves. Also the Lord Chancellor would have liked much that in 
the Instrument given by us on the part of my Lords the States there 
should have on both sides been inserted mention of the Provinces that 
might in future unite with them. We excused ourselves from the same 
as having no special instruction for that, and his excellency expressed 
himself satisfied with that answer. 

During and between the foregoing conferences the King did through 
the gentlemen Knight Stewart and Knight Keith appoint us an audience 
on the twenty-third, then owing to other important occupations of His 
Majesty the same was put off till the next day. 

The twenty-fourth September we sent word to the Lord Chancellor that 
we begged leave to come and say adieu to his excellency, and his excellency 
let us know that he was coming to our house within a half hour, so we 
went to him and he accompanied us back to our lodgings and there took 
leave with very good assurances and demonstrations of his affection to 
my Lords the States and understanding of their affairs. In the after- 
noon the gentlemen, Baron of Levinston, Stewart, and Keith came on 
the part of the King to fetch us and conduct us to the audience with His 
Majesty in the palace, where after fitting reverence done, His Majesty in 
the first place apologised for having been obliged to keep us so long detained 
because of the despatches of the other ambassadors, and also other im- 
portant businesses and occupations. He earnestly desired my Lords the 
States to be assured of his good inclination towards them, highly appre- 
ciating as he did their Highnesses wise and prudent conduct of affairs, 
together with their upright intention of furthering, even with the sword, 
the freedoms of their neighbours without other pretension in regard to 
the same, he therefore wished them all good prosperity, and so as His 
Majesty had brought that subject before us he earnestly desired that my 
Lords the States would keep up a closer intelligence and correspondence 
with him than had hitherto been the case, he having sometimes in the 
course of one or two years had no news from the Netherlands, and if 



170 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

there happened to be anything secret or of importance to advise him of 
they were to communicate with the said Sir William Keith. Further he 
said in reference to the Centra-League that his Ambassador was now at 
the Court of the Queen of England on account of it, to endeavour to 
dispose her thereto, but that as yet he had been unable to get any answer 
on the subject. That the Ambassador of France was expected, where 
from the intention of the King might be understood and that His Majesty 
at that point could not act in the matter except by making solicitations 
to the said parties. Thereafter His Majesty said he had good reasons to 
be opposed to the King of Spain (though he was not like my Lords the 
States at war with him), that verily troubles were stirred up in his 
state by his money and intriguers, and indirectly because of the religion, 
on account of which, and for diverse other reasons His Majesty, said that 
it was his interest and he was bound to keep good friendship with my 
Lords the States. And speaking on the subject of the Queen of England 
His Majesty said it might not be amiss if we (passing through England) 
should take an opportunity of telling Her Majesty about our negotiations 
and all that happened to us in Scotland, in order to avoid suspicions 
being certain that Her Majesty was informed of everything. After this 
His Majesty desired his greeting to be made to my Lord, Count Maurice 
of Nassau, in the hope of becoming more closely acquainted with each 
other, recommended to us the affair of the late Colonel Henry Balfour 
one of whose sons being there present, and thereafter the person of 
Adrian Dammen, declaring the contentment of His Majesty with the 
good offices rendered by him in informing His Majesty and instructing 
him of occurrences of affairs in the Netherlands in which every one was 
deficient. Therefore we thanked His Majesty for the audience and con- 
fidence, humbly recommending also his person, and after some more 
familiar talk we took leave, with reverences to His Majesty and kissing 
hands, and His Majesty having still spoken a little apart and turning 
to Valcke desired that he on the part of His Majesty should thank the 
Sovereign States that they had sent such a gentleman as the Lord of 
Brederode to him. Therewith parting, we were conducted into the apart- 
ments of the Queen, and there we humbly sought permission to take 
leave of Her Majesty and having kissed hands and recommended the 
affairs of the land, Her Majesty graciously thanked us recommending to- 
us the person of Alexander Morray uncle of one of her ladies-in-waiting 
there present ; item, greetings to his excellence Count Maurice, and 
then we left and were again conducted home by the foresaid gentlemen. 

The twenty-fifth of September we had all our affairs disposed for the 
journey so as to set out (with the help of God) the next day, item, Valcke 
paid a visit to the Ambassador Ordinary of England, Boos, and took leave 
with the due compliments. Afternoon the Lord Keith came with the 
Secretary David Foulis and brought us the letter of His Majesty to my 
Lords the States, which we deliver over, along with this, and the 
despatches aforesaid, and further, His Majesty presented to each a gold 
chain with the medal of His and Her Majesties, and commended us with 
all possible courtesies and reverences to my Lords the States. 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 171 

The twenty-sixth of September, the wind being still easterly, we set 
out on our journey, leaving Edinburgh on horseback, accompanied by 
the Earl of Orkney, the Knight Keith, the Conservator Melvin, and 
specially, the before mentioned Baron of Carmicle, who, with his sons, 
kept with us as far as Berwick, with a portion of our suite, the greater 
portion being left to come by sea, in order that they might meet us in 
London, sailing with the first favourable wind. We having, for diverse 
important reasons, resolved to travel through England by land, we were 
honoured, at our departure, with three shots of artillery out of the 
Castle of Edinburgh, and as the affairs with the Earl of Bodwel looked 
badly, and as in regard to his plots concerning the same, conjectures 
were disclosed, His Majesty appointed and ordained for our security, 
that we should that evening be conducted to, and treated as guests, in 
the house of my Lord Sethori, who received us most heartily, and further 
escorted us with his people, likewise, by order of the King, to the house 
of the Baron of Bas, who, accompanied by noblemen and others, met us 
on the road, and conducted us to his house, where we arrived next day, 
the twenty-seventh September, and were, by him, well received and 
entertained. Next day, the twenty-eighth September, he escorted us 
with the same convoy, to Barwyck, where the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir 
Cary, came to meet us with his cavalry, and brought us into the town 
with honours of artillery, and entertained us that evening. 

The twenty-ninth, we left Berwick, and arrived that evening at Aen- 
wych [Alnwick], where our persons were lodged and entertained by the 
Governor. Leaving Aenwych on the thirtieth, we arrived in the evening 
at New-Castle, where we were very royally received by the Mayor, with 
all the Magistrates in forma, and the burghers under arms. We were 
entertained and lodged in the Mayor's house with great demonstration, 
that our arrival was most agreeable to them, and they escorted us on the 
first October to Lamberen, and we came that evening to Durham, the 
second October to Noorthalerton, the third to Yorck, where we spent the 
fourth resting, then on the fifth to Donckaster, the sixth to Nieuwarck, 
the seventh to Stanenfort, the eighth to Hontingtone, the ninth to 
Waert, the tenth to Bednagin, in the neighbourhood of London, to the 
house of the Lord of Schonewal. On the eleventh we sent word to the 
Grand Chamberlain, requesting that we might see Her Majesty, and that 
an appointment for that purpose might be made for us. 

The fourteenth to Nonsuch, where we did find Her Majesty, who, after 
fitting reverences made with explanations of the reasons of our coming 
thither, and thanks for her favour, declared that she, on her part, 
thanked us very much for having undertaken so heavy a journey in 
order to see her, and in the same way it was very agreeable to her to see 
us, thereafter having entered into the subject of the affection which Her 
Majesty bore to our Lands, and always would bear, and therefore she was 
also confident that they would seek no new friendship, so as to forsake 
the old ; that she had, with great joy, heard of the good success 
of the States' affairs, in especial of the taking of Groningen, and 



172 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

the honourable articles and conditions granted to them there ; that she 
was half-jealous of the honour and reputation ; that the States conducted 
their affairs wisely, more so, and better than other princes, etc. We 
replied that we were glad to understand the good contentment and 
pleasure Her Majesty had in the actions of the States, and their good 
success, confessing that (after God) the assistance of Her Majesty had 
helped greatly to bring matters to good issues, and praying that Her 
Majesty would therein continue, and that from this she might mark the 
upright intentions of the Sovereign States, and that we considered the 
jealousy of Her Majesty as a mark of her greater favour and affection 
that is the best possible. Thereon. Her Majesty began to speak about 
what was said of her by certain, that she wanted to be at peace with 
Spain, and that she had no thoughts of the kind, nor ever should have, 
and that she was too great-hearted to pay court to any one, Illaque virgo 
virum ; that old though she was, she desired court to be paid to herself, 
and earnestly wished us so to say, and to assure the States that she would 
do nothing except with the consideration and to the pleasure of the 
States, as was fitting, and dwelt forcibly and long on that article : from 
that going back upon the good conduct of affairs and success of the 
States, about which she laughingly said that we Royalties might well 
take occasion to be jealous of such good and wise conduct, that the 
doings of their Kings were a mere chronicle of follies ; that said States 
were now rich and mighty, and able to second other people ; that now 
they no longer needed assistance from others, sending as they had done 
to Henry, King of France, three thousand infantry, and five hundred 
horse : saying that she was not aware he had any enemies now, and in 
the event of a peace, that people ought not to have suspicions of Her 
Majesty, speaking for herself, but not wishing to be responsible for 
others, for whom she would not speak. We said that we did not know 
what was going on in our country (as Her Majesty said she could well 
believe that, and that she knew better than we what was passing there), 
and in any case it was to be hoped that assistance, such as had been 
referred to, would not be displeasing to Her Majesty, as being rather 
intended to bring the Walloons, our original enemies, to reason, which 
might be called assisting the King of France. Upon which Her Majesty 
said that a propos of this, she had made a bargain with the people for 
no longer than two months, and they wished to keep them so much 
longer, which was not agreeable to her. 

That, as was fitting, she took care of her subjects ; that, as to that, 
the Jesuits preached that she delivered over her subjects to the 
shambles, and spared them not in other ways : admonishing about 
Madame, the Princess of Orange being now at Paris, visiting the King, 
she repeated once or twice, that she would not return thence this winter, 
that she ought not to leave her own country in that way ; that she had 
left her little son in the Netherlands as a pledge, that he was a fine 
courageous young gentleman, etc. , at school, or studying there ; said 
that she understood the brother of his excellency, Count Mauritz, the 



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 173 

Count van Buren, had arrived out of Spain in the Netherlands : besides 
this, she spoke magnanimously in honour of his excellency, of his piety, 
wisdom, and other good qualities, besides also praising at length that my 
Lords the States, Madame, the Princess of Orange, and in general, the 
house of Nassau did themselves much credit for virtue, that thereby they 
were winning for themselves a great reputation, all which, as before said, 
it would be ingratitude not to appreciate. Her Majesty said ingratitude 
was the peccatum in spiritum sanctum, etc. She referred also to the 
subject of our journey to Scotland, saying that her Ambassador had 
been there, and he recollected that a chair had been placed for the 
absent King of France, that this King had tried to keep her back from 
sending her Ambassador until his should have arrived ; that she would 
not consent to do so, being of opinion that he would not be willing to 
send one out of respect to his Holy Father. Touching the King of 
Scotland, she asked whether we had not been to the hunt with him ; 
that he loved hunting exceedingly, overmuch indeed, that he shunned 
no labour or peril, that she had sent him many horses, as many as 
twenty, that she truly wished he would spare himself in that somewhat, 
vowing that she would send him no more, although he bridled them, 
fearing that some accident might happen to him. Further, she inquired 
about the situation of matters in Scotland, and thereafter asked us 
secretly, whether the Ambassadors of Brunswick and of Meckelenberg had 
not besought us for assistance in behalf of, or for the King of Scotland. 
To which we declared they had not, and in order to tell Her Majesty 
sincerely all that had happened in Scotland, we said that our commission 
referred solely to three points, the first to assist at the baptism of the 
young prince, the second to renew the foresaid old treaties of alliance 
and friendship, relating particularly to commerce, and thirdly, to 
negotiate about a league against the presumption of the Spaniards, but 
nothing else, and only provided that the Ambassadors of Her Majesty 
were specially commissioned thereto, and that concerning these matters 
likewise, nothing further was treated of, the King also desiring nothing 
more, but remitting the same to another opportunity. To which Her 
Majesty answered nothing special, and said that she was then to under- 
stand it was nothing more than a general league that had been meant : 
and from this she passed to admonishing us that some princes of the 
Empire and others commissioned thereto were already on their way to 
visit my Lords the States, with the object of furthering a peace : she 
asked us what we thought the same might be likely to bring about. We 
said that my Lords the States, by their stedfastness in the war against 
the Spaniards during so many years, and their resolutions in diverse 
treaties that were found alone, and notably not long since, in the answer 
to the letter of the Duke Ernestus, given to Hartiz and Coeman, they 
had given it to be well understood what was to be expected of the peace, 
etc. On which Her Majesty began to praise very highly the said answer 
and the wisdom of my Lords the States, and so ended her talk. We 
then took leave reverently, and with proffers of service, in doing which 



174 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594 

Her Majesty strongly recommended the case of Colonel Morgan, and so 
we departed to Kingstone for the night's rest, and the next day, the 
fifteenth of October, returned again to Budnal Grin foresaid, where we 
continued living, expecting a favourable wind for crossing, until the 
twenty-fifth October, when it changed to a good quarter, and we set out 
for Gravesend, and set sail the same evening, and after some wanderings 
at sea, we arrived at Veere the twenty-eighth October, and thence we 
went on to Middleburgh, and we set forward again from there, on the 
second of November, and on the third (with God's help) we arrived here 
in the Hague again. 

During the above written legation in Scotland, we were solicited on 
account of diverse requests and grievances, and in particular, the King 
begged that we should recommend to the notice of my Lords the States, 
the case and pretensions of the widow and sorrowing children of the late 
Colonel Henry Balfour, to his arrears, which the Bishop of Dunkeld, 
having married the widow of the foresaid Balfour, is coming in person to 
prosecute the claim, notwithstanding that we dissuaded him. 

His Majesty did similarly, through Mr. Schenan, recommend the case 
of Captain Alexander Wichart, to the end that justice or contentment 
might be done him. Item, the case of Captain Mathias Ralingh, whose 
Request, with apostille of His Majesty, is herewith delivered. His 
Majesty, by word of mouth, further recommended to us all his subjects 
in general in our country, being in arrears, such as a Captain Jan Balfour 
and others. 

Herewith are submitted the complaints of Unfred Grey and Francois 
Temont, alleging that they have been injured by certain sentences of the 
Admiralty of Zeeland. Item, the Remonstrance of Mr. Jan Tronand 
and partners, merchants of Edemburgh, complaining of some quantity of 
hides taken from them at sea, and seeking restitution. Lastly, the 
Agent Dammen has strongly recommended two of his requests, herewith 
submitted, to my Lords the States, the one touching the restitution of 
the debt incurred by him in his prison at Dunkirk, and the other, the 
increase of his pay, as to all which my Lords shall be pleased to do what 
they shall find to be fitting. 

Thus reported and exhibited at a meeting of my Lords the States at 
the Hague, November 1594. 

(Signed.) W. DE BBEDERODE. 

JACOB VALCKE. 

Diplomatic [In 1595, Denniston, the resident Scottish representative at 

the Ha ue > presented certain articles to the States the last of 
which was in these terms :] 

' Priant tres instamment V. S. de prendre quelque bon ordre 
avec Fhoir et veuve du feu Capitaine Trayll, touchant les 
arrierages deus au diet feu Capitaine/ 



1595] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 175 

[On 14th February 1595 Sir William Stewart of Houston, 
having again arrived at the Hague as Ambassador from the 
King of Scotland, 1 had an audience of the States-General along 
with Mr. Denniston the resident envoy. Their instructions 
and the reply of the States contain no references to the 
Scottish troops, but the Ambassador seems to have availed 
himself of the opportunity to make certain arrangements with 
regard to his own affairs.] 

May 8, 1595. The secretary was ordered to deliver to the 
Ambassador Stuart the reply of the States to his proposal made 
on behalf of the King of Scotland with the Act of Approval 
of the former Treaties made between Scotland and this 
country, referred to in the foregoing reply, and asked for by 
His Majesty. In consideration of certain things it was resolved 
to defray at the expense of the country, at the hotel of the 
Briel, the charges and expenses there incurred by the two 
Ambassadors of the King of Scotland, who were lodged there, 
to the amount of 1500 guilders. 

At the request of the said Mr. Stuart, asking the Lords 
States to be pleased to accept such assignations as he has made 
to some of his creditors on the grant of the 14,000 guilders, 
which will fall due on July 20th next, in accordance with the 
agreement made by him, also to authorise and order the 
Receiver-General to raise on his (the petitioners) account, on 
interest, the last payment in full a like sum of 14,000 guilders, 
to fall due on July 20th, 1596, in order that therewith he 
might pay such arms as he had bought in this country for the 
King of Scotland. And, thirdly, to grant him a passport to 
permit him to transport from here to Scotland 500 muskets, 
300 corselets and fencing-pads, and 500 pikes. It is resolved 
and granted that the Receiver-General shall be permitted to 
undertake to pay the creditors of the petitioner to whom he 
shall grant assignation on the payment of 14,000 guilders, 
which shall fall due on July 20th next, two months after due. 



1 On 24th December 1594, Sir William Stewart of Houston, Commendator of 
Pittenweem, was sent as Ambassador to Flanders on * sum wechtie affearis,' and 
on loth July 1595, he reported, and was thanked for his 'meritorious proceed- 
ings.' P.O. Reg. 



176 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1595 

And that accordingly, the said petitioner may negotiate on it. 
Regarding the second prayer, that the request made in it shall 
be refused and declined in view of the present condition of the 
government of the Lands. And regarding the required 
passport for the transport of the arms, that it be granted 
him. 

Note with reference to the Mission of 1594. On 20th May 1619, at a 
sitting of the Privy Council, the Earl of Melrose produced ' ane blak 
round buist,' containing the commission of 1594 to the Lord of Brederode 
and Mr. James Walck, and the confirmation and ratification made by the 
said commissioners of the ancient friendship treaties and alliance, and 
especially of the peace and league made in the town of 'Buiche' in 
Hainault, on 5th December 1550, dated at Edinburgh, 14th September 
1594, e quhilk buist' had been sent from England to be put in sure keep- 
ing in His Majesty's Register within the Castle of Edinburgh. P. C. Reg., 
vol. xii. 



1594] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 177 



VI 

EXTRACTS FROM RESOLUTIONS OF THE STATES- 
GENERAL, LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION, 
AND REQUESTS AND PETITIONS SENT TO 
THE COUNCIL OF STATE. 

1594-1609 
1594 

Various Appointments. 

March 29. It is found expedient by the States-General, Council of 
on the recommendation of his excellency, that some one 
be commissioned and authorised as Commandant or Chief 
over the Scottish soldiers in the field. His excellency nomi- 
nated thereto Captain Murray; and that therefore a pro- 
visional commission be granted to the said captain, at a salary 
of o^SOO a month when afield. 

November 21. To advise the States-General, that it would 
be expedient that a Provost be secured for the Scottish 
regiment, which was done under Balfour at 50 guilders a 
month. 

January 17. On a request of Captain Hamilton, pre- 
sented from the States- General, advise that the council refuse 
it. That since the captain has done all in his power to send 
the people over, but transport was hindered by a contrary 
wind, that there be given him in addition for every soldier 
three Caroli guilders, without the same being made a 
precedent. 

1599, June 4. At the request of the captains of the 
Scottish regiment, the transport of 550 men is agreed to for 
the twelve Scottish companies, in pursuance of the decree of 
his excellency. The payment, however, of the same is not to 



M 



178 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1599 

be reckoned higher than their respective fixed strength, viz. 
the chief flag or company at 200, and the rest at 150 men each 
company. 

On a letter of recommendation from Holland, 1 a commission 
was obtained for the cavalry Captain Edward, as colonel over 
the Scottish regiment, in the place of the late Colonel Murray, 
at the same salary as the former colonel enjoyed. 

Letters of Recommendation of James VI. 

Captain Dallachy. 

states-General MESSIEURS, Jacoit que nous sachions la gratuite dont vous 
usez * l' en droit de ceux, qui vous ont fidellement servi, esperon- 
nant par honnorables recompenses, ceux qui portent les armes 
pour vous a exposer d^autant plus hazardeusement leurs 
personnes a tous perils. Si est ce que nous n'avons pour cela 
laisse d^assister le nubite du capp ne D^allachy, homme qui 
vous a en tant d^experience d'annees tesmoigne sa valeur, et 
maintenant reduict en sa vieillesse. Vous priant tant pour les 
raisons mentionnees, que pour Pamour de moy, luy user 
quelque favorable recognoissance en luy monstrant par les 
effects, que ma recommandation ne luy a este infructueuse, ce 
que niesmouvera dautant plus, a regarder de meilleur ceil tous 
les vostres, que par semblables services, ou en vostre contem- 
plation se rendront envers nous recommandables. Priant 
Dieu sincere, Messieurs et comperes, vous donner sa s te garde. 

JAQUES R. 
De S te Croix, le premier d'April 1599. 

Colonel Alexander Murray. 

MESSIEURS, Le Collonnel Alexandre Mourray s'en retournant 
en vos pays, apres avoir entierement obtenu de nous ce que 
vous nous demandiez par les vostres n'avons voulu permettre 
qu'il reprit sa brisee sans estre charge de quelque importante 
commission de notre part, comme vous entendrez plus au 
long de luy mesme, En quoy vous prions le croyre adioitant 
indubitable croyance et foy a Taffaire que nous luy avons 
enioinct vous communiquer en nostre nom, comme a personne, 

1 The Prince of Orange had recommended Edmond to the States of Holland, 
' he being the ablest of the Scottish captains. ' 



1599] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 179 

qui ne cede a aucun vivant, tant pour le regard du naturel 
debvoir envers son prince quen desir de vous servir. Et nous 
remettant a son recit prions Dieu, Messieurs et comperes, vous 
comble de ses felicitez. JAQUES R. 

De S te Croix, le premier d' April 1599. 

Captain IBrog. 

MESSEIURS, La fidelite, et nubite du Capp ne Guillaume Brog 
un de noz subiectz nous esment a vous le recommander 
affectueusement, a fin q'aux occasions, qui s\>ffriront pour son 
avancement et honneur, vous assistiez favorablement le zele, 
qu'il a monstre de porter a vostre service, le gratiffiant, p 
occasionnant de suivre a bonnes enseignes les traces de ceux 
qui ont participe de vos courtoisies si bien veuillances, par 
une continuation d'ardeur d'exposer sa vie en tout ce qui vous 
concernera, si nTasseurant, qu^il ne sera deceu de Tespoir qu'il a 
en vous tant pour les causes susdictes, que pour Tamour de moy 
je prieray Dieu, Messieurs et comperes, vous donne heureuse 
vie. Vostre bon amy et compere, JAQUES R. 

D'Edimbourg, le 20 April 1599. 

Colonel Edmond. 

MESSIEURS, Ayant entendu qu'apres la mort du feu Sieur 
Alexandre Murray, Colonel de Pinfanterie Escossoise qui est a 
vostre service, vous ayez faict election du Capitaine Edmond 
pour commander au regiment, du quel encore que la valeur et 
fidel deportement soit assez cogneu par la preuve des services 
par luy faicts. Neantmoins estant nostre subiect et pour sa 
fidelite en vostre service d'autant plus ayme de nous, le recom- 
mandons qu'il soit d'autant plus respecte et honore de toutes 
faveurs, privileges et honneurs qu'autres Colonnels ont jouy 
en vostre service par cy devant. A quoy nous attendant 
prions Dieu, Messieurs et comperes, vous maintenir en sa 
grace. Vostre bon amy et compere, JAQUES R. 

De nostre palais de Saincte Croix, le dernier de Septembre 
1599. 

Sir William Murray. 
MESSIEURS, Ayantz occasion d'employer en quelque nostre 



180 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1599 

service le Sieur Cap ne Guillaume Murray, qui vous a autrefois 
servi au faict de la guerre, il nous a semble expedient de le 
rappeler. Mais estant avertiz qu'il est embrouille en quelque 
procez en ces pais la, touchant les affaires de son frere, n'avons 
pas voulu omettre de le recommander et vous prier par le 
porteur (qui est le frere de Deniston, notre ambassadeur ordi- 
naire pres de vous) de le favoriser en ses affaires et le depescher 
vers nous le plustost qu'il sera possible. Nous les recom- 
mandons doncq d'aultant plus affectueusement en regard de sa 
fidelite envers nous et des bons services faictz a vous, tant par 
luy-mesme que par feu son frere. Nous avons donne charge 
au Sieur de Deniston de vous informer plus au long tant en 
ceste matiere comme en des autres auquel il vous plaira adiouter 
pleine creance en tout ce qu'il vous dira de notre part, qui 
sommes et demeurerons tousiours, Vostre bien bon amy et 
confrere, JAQUES R. 

De Saincte Croix, le xx. Octobre 1599. 

After the Battle of Nieuport. 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, Ayantz este advertiz tant par 
voz lettres que les rapport asseure du porteur comme 
Dieu par sa grace vous avoit faict victorieux sur voz 
ennemis d'une si furieuse et sanglante bataille, avons este fort 
resiouyz, comme au bon succes de toutes vos affaires, nous 
nous estimons tousiours y avoir nostre part a Tadvancement 
desquelles il ne vous manquera rien qui depend de nostre 
pouvoir, comme nous avons donne charge au porteur de vous 
informer plus amplement, au quel il vous plaira adiouster pleine 
creance en ce qu'il dira sur le desir que nous avons a vous 
faire paroistre qu'elle est nostre disposition envers vous et 
vostre estat, et quel bien et honneur nous esperons tirer de 
vous quand nous en aurons besoing. Vous priantz tousiours 
faire estat de nous comme Pun de voz plus affectionnez. Et 
d'autant qu'en vostre derniere victoire plusieurs de noz gens 
sont mortz et en reviennent tous les iours de la tant des blessez 
et estropiez, ruinez quasi en votre service. Nous desirons 
qu'ayez esgard au traittement de ce peu de reste, qu'estantz a 
Favenir pour Tamour de nous plus respectez, les plus gallants 
espritz et plus valencieux puissent estre induictz librement 



i6oo] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 181 

se rendre en votre service, dont nous avons (Dieu mercy) 
assez bon nombre, 1 desquelz quand vous aurez affaires, vous en 
disposerez. Et comme toutes voz bonnes fortunes sont reputees 
et nostree (?), nous ne doubtons pas que de pareille affection 
vous aurez a congratuler quand vous entendrez le vray et 
simple discours (lequel vous envoyons avecque ces presentes) de 
la plus cruelle trahison qu'a ose machinee centre nostre per- 
sonne et de laquelle Dieu par sa grace, non sans miracle, nous 
a delivre. Quant au porteur, 2 lequel nous avons este bien 
resjouy de veoir aupres de nous, ay ant par Tespace de vingt et 
six ans este esloigne de sa patrie, nous n^estimons pas estre 
necessaire de vous le recommander, car quoy que nous le 
respectons pour estre notre subiect, si est ce que nous tenons 
plus de compte de sa valence et fidelle affection qu'il a porte a 
votre service, que de sa naissance et pour Tencourager advan- 
tage, il n'y a ny bien nlionneur qu*il peut esperer de nouz qui 
luy manqueront pourveu qull continue. Nous ne doubtons 
que vous ne faciez le pareil et a luy et a tous autres de 
notre nation qui de pareille volonte s'addresseront a votre 
service, et seront tres aises qu'a toutes occasions il soit 
familiairement par vous employe devers nous en affaires de 
consequence. Etc. JAQUES R. 

De Falcland, le xx. d'Aoust 1600. 

David Barclay (of Towie or Urie). 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, Ce gentilhomme porteur, nomine 
David Barclay, sieur de Struy, frere germain du feu Cap ne 
Robert Barclay, qui ayant ces ans passes seruy fidellement au 
faite de vos guerres, et ayant perdu la vie en ce dernier conflict. 
Sur ce a prins resolution d'aller par dela pour prendre ordre de 
quelquonques biens et moyens appartenants au susdit defunct, 
son frere, ensemble les decomptes que vous luy serez trouve 



1 The difficulty of Scotland rested rather in the surplus than the deficiency of 
these 'gallant spirits' for which King James thanks Providence for having 
provided him with a 'sufficient number.' The legislation of his parliament and 
the policy of his privy council in regard to the Highlands and Island, indicate 
the problem presented by the ' assez bon nombre,' which previous Jameses had 
taken summary methods of reducing. 

2 Probably Colonel Edmond, who went to Scotland ' to remake his regiment.' 



182 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1600 

redevable pour son service en vos dites guerres. Vous priant 
affectueusement que tons les biens qui luy appartenoit, aussi 
bien devant son decez, que les dites decomptes soit delivrez au 
dit gentilhomme, avec son nepveu le fils du dit feu Cap ne 
son frere, a qui tout appartient tres justement comme a son 
propre fils et et heritier, a scavoir aussi que le dit gentilhomme 
est son vray tuteur de loy. Car la mere du dit garon ne peut 
estre nullement ouye s'opposer au contraire du dit tuteur, veu 
que pieca [?] elle a este divorsee d'avec son feu mary, comme il 
est tres notoire. Outre plus le dit tuteur est honnorable 
gentilhomme de biens et d'heritage, et bien respect e pour son 
honneste comportement en toutes ses actions, estant digne de 
faire valoir tout ce qu'il recevra au profit du dit pupille son 
nepveu, jusques a ce qu'il soit venu en parfait age. Et la 
dessus vous reprions de rechef, que pour Pamour de nous vous 
expediez le plustot que pourrez le dit gentilhomme, en luy 
delivrant son dit nepveu et tout ce qui luy appartient de droit, 
ce qui incitera davantage tous nos autres subjects hazarder plus 
volontiers leurs biens et leur vie mesme en votre service. De 
quoy faisant nous ferez un singulier plaisir ce que nous sommes 
et demeurerons preste recognoistre mutuellement en ce qu'il 
vous plaira nous requerir. Priant, etc. V re tres affectionne 
ami, JACQUES R. 

De notre palais a Dundie, ce xxvi. de Septembre 1 600. 

Captain John Ker. 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES. Le Sieur Cap ne Jehan Ker, 1 qui 
pour une requeste a impetre conge pour quelque espace de 
venir par dea pour certaine siene affaire. Et estant prest a 
s'en retourner vers vous, nous a sollicite de vous le recommander, 
ce que nous faisons de meilleure volonte, pour autant que nous 
scavons que au service passe il n'a manque rien en luy de son 
devoir et durant qu'il a este la n'a fait chose indigne de son 
honneur ny de notre faveur. II vous plaira donguce le laisser 
retourner librement en ce pai'e, afin d'estre icy pres les sienes 
dites affaires. Aussi nous vous prions de prendre en sa place 



1 See pp. 59 and 60 (in note), also p. 31. 



1600] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 183 

de commandement un gentilhomme lequel le d* Cap ne y mettra 
assez suffisant pour descharger ce rang de preeminence et qui 
sans aucune doubte vous contentera. Et pour ce que le d* 
Cap ne n'a point Tintention de retourner ci apres en vos 
quartiers, estant tellement empesche en ses dites affaires nous 
vous requetons affect ueusement que le peu de deniers qu'il luy 
sont deues, tel ordre y soit donne qu'il puisse recevoir ses 
decomptes pour s'acquitter de tous ses despenses et charges, pour 
retourner avec toute diligence, de telle facon qu'il n'aye point 
occasion de se plaindre de vous. Ce qui nous sera fort 
agreable, comme nous prions le Createur, Messieurs et Com- 
peres, vous tenir en sa digne garde. Votre bon Amy et Com- 
pere, JAQUES R. 

De notre palaisjde S te Croix, ce xxvii. jour de Decembre 
1600. 



1600, October 5. Huygens, Secretary of the Council of State Council of 
reported, that having spoken with the States- General about 
the transport money of Colonel Edmond and 800 Scots, brought 
over from Scotland, by commission of the States- General ; said 
States had declared, that the payment for each soldier should 
be payment usually given, 8 guilders, and that the opinion of 
the States was, and still is, that out of the 800 Scots should 
be formed the three companies mentioned in the Act of the 
States-General. Further, that the Scottish Regiment should 
be held from that date at from 13 to 11 companies, that the 
colonel's company should number 200, and the others 113, 
which companies may be filled up from the said number of 
800 men. 

November 13. Report made concerning the division and 
reduction of the new Scottish soldiers, in order to bring up 
the companies to 135 men. 

1600, June 3. Inasmuch as Captain Brog desires to under- Resolutions 
take the duties of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Scottish regiment, 
solely for the honour, without other pay, and that neither 
their excellencies nor Captain Edmond know of any reasons 



184 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1600 



why the same lieutenantship should not be granted to the 
above mentioned Brog, it is agreed to. 

1600, December 29. Captain Brog was allowed in one 
payment 600 guilders for his previous services in his quality 
of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Scottish Regiment, and it was 
agreed that in future he shall enjoy a salary of 100 guilders 
per month, commencing from the first of January next, 
and that a commission to that effect be despatched to 
him. 

Requeste pour le Cap ne Hamilton. 

(Requests). A MESSEIGNEURS, MESSEIG RS [sic] DU CONSEIL o'EsTAT. 1 Re- 

monstre en toute humilite et reverence Capitaine Hamilton, 
en garnison a Nimeghe, come il a pleu a V. S. depescher ordon- 
nance le xxviii de Apureil pour ung moys de gages, sur Mons r 
Doublet, Recepveur gnal ; et le dit recepveur a done ung 
decharge sur Messeig rs les estats de Zelande. Mais ayant 
envoye ung home expres pour son payement, mes d s Seig rS du 
Zeelandt ont refuse le dit payement, au grande prejudice du 
remonstrant. Car il a este contraint de lever Targent a 
Interrest pour Tintretenement de sadit compaignie. Partant 
il prie qu'il plaise a mes Seig rs doner ordre pour sondit paye- 
ment au regarde du temps que est desia passe. 



Quoy faissant. Le xi Maye 1601. 



JAQUES CRACK. 



Resolutions 1601, December 17. In reference to the petition of Captain 
General. Brog, requesting payment of the balance of his account, made 

up 13th June '88, for his pay as Sergeant-Major of the 
Scottish regiment, under Colonel Balfour, from the 1st Sep- 
tember 1583 to the 5th March 1585, and again till the last of 
April '88, amounting to 2224 pounds, eight shillings, it was 
agreed that search be made in the Rolls here, the Treasury 



1 From the packet of requests presented to the States-General and to the 
Council of State in 1601. 

This collection is very defective; from 1600-1620 only 1601, 1611, and 
1617 exist. 



1603] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 185 

of the States- General, as well as in the Finance Chamber 
of Holland, as to how much of said sum the petitioner 
has received; and that of the balance he shall be paid 
one-third in ready money, and the other two-thirds within 
the next two half-years, and that an order to that effect on 
the Receiver- General be despatched. 

1602, September 20. Whereas Robert Stuart, Scotsman, a 
sailor on board a man-of-war, in the service of the Land, has 
voluntarily confessed, without being put to the torture, that 
on the third of August last he had taken on himself to pass in 
review among the company of Captain Balfour as a soldier of 
said company, under the name of Thomas Fowler, and that he 
seduced thereto other six sailors, who also were passed in 
review as soldiers of the said company ; whereby the prisoner 
aforesaid, contrary to his oath, and the placards on the sub- 
ject of the mustering, has defrauded and robbed the Land ; 
said decree forbidding such fraud on pain of death. Therefore 
the States-General and the Council of State of the United 
Netherlands taking, as is fit, all things into consideration, and 
doing justice, at the instance and demand of the Advocate 
Fiscal, brought against the prisoner, condemn the said Robert 
Stuart to be hung by ropes till he be dead, as an example to 
others. 

Given the xx. September 1602. 



LETTERS OF KING JAMES i. 1603. 
Recommendation of Livingstone. 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, Ce jeune home Leviston, ay ant Diplomatic 
quelques annees passees faict son apprentissage en la guerre en S 01 1 ^! 
vostre pai's et s'estant resolu d'y poursuy vre la fortune, Nous folio 1603-1608. 
vous Favons bien voulu recomender, tant pour le bon et agre- 
able service qu^il nous a faict que pour Topinion que nous 
avons qu*il se rendra digne, tant de nostre recomendation que 
de la faveur que vous luy en ferez. Et pour ce vous prions 
luy vouloir ottroyer une compagnie de cavallerie a la premiere 
occasion quy se presentera. Ce quy nous sera fort agreable et 
nous donnera occasion de vous complaire en semblable ou plus 



186 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1603 

grand cas come nous somes et serons. Vostre tresaffectionne 
amy et compere. JAQUES R. 

De nostre palais royal cTHampton, le xxiii 6 de Juillet 
1603. 

Captain Selby. 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, Nous ne doubtons point, que vous 
n'ayez desia entendue la trahison machinee centre nostre per- 
sonne, femme et enfantz, iusques a vouloir avoir entierement 
exterminee nostre race par quelques noz desloyaux subiectz, 
ausquels tant s'en faulte que nous ayons donnees cause, de 
mescontentement, que nous les avions par nostre liberalite 
obliger de nous estre tres-fidelz. Entre lesquelles le baron de 
Gray a este des premiers. Et craignantz que la compagnie de 
cavallerie, qu'il tenoit a vostre service, ne se dissipast a faulte 
de capitaine, Nous avons resolu de vous envoyer ce gentilhome, 
le capitaine Selby, du quel la fidelite et valeur nous estantz 
assez esprouvees, nous asseurent qu'il sera bien receu pour ceste 
nostre recomendation, pour suppleer la place d'un trahistre si 
deloyal. Nous avons faict choix expres de luy come gentil- 
home digne d'une telle charge, vous priantz estimer que ce 
n'est pas la recomendation ou credit d'home vivant, mais seule- 
ment ses qualitez dignes de comander [sic] quy nous ont esmeuz 
de vous Tenvoyer. II vous plaira donque Faccepter gratueuse- 
ment pour Tamour de nous au lieu de celuy quy n'est plus 
home de bien et dans peu de jours ne sera plus, et vous confier 
en ceste nostre election de laquelle nous esperons que vous 
n'aurez jamais occasion de vous repentir de son service, ne nous 
de Tavoir recomende. Ainsi nous asseurantz de vostre bon 
affection en cest endroict, prions Dieu, Messieurs et comperes,, 
vous maintenir en sa Saincte et digne gard. Vostre tres affec- 
tionne amy et compere, JAQUES R. 

De nostre palais royal d'Hampton, le premier d'Aoust 
1603. 

Recommendation of the heirs of Colonel H. Balfour. 
(1603. Exhib. May x., 1603, by Mr. Deniston.) 

Sa Ma J este/ demande qu'il plaise a Messeigneurs les Estatz 
generaulx de doner contentement aulx heretiers de feu le 



1 604] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 187 

Collonnel Henri Balfour, de son service fait en Brabant ; suivant 
les obligations et decomptes signees par leurs Seig ies et lenrs 
deputes. Et en cas quails ne vouldroyent recognostre ne satis- 
faire a toute la dit debt, pour le moyns. Us sont obligez de 
satisfaire pro rata; estanz alors unies avec les aultres estatz 
de brabant. Ce que sa Ma t6 demande tant seulement. * Sa 
Ma t6 desire que Monsieur Daman, agent de messeig 8 les Estatz, 
soit continue en sa charge aupres sa Mat 6 en Angleterre come 
il estoit en Escosse. 

1603, October 23. In reference to the reports received from states- 
Zeeland, Dordrecht, and Rotterdam, that between five and Genera1 ' 
six companies of Scotsmen had arrived belonging to the new 
regiment of the Baron of Buccleuch, and that the remaining 
companies are on the way, or may even already have arrived, 

it is proposed . . . 

November 24. It is resolved that the newly arrived Scotsmen, 
belonging to the companies of Captains Scalby, Murray, Spence, 
and Brochtown, 1 be supported, and that the weapons and 
travelling expenses of the same be paid, in the same manner 
as in the case of the earlier arrived companies of the regiment 
of Baron Buccleuch, who are supported and paid out of the 
moneys from France, destined for that purpose. 

1604, January 9. 100 guilders in one payment assigned to 
Andrew Hunter, minister of the Scottish regiment, for his 
extra services, and the States-General wish it understood that 
he is to allow himself to be employed in the service of both 
Scottish regiments. 

January 10. Peter Stuart, 2 Scottish nobleman, on account 
of certain considerations, is allowed thirty guilders ; with the 
understanding that he do not apply again, but in future address 
himself to the regiments of his nation, in order to be advanced 
among them. 

January 21. At the request of Captain Walter Bruce, it 
was found good to recommend to the Council of State that 



1 Mentioned at siege of Ostend. Does not appear in any list. Probably 
killed there. 

2 He appears later as officer of artillery. See p. 211. 



188 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1604 

their excellencies cause the 33 soldiers therein mentioned, of the 
supplemental [?] company, stationed in Amersfort, to be paid 
(being at present within the bounds of Ostend), and issue an 
order that said men, being there, are to stay till the departure 
of their said company from that place. 

1604, February 3. It was resolved that the Commissioner 
Jan de Mist betake himself to Dordrecht, and there review 
the Scotsmen recently arrived there, to register the same, and 
examine whether there be any fraud or criminality among 
them, approving of none except those qualified for the imme- 
diate service of the Land. And the revision being accom- 
plished, to bring them forthwith to the companies to which 
they belong, and the places where these are in garrison ; and 
thereafter to muster with great care the same companies, with 
all the other companies stationed in the neighbourhood, 
with the understanding that the States shall reserve to them- 
selves the number in excess of the strength assigned to the 
captains, in order to distribute them among the other com- 
panies. 

March 15. Peter Stuart is once more granted the sum of 
36 guilders a third to be paid at once, a third in May, and 
a third in July to be paid by the Receiver-General. 

March 16. Jan de Mist is commissioned to go to Rotterdam 
and review the Scottish recruits arrived there, and examine 
thoroughly whether they are really fresh arrivals, and to dis- 
charge incompetent soldiers. 



Representation in favour of Lord Buccleuch by the British 
Ambassador. 

(Dated March 2 (12) 1604. Exhib. Jan. xvi. 1604) x 

MESSIEURS, J'eusse desire, ce que Teusse pris pour tresgrand 
heur, de pouvoir apporter a V. S ies les nouvelles agreables du 
retour du General Vere. Car ie scay le contentement que est 
Estat eust receu de retenir tousiours aupres de son service un 
Seig r de sa qualite et merite. Mais ie ne suis nullement si 



1 This letter initiates a controversy of long standing. 



1604] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 189 

heureux, tant s'en fault que Taye charge de vous dire que 
comme personne ne vous a servy plus fidellement que luy, ny 
avec plus de soin et d'ind ustrie, ainsi personne n'eust plus 
volon tiers que luy acheve le reste de ses iours en service de cest 
Estat. Mais puis la police de vos affaires ne permette pas de 
luy octroyer ses demandes et sans cet octroy de vouloir 
reprendre sa charge, seroit d"* abandonner la soin de sa reputa- 
tion, qui vous recognoissiez qu il a gaignee par tant de travaux 
et perte de son sang. II se deportera de vous importuner 
d'avantage et se contentera du tesmoinage duquel il vous a 
pleu de couronner son conge, que ce refus ne luy ait este fait 
a faute de son merite, mais par des considerations importantes 
qui concernent le repos et tranquillite du gouvernement de 
cest Estat. Et comme ainsi soit que des son advenement au 
service du pai's, il a servy non moins heureusement, dont il 
rend graces a Dieu, que avec une tresaffectueuse volonte, il prie 
Mess rs a croire qu'avec sa charge il ne se despouillera pas de 
tout soin de vos affaires ; ains comme son corps charnaille et 
cicatrice au service de cet Estat, luy ramentovira iour et nuict 
la vie passee, ainsi Fhonneur qu'il a receu des Provinces Unies 
demeurera tousiours engrave en son ame, la souvenance duquel 
il menera et quant et luy, vive et fresche, iusques au tombeau, 
avec ses meilleurs souhaitz pour la prosperite dlcelles. 

Je m^assure, il n'y a pas un d'entre vous, Messieurs, qui ne 
regrette le depart de Monsieur Vere ! Mais i'ay de quoy vous 
consoler : 

primo avulso non deficit alter 

aureus, et simili frondescit verga metallo. 

Voicy arrive, en ceste ville, le Seig r de Bouclough, mande de 
par sa Ma te au service de cest Estat, duquel, parmy mille 
Seig 8 Escossois elle a fait choix pour les belles parties requises 
en un grand Commandeur, pour tesmoigner plus amplement 
tant son soin pour la conservation de ces Provinces que son 
desir que la prosperite d'icelles de iour a autre puisse estre 
augmentee. 

Ce seig r cy ne vient pas pour busquer fortune ; il a chez luy 
de quoy manger sans prendre cette peine, et des estatz ausquelz 
vacquer sans aller a la guerre ; et s'il y avait faute, ou de Tun ou 



190 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1604 

de Tautre, il n*y a nulle faute des bonnes graces du Roy son 
Maistre ; qui ne manqueront iamais de recognoistre les merites 
de ses dignes serviteurs. Mais apres avoir voyage et veu le 
monde, et par tous beaux exercises, tant au fait des armes que 
des autres estudes, s^est rendu habile pour le service de sa 
patrie, scachant avec quelle affection sa Ma t6 embrasse 
Taccroissem* de vos affaires, il s'est laisse persuader d'entre- 
prendre ce service, pour y emploier son temps et despendre ses 
moyens, voire son sang et sa vie. C'est pourquoy sa Ma t6 nVa 
commande de le presenter a V. S ies et les prier quand et quand 
de sa part, qu'il soit receu en qualite de General de sa Nation, 
en quelle qualite elle le mande et le recommande entre vos 
mains. Les troupes auxquelles il aura a commander sont les 
subiects de sa Ma t6 , ausquelz, affin qu'ilz scachent quails ne sont 
le plus esloignes de sa grace et souvenance, pour estre employes 
au service de ses bons amys et alliez, elle envoye ce Commandeur 
avec charge de les aguerrir en la discipline militaire. Charge 
grande et pleine d^honneur mais fascheuse et chatilleuse, dont 
mal aisement on s^acquittera, s'elle soit communiquee avec un 
autre. En toutes charges, esquelles la vigilance et Findustrie 
sont requises, quand on vient a cela, " nee mihi, nee tibi, sed 
dividatur," tout va a Tabandon, on ny prend point de soin, ou 
s^il y en a quelque peu, ce n'est que par maniere d'acquit , en un 
mot, tout n'est que nonchaloir et negligence. Ce qu'a induit 
V. S ries depuis quelques annees en ca de faire un General des 
troupes anglaises. Maintenant que rAngle rre et PEscosse sont 
consolidees ensembles et que les troupes Escossoises sont accreues 
au mesme nombre qu'alors se trouvoyent les angloises, s'il vous 
plaira de faire cest honneur a la Nation Escossoise vous suivrez 
Texemple de Sa Ma t6 laquelle traicte avec pareille affection les 
deux Royaumes, et monstrerez le contentement que vous 
prennez de nostre heureuse union. Les demandes de ce Seig r 
ne sont nullement inciviles, lesquelles n'esbranslent pas les 
loix fondementales de vostre police, ny s'eniambent sur la 
soverainete de Mess rs les Estats, ny derogent Tauthorite du 
General en chef. II ne demande qu'avec le traitement du general 
tant de pouvoir, pour s'acquitter le mieux de son devoir envers 
le service de ces Provinces et de Sa Ma t6 . II vous supplie d\ 
vouloir penser et resoudreau plus tost, ce que ie fais de la part 



1604] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 191 

de sa Ma t6 qui m'a commande de recevoir et luy comuniquer la 
resolution. RODOLPHE WINWOD. 

faict le deuxieme de Mars, Stilo veteri. 



March 23. The Recorder is charged to intimate to the states- 
Council of State, that they find it good that their excellencies 
shall give commissions to the captains of the regiment of the 
Lord of Buccleuch, and administer to them the Lands' oath ; 
also that their excellencies shall likewise issue a commission 
and administer the oath to the foresaid Lord of Buccleuch. 
And as he will probably object to this, because he pretends 
to the generalship of the Scots, in the service of the Land, 
that the States will, in that case, make known and advise how 
to act. 

Also it is found good, that the Council of State shall inves- 
tigate whether or not there is one of the companies of the 
regiment of the Lord of Buccleuch which desires to be incor- 
porated in the regiment of Colonel Edmond. Because if that 
is the case the company of Henderson on the other hand must 
be put under the foresaid Buccleuch. 

March 24. Messrs. Santen and Hardebrouck, councillors 
of State, compeared and reported the advice of the Council of 
State (after previous conference with their excellencies). 

On the motion of Councillor Winwoidt, in reference to the 
Generalship of the Scots in the Lands 1 service ; that since His 
Majesty of England recommends Lord Buccleuch ; and taking 
into account the letters of the Count of Embden : after con- 
sultation an understanding was come to, his excellency and 
the Council, having well weighed and considered the motion 
aforesaid, the States being on this point in agreement with 
them, and it was resolved that the Councellor Winwoidt 
aforesaid be instructed and shown here in the Assembly, that 
the request embodied in the foresaid proposal is prejudicial to 
the Government of the country ; and that therefore it could 
not be agreed to without the previous notice, advice, and 
resolution of the Provinces united together. Yet that in any 
case there is reason to fear that it would lead to nothing 
because of the precedent it would give to other nationalities 



192 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1604 

who in like manner would claim to have a general. And that 
same claim was disputed in the case of the Lord General Vere 
notwithstanding his true and long continued service to the 
country, and besides it would be a source of many misunder- 
standings arising in regard to the person of Colonel Edmond, 
who has served the country faithfully for so many years. And 
his excellency has been asked to make no further urgent 
request for the said generalship, and try to persuade the Lord 
Buccleuch to content himself with the regiment, like other 
generals in the service of the country. 

April 1. Compeared Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson and 
was questioned as to the present constitution of the Scotch 
regiment under Baron Buccleuch. To which he replied, that 
said regiment was very brisk, well armed, and in order for 
active service. 

He was then commissioned, so far as he could advance the 
matter, to bring his own company into the regiment of the 
foresaid Baron of Buccleuch ; and to bring another company 
of that regiment into the regiment of Edmond. And there- 
after with his brother, or some one else, to take measures to 
promote friendship and ward off jealousy in the nation. 

1604, April 5. As regards the generalship over the soldiers 
of the Scottish nation in the Lands 1 service, His Majesty 
recommends thereto the Baron of Buccleuch. Thereupon the 
States, having consulted with the Council of State, and others 
with whom it is usual to advise in such like matters of im- 
portance, find that the said request of generalship is a novelty, 
never previously put in practice, and that they could not consent 
to it without making an opening for all the other nations 
in the Lands' service to ask in like manner for a general. A 
step which the deputies of the provinces being convened 
would consequently not dare to take on their own responsi- 
bility, but would have to lay the matter before their principals 
in order to obtain their opinion and understand their good 
pleasure, as is cust'omary. To this the same deputies are 
inclined to agree in so far as the Lord Appearer also approves, 
and is expressly authorised to insist on the said request. But 
that their Highnesses may well declare to his Honour, that they 
see no probability of the introduction of the foresaid novelty, 



1604] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 193 

and therefore his Honour may beg the Baron of Buccleuch 
to regulate himself so as in future to desist from seeking 
said generalship, and accept his commission as colonel. The 
Lord Appearer requested a written copy of the declaration, 
for the purpose of informing His Majesty, who doubtless in 
the matter will make a new urgent application, in view of the 
fact that it touches the honour of the Lord Baron. 

April. 16 In the matter of the remonstrance of the Baron 
of Buccleuch. In reference to the first point of the same, it 
was agreed that the captains of the remonstrants regiment 
are to keep the soldiers raised and brought over by each of 
said captains, as they were then found and passed in muster, 
except in case they are supernumeraries, beyond the strength 
appointed to the captains. Moreover they must be kept in 
good order, armed, brought to, and used in the service. 

But as regards the second point, touching the pay of the 
superior officers of the regiments aforesaid, the States give it 
to be understood that they will place on a similar footing the 
pay of the superior officers of all the nations in the service of 
these Lands. Therefore desiring that the remonstrant mean- 
while will content himself with the knowledge, that the 
superior officers of his regiment will be paid like the officers of 
the old Scottish regiment. 

July 1. At the request of Mrs. Elizabeth Crichton, widow 
of the late Captain Dallachy, it is agreed, that the Receiver- 
General shall pay her her various pensions, on the understand- 
ing that before the end of the current year she shall show 
proper evidence of her children being in life, otherwise this 
payment shall be postponed to be included in the pension of 
the coming year. 

Recommendation of Robert Gray. 
(Receptum Aug. 2.) 

1604, July 10 (O. S.). MES BONS AMIS ET TRES-CHERS 
COMPERES. En vous saluant: sachez que ce gentilhomme le 
porteur de ceste Robert Gray, Escossois, ayant passe son 
temps par le monde en nostre service, Tespace de six ou 
sept ans, pour a ceste fin de se rendre plus prompt et capable, 
est maintenant desireux de suivre la guerre a ce qu'il ne luy 

N 



194 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1604 

puise rien manquer propre pour un Gentilhomme de sa 
qualite, et estant ainsi que nous, ne luy, ne trouvons autres 
(aux services desquel il pourra mieux employer son temps 
qu'aux nostres). A ce regard nous avons trouve bon de 
Penvoyer devers vous, avec noz lettres de faveur et credit, 
touchant ce point: Vous priant bien fort de Tavoir en tel 
esgard pour Tamour de nous, comme a tel Gentilhomme de 
son rang appartient, et de luy faire avoir le commandement 
d'une de noz compagnies de gens de pied. Dont nous esperons 
qu'il vous fera bien bon service et aggreable, et qu'il ne faudra 
de meriter par ses vertuz et diligences bien mieux que ne voulons 
signifier. Et comme ne doubtant que voulez accomplir nostre 
demande, vous commandant au bon succes de Timportance de 
noz grandes affaires, Demeurons tousiours Vostre bien bon amy 
et compere, JAQUES R. 

De nostre court de Greinwich, ce 10 Juillet. 

Recommendation of Laurence Sinclair. 
To the Council of State. (Receptum Aug. 2.) 

1604, July 17. MY LORDS, I had lately occasion to speak 
with His Majesty, and he desired me to recommend to your 
lordships the bearer of this, Laurence Sinclair, at one time 
lieutenant under Captain John More, in the regiment of 
Colonel Buccleuch. The said captain died lately at Ostend, 
where also the lieutenant then was, and had been there for 
thirty weeks. He was wounded several times, and therefore all 
the more deserves to succeed his captain ; in whose place His 
Majesty desires that he may be appointed, he being in other 
respects, as I understand, a nobleman of ability, and belonging 
to a very good house. Moreover his ancestors, in other days, 
rendered valuable services to the country, therefore I hope 
your lordships will accept this recommendation in considera- 
tion of the fact that His Majesty made it by word of mouth, 
and that it is the sole object of this letter. Ever praying God 
to grant that your lordships may continue in long and pro- 
sperous government, 

NOEL DE CARON. 

From St. Lambeth, the 17 July 1604. Old Style. 



1604] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 195 

August 11. On the request of the widow and orphans of Resolutions 

of States 
General. 



the late Captain Robert Barclay, Scotsman, it was resolved of states 



to place the matter in the hands of the clerks, for the purpose 
of going over her accounts, and examining whether any mis- 
take has been made. 

October 20. At the request of John Boyd, ensign of the 
company of Captain John Spence, their High Mightinesses 
the States have, on account of certain important considera- 
tions, and his long continued services (he having been maimed 
in both arms in the country's service before Zutphen and 
in Ostend), agreed that at his departure from the country, he 
shall be granted in all two hundred guilders, in full satisfac- 
tion of all his services, on the understanding that the Council 
of State, in order not to cause any difficulty thereby to the 
country, is to write to the foresaid Captain Spence to keep the 
place of ensign open till the middle of March next, or until 
the matter shall be properly disposed of. 

October 21. To write to their lordships of the states of 
Utrecht, and make request to the same, that they pay Cap- 
tain Caddel the sum of nine hundred and ninety-nine guilders 
two shillings vd., the balance due to him at the liquidation 
made of his current pay at the time he was on duty on the 
repartition of the states of Utrecht. 

October 29. To furnish to the seven Scottish companies of 
Colonel Buccleuch, arrived from Ostend, one month's pay, 
according to their strength at the last muster since their 
arrival from Ostend, with deduction of one-sixth part. 

November 29. Received from the deputies of the states of 
Utrecht a letter, of 23rd October, wherein they excuse them- 
selves as yet from paying the ^?996 ll sh , being the balance 
due to Captain Caddel for the current service of his company 
during the time it is alleged he was on duty on the repartition 
of the states of Utrecht, which they deny. 

It is resolved, that notwithstanding said excuse, the deputies 
of Utrecht be again requested to pay the sum aforesaid, as 
during that time it appeared that the Council of State placed 
the company aforesaid at the charge of the States of Utrecht, 
as against other burdens which their Highnesses laid on the 
other provinces. 



196 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1604 

Captain Archibald Erskinis Cavalry Company. 

Resolutions December 20. Captain Archibald Ariskey [Erskine] being 
General. 8 present, accompanied by Captain Aresky [Erskine] and Esaias 
Chastelain, the States represented to the said Captain Archi- 
bald, the difficulties he would have to encounter in the formation 
of a company of cavalry cuirassiers, which he begged to be 
allowed to form ; not only in regard to the great expenses 
which he would necessarily incur (amounting to about 30,000 
guilders), but particularly from the scarcity of well-trained 
horses, which he would hardly be able to get in this country 
of such weight and height as they ought to be, according to 
the Land's order, likewise owing to the scarcity of cavalry 
soldiers of his nation qualified and well-armed according to 
the government order. He should therefore reflect on the pro- 
ject lest he be thereby brought to ruin, and come out of it with 
diminished reputation, which the States would be sorry for. 

But since the said captain (notwithstanding all the Toresaid 
difficulties brought under his notice, and several other friendly 
exhortations, to divert him from his purpose, he being at last 
told, that should he not have said company of cavalry fully 
equipped, they being qualified horse soldiers of his nation, 
well armed and provided with trained horses, according to the 
Land's order, between this and the first of March next, new 
style, that the company would not be received into the service) 
persisted in his intention, and requested to be allowed to form 
the company. The said States (in consideration and out of 
regard to the name and friendship of the said Ariskey, and 
not looking to the fact that having undertaken to bring the 
foresaid Company into the service of the Land, on the tenth 
of August last, he brought over during the first half of Decem- 
ber, between seventy and eighty men, with only one horse fit for 
service) consented, and granted to the said Captain Archibald 
Ariskey to proceed with the formation of said company of one 
hundred cuirassiers, under which there shall be thirty cuiras- 
siers with ponies ; provided he be bound to have said company 
fully equipped precisely between this and the first of March 
next, of qualified, experienced, and well-armed cavalry of the 
Scottish nation, provided with well-trained horses, of such 
height and weight as the order of the Land implies, otherwise 



1604] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 197 

failing this, said company shall not be taken into service ; and 
in the meantime every horseman without a horse shall for his 
support be supplied with seven stuivers daily, and every one with 
a qualified horse and properly armed, fourteen stuivers a day. 

1604, December 23. Captain Areskey, notwithstanding all 
the difficulties in his way, has undertaken to form between this 
and the first of March next precisely, new style the company 
of cavalry, 100 cuirassiers strong, in accordance with the 
regulations of the Land, and the resolution placed in his 
hands by the States, except that he insists on ponies such as 
Cavalry Captain Hamilton had. And after said Areskey having 
been told that he ought to content himself with the offer 
made to him, without being opinionative to such a point 
about the ponies, since the States make no levies of cavalry 
but on the footing indicated, it was explained to him that, 
since he will have his way, it will be counted sufficient if, on 
the muster day of said company, there are more than thirty 
qualified horse soldiers. As for ponies, no notice will be 
taken of ten or twenty, but, in view of his exactingness, he 
must heed this well, that the States also will be exact with 
him, and, in respect of that, he is to bear in mind that he 
shall have to form his company, according to the Aforesaid 
resolution, placed in his hands, between this and the first of 
March next, consisting of one hundred qualified, well-armed 
cavalry cuirassiers, with well-trained horses, everything 
according to the regulations of the Land. Or failing this, 
said company shall not be accepted to which the 'foresaid 
Ariskey has agreed. And in this matter the Recorder is 
charged to communicate this transaction to his Ex y [Prince 
Maurice], and request that his Ex y will be pleased to assign a 
post to the said Ariskey, so as to form the said company, with 
letters-patent or commission for that purpose. 

December 29. To write to the Province of the city and 
surrounding country of Groningen, that they are to grant the 
companies of Captains Norman Bruce and Selby, provisionally 
placed as a share to their charge by the Council of State, their 
settlement, and liquidation of their current pay. 

January 4. It was agreed that Esaias Chastelain shall be 
reimbursed the sum of .1663 16 s , advanced by him, with 



198 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1605 

consent of the States, to the Cavalry Captain Ariskey for the 
support of his company of cavalry. 

January 15. As to the request of the Cavalry Captain Arch d 
Areskey, praying for a subsidy for his company of cavalry, 
still incomplete, he is apprised that the attention of the 
petitioner was early directed to all the difficulties which would 
beset him therein, and that more cannot be done for him in 
that matter than has already been done. 

January 19. On the request of Baron Buccleuch and Cap- 
tain Ariskin, praying that they may be allowed to increase the 
companies of his Scottish regiment up to 150 men, their 
regulation strength, consideration of the matter was postponed, 
till the Provinces of the State shall have given their consent. 

January 24. At the request of Arch d Ariskin, it was 
agreed that the Commissioner of the Treasury pay to the 
petitioner the transport money of one hundred infantry at 
eight guilders a head and that on the bases of the resolution 
from the time that he arrived at Veere, but deducting what 
he received at Veere, Dordrecht, here and elsewhere, in money, 
forage, and victuals. 

January 27. To write to the States of Utrecht, and ask 
to be informed by them whether they have given any sup- 
plies to the cavalry company of Arch d Areskyn, and, if so, 
to what extent. Item, What horses had he ? also, How is 
the company equipped ? 

February 5. It is agreed that 1200 guilders be provided for 
the time being for the Cavalry Captain Arch d Areskin towards 
the maintenance of his company of cavalry till the last of this 
month, according to the order made thereanent ; provided he 
be told to have his company formed against the first of March 
next, according to the resolution given him in writing. Or in 
default the States shall report him. 

May 7. Agreed that the Cavalry Captain Arch d Areskin 
shall, beyond the month's payment which was yesterday 
accorded to his company, be by anticipation furnished (in 
order that in the service of the Land he may take his com- 
pany out of Utrecht, and bring them into the field), with the 
sum of two thousand guilders, provided that the said sum be 
deducted from him during the next four months. 



i6os] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 199 

January 25. The Advocate of Holland reported that the 
Baron of Buccleuch had complained to him that justice was 
not done him against Captain Bruce, who killed his lieutenant 
Captain Hamilton in a duel. In respect that the said Bruce is 
suffered to walk about the streets here in the Hague, notwith- 
standing that he had been summoned to the Council of War. 
And praying for justice, to remove all sources of trouble before 
going a-field. 

Item. That he may have leave to increase his company, 
beyond his present strength (of two hundred), to two hundred 
and fifty men, at which he is always to hold the same complete. 
Having consulted as to both the said points, it was resolved 
respecting the first that the Council of War be earnestly 
recommended to adjudicate on the death of the said Hamilton, 
in order that all inconveniences and misunderstandings 
among the troops of the Scottish nation may soon be re- 
moved. 

Regarding the second point, the States agreed that if, at 
the muster of the company of the said Baron of Buccleuch, 
there be found twenty or thirty qualified soldiers beyond the 
authorised number on active service in the same company, 
that these shall be passed in the muster and paid. 

Claims of Sir William Balfour. 
(April 15, 1605.) 

MESSIEURS, Quand nos subiectz nous prient de choses justes Diplomatic 
il appartient a notre honneur de tenir la main a leur satisfaction. Corres P n d- 
C'est pourquoy a Tinstance de ce gentilhome Sire Guillaume icos! 
Balfour Chevalier, nfe serviteur domestique filz du feu colonnel 
Balfour, mort en vfe service, Nous reiterons la requeste que 
quelqu'an passe vous avions faicte en sa faveur, a fin que luy 
faire payer quarante et deux mille florins, desquels vous estez 
redevables a son diet pere, dont le droict et tiltre luy appartient. 
Mais ces premieres lettres apporterent si peu de fruict que 
force luy est vous importuner de rechef, et a nous le seconder de 
nfe faveur, tant pour le respect que nous avons au gentil- 
home, come pour la raison qu'a la chose en soy, ayant este 
lesdictes lettres acquises au colounel defunct par ses longs et 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1605 

signales services, et en fin par sa mort, laquelle vous avez raison 
de rememorer et recognoistre envers son heritier. Ce que nous 
esperons que vous ferez, voyant qu'avons et Paffaire a coeur et 
le gentilhome en estime, tant pour nous donner contentement 
en sa satisfaction come pour luy oster Toccasion de penser a 
d'aultres moyens. Escript a nre maison de Grenewich, le 
quinsiesme jour d'Avril, Tan de nre regne de la grande 
Bretaigne, France et Irlande le troisiesme. 

JAQUES R. 

MESSEIGNEURS, MESSEIGNEURS LES ESTATZ GNAULX DES PRO- 
VINCES UNIES, Remonstreen toute reverence et humilite le Sieur 
Guillaume de Balfour, Chevalier etc., filz ayne de feu Collounel 
Henry Balfour, Qu'il desirant ensuivre les traces de son feu Seig r 
et pere, lequel a laisse sa vie en la defence de vf e j uste cause et 
guerre, il a passe quelque huict mois accepte une compagnie au 
regiment du Baron de Backlouch sous esperance de meilleur 
advancement a la premiere occasion, Or, comme il lui con- 
viendra quiter des tres belles conditions qu'il a pres de sa 
M t6 son maistre, pour vacquer au present service. Supplie tres 
humblement qull plaise a voz Seigneuries le recompenser par 
le paiement de certaines obligations qu'il a pour le deu du 
service de son Seig r et pere comme app* par les copies icy 
joinctes veu qu'il est heritier et considere le quiter de la debte 
et Ires de faveur de sa S te Ma t6 escrite a cest effect a voz S ie % 
Ensemble son bon zelle et affection vers Tadvancement de vfe 
cause, et signamment qu'il passe soubs silence des aultres 
obligations de ceulx de Bruges et pays de Francq, d'aultant 
qu'elles sont a leur charges en particulier. 

COPIE i. 

Nous prelatz, nobles et deputes des villes, representants les 
estats gnaulx des pays bas, presentement assembles en la ville 
d'Anvers a tous ceulx qui ces presentes verront, salut. Comme 
par descompte faict et arreste par le commissaire Charles 
Longin, avecq le Sieur Christoffer Edmiston, cap ne d'une 
compaignie de gens de pied soubz le Regiment du Coronel 



i6os] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 201 

Balfour, soit trouve que au cap ne soit defalque au descompt a 
nre prouffict la somme de deux mille livres, de quarante gros 
monnaye de flandres la livre, a cause d^armes et munitions 
livres au Regiment par Guill. Lindsay. Scavoir faisons que 
pour asseurer le S r Guill. Lindsay de son deu et Tanimer a 
continuer semblables services, Avons promis et asseure, pro- 
mectons et asseurons par ceste de payer au d 1 Guill. Lindsay ou 
au porteur de cestes lad. somme de deux mille livres, dicte 
nionnoye, endans six mois prochains de trois mois en trois mois 
par esgalle portion a commencher avoir cours doiz (des ?) le 
premier de ce pnt mois de Mars xv c soixante dix nef et de la 
enavant, jusques a la parpaie de lad. somme, et ce par les 
mains de nre Tresorier des guerres Thierry van der Beken, 
present ou aultre advenir. Obligeans a cest effect nous et 
-chacun de nouz, nos personnes etbiensquelzconques meubles et 
immeubles, pfns et advenir, les soubmectons a la coerction de 
tous et quelzconques juges, tant ecclesiastiques que seculiers, 
avecq renunciation de touttes exceptions et privileges, signam- 
ment celle dictant que generalle n'est d^aulcune valeur si 
Tespecialle ne precede ; le tout sans aulcune fraulde ou 
malenziez. Moyennant que la presente soit enregistree et 
verifiee en nre chambre des aides. En tesmoignage de verite 
avons faict cacheter cestes du cachet accoustume et faict signer 
par un de noz secretaires. 

Par ordonnance expresse desd* S rs Estats. 

HOUFFLIN. 

Faict a Anvers le xxiii 6 jour de mars xv c soixante dix neuf. 



COPIE ii. 

Nous Prelats Nobles et Deputez etc. . . . Comme par 
.descompte faict et arreste par le commissaire des moustres 
Charles Longin avec les capitaines du Regiment du Colonnel 
Balfour soit trouve que aud. capitaines soit defalcque aud. 
descompte a nre proffict la somme de onze mil trois cent trente 
quatre livres, de quarante groz monnoye de flandres la livre, a 
cause d^armes et munitions livres aud. Regiment par led. S r 
Balfour, Scavoir faisons, que pour asseurer led. S r Colonnel 



202 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1605 

Balfour de son d. deu et Tanimer a continuer sembles services, 
Avons promis et asseure, promectons et asseurons par cestes de 
payer aud. S r Balfour ou au porteur de cestes, lad. somme de 
onse mil trois cens trente quatre livres dicte monnoye, endeans. 
an et demy prochain, et trois termes par esgalle portion, a 
commencher avoir cours dois le premier de ce mois de Mars et 
de la en avant jusques a la parpaye de lad. somme, et ce par les 
mains de nre Tresorier de guerres Thierry van der Beken 
present ou aultre advenir, etc., etc. HOUFFLIN. 

Faict en lad. ville d'Anvers le xxiii 6 de Mars xv c soixante dix 
nef, etc. 

COPIE in. 

Nous Prelatz, nobles et deputes etc. Comme par descompte 
faict et arreste par le commissaire Charles Longin, avec le S r 
Balfour, coronnel d'ung Regiment de gens de pied Escossois et 
pour le restant du traictement de sa personne de sa com- 
paignie coronnelle, soit trouve qu'aultre les prests, rabas et 
payemens qu'aud. S r Coronnel avons faict depuis lu xviii 6 de 
Novembre xv c Ixxvii, jour de Tentree de son service, jusques le 
dernier du mois de febvrier dernier passe jour dud. descompte 
luy serions demeurez redebuables la somme de dix huict mille 
deux cens x cl xv s, de quarante gros monnaye de flandres la 
livre. Scavoir faisons que pour donner aud. S r Coronnel tout 
contentement possible endroict le payement de lad. somme et 
affin de rammer de tant plus de continuer vertueusement en 
nre service, Avons promis et asseure, promectons et asseurons 
par cestes, payer aud. S r Coronnel Balfour, ou au porteur de 
cestes lad. somme de xviii m ii c iiii xx xi xv s dicte monnaye, 
endeans an et demy prochain venant etc., etc. HOUFFLIN. 

November 22. On information received that in Scotland twa 
regiments of servants 1 are being raised for the enemy, it is 
resolved that this be made known to the Admiral of the fleet 
before Dunkirk ; charging him to keep a look out for them 
and in case he should capture any English or Scots, who are 



1 The word Knechten = servants may be short for Lanzknechts = fofry, or it 
may just mean serving-men. 



i6o6] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 203 

being conveyed to the enemy, to see that they are thrown 
overboard. 

1606, January 3. At the request of Colonel Edmond, it 
was agreed that a Commissary of musters [or muster master] 
be sent to Rotterdam to inspect the new Scots arrived there, 
brought over by Lieutenant William Martin, and make them 
delay for some days, to see if in the interim the forty Scots 
whom he still expects arrive ; so that, thereafter, having heard 
the report of the said Commissary, it may after be resolved 
whether one company shall be made up out of them or not. 

1606, January 6. Resolved to write to the Commissioners 
of the Councils of Holland, that seeing the States have resolved 
to keep the said Scots in their service, their lordships shall be 
pleased to arrange with the Magistracy of Rotterdam to 
accommodate and put them up in their city for a certain short 
time. That the States have issued an order by which a loan 
is granted them for fourteen days, and that further orders will 
immediately be issued that the same be continued ; so that on 
that account they need furnish no more victuals to the said 
soldiers. It was further resolved that Lieutenant Martin, who 
brought the said Scots over from Scotland, if he should succeed 
in forming a company of new Scots, fresh from Scotland, 
within a month or six weeks, capable and qualified soldiers, to 
the number of 150 heads, will have a commission over them 
granted to him ; otherwise the foresaid soldiers shall be 
reduced, that, in the interim, order shall be taken that the 
same be supported by a loan, that is to say with a dollar each 
soldier (officers included). 

February 27. It was found desirable to charge the first 
[muster] commissary to betake himself to Rotterdam, and 
review the company of Scots arrived there from Calais, raised 
in Scotland, for the service of the enemy, and see whether the 
soldiers are suitable for the service of the Land, and provide 
them with three days' provisions. 

April 28. On the request of John Balfour, brother of Baron 
Balfour of Burley, praying to be allowed to form a company 
of Scottish infantry for the service of the Land, it was resolved 
that, a considerable number of recruits being still expected 

trom Scotland, the request of the petitioner in the meantime 
ie over. 



204 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1606 



Captain Erskine's Company. 

The Magistracy of Zwolle to the Council of State. 
(May 21, 1606.) 

MY LORDS, We cannot withhold from you how having, by 
order of his Excellency, last autumn received the cavalry com- 
pany of Captain Arskin, we could at first supply them only 
very badly with lodgings, they being people of a foreign 
nation, and also in appearance completely impoverished and 
sickly. Besides that, we were already provided with other com- 
panies, both mounted and on foot, hence all hesitated to lodge 
the said cavalry. However, by persuasion and encouragement, 
we at length prevailed on our burgesses to receive them. Now 
it so happened that the said captain left this place shortly 
after his arrival, and owing to indisposition or other hindrances 
has not yet returned. On account of which said cavalry, dur- 
ing the time they have been here in garrison, have received 
very little money, and therefore would have had no means of 
support for themselves and their horses, had not the burghers 
with whom they lodged commiserated them and assisted them 
with victuals, oats, hay, and other necessaries, in the full 
expectation that from time to time th captain would come 
with pay or send the money. 

While upwards of ten to twelve hundred thalers have in 
this way now been spent on the cavalry, and the burghers are 
expecting that these troops may soon receive orders to march 
to the field, we have had earnest representations and entreaties 
from said burghers to aid them in obtaining payment for their 
outlays, otherwise they expressly declare that when the orders 
arrive, and the troopers proceed to remove their horses from 
the stalls, they intend to retain them in lieu of payment; 
therefore we cannot refrain from, in the most friendly manner, 
making request to your lordships that the money for the pay 
of said company, to be drawn by the said captain, be with- 
held for behoof of our burghers. Otherwise it will be im- 
possible to prevent the said burghers from retaining the horses, 
as security, till they receive payment ; because they are, for 
the most part, people with very limited means, to whom any 
loss is a serious matter. And though in this matter we trust 



1607] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 205 

entirely to your lordships, we desire, nevertheless, that you 
may be pleased to send in return to us by the bearer of this, 
our express messenger, a small rescript. Herewith, etc., your 
lordships good friends, 

THE BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN, AND COUNCIL 
OF THE TOWN OF ZwOLLE. 

September 12. Received a letter, of date 7 September, from Resolutions 
his Excellency, wherein his Excellency requests that the States 
would be graciously pleased to have Lieutenant-Colonel William 
Brogge in favourable recommendation, before any other, for 
the colonelcy of the regiment of the late Edmond. After 
consultation, the reply was ordered to be sent, that so far as 
his Excellency considers it proper to grant the regiment to the 
foresaid Lieutenant-Colonel Brogge, in which the same has 
served as lieutenant, the States agree thereto, provided no other 
officers be appointed over the regiment, so long as it is 
doubtful whether, after the month of September, the burdens 
of war will be so heavy. 

1607. January 27. In regard to his long and faithful 
services, Colonel Brogh is granted a salary of four hundred 
guilders a month, as Colonel Edmond likewise formerly had. 

February 23. At the request of Captain Henry Bruce, pray- 
ing for full payment and recompense for his past services, it was 
determined and declared that the States-General, considering 
their situation of affairs, have treated the petitioner as favour- 
ably as anybody else, of whatever nation, in the service of the 
Land, that he will therefore, for a change, have to content 
himself for the present. 

March 19. Two petitions were read from the widow of 
Andrew Macrevaels, in life cadet in the company of Captain 
James Blair, and from the widow of Captain Robert Barkly, also 
cadet of the said company, praying respectively for payment, 
the one of one hundred, the other of eighty guilders, for 
services rendered to the Land by their said late husbands, under 
the said Captain Blair, but an understanding was come to 
that, on account of their being likely to form a precedent, 
these payments cannot be entertained. 

April 11. On a request of the relict and orphans of 



206 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1607 



Captain Robert Barkly, Scotsman, it was ordered to place the 
same in the hands of the Clerk of the Treasury, to discover 
how long petitioners husband had served, and what balance is 
due to him. Item. What has been paid to the same, or to 
the petitioner, by the Receiver-General, or by the Receiver 
of Holland, and, otherwise, how widows in like circumstances 
have been treated ? 

Prince Maurice to the Council of State. 

NOBLE, HONOURABLE, VERY WISE AND DISCREET, OUR SPECIALLY 
GOOD F R IENDS, MY LORDS, Captain Francis Henderson has 
complained to us, that you object to permit the arrears of his 
pay, to which he is entitled, to be sent after him, which are 
due to him as having served as sergeant-major in the regi- 
ment of Colonel Buccleuch, during a period referred to in the 
accompanying remonstrance ; as to which he beseeches us to 
speak a word in his favour to your lordships, in order that he 
may have it granted him. And because we well know that he 
has filled the said office from June 1604 till now ; though 
Captain Halket filled the same post about four months during 
his absence, and there is now Captain Forbes, who replaced 
him. Therefore in all friendship we request your Honours, by 
these presents, to issue an order that he be paid for his past 
services. Your lordships 1 obedient friend, 

(S d ) MAURICE DE NASSAU. 

The Hague, the last day of March 1607. 

To the Council of State. 

MY LORDS, Thomas Marchbank, ensign in the company 
of the late Commander Edmonds, and afterwards of Colonel 
Brough, has informed us, and shown by petition, in the name 
of George Ramsay, lieutenant of the same company, and in 
his own name, that although they had served long years in the 
said company, and had been garrisoned with them on several 
occasions in our City, and had held their soldiers in such good 
order, discipline, and quietness, that they had not only been 
thanked by their late commander and the soldiers themselves, 
but even by the whole community here. That in spite of all 



i6o;] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 207 

this, it pleased their present colonel and captain, Brough, to 
shift them from their respective posts without, be it noted, 
having any reason for doing so, and in revenge at the soldiers 
having demanded their arrears from the widow Edmonds, 
deeming that they were the instigators, though that had not 
been shown, and the charge had been withdrawn. And since, 
as they said, we were acquainted with their good conduct 
while garrisoned in Utrecht; and further with their faithful 
services, which should be taken into consideration, in the battle 
of Flanders, the sieges of Ostend, Rynberck, and elsewhere, 
they therefore besought us most humbly to grant them a 
declaration or prescript to lay before your lordships, regarding 
their conduct and behaviour in Utrecht, in order that they 
may thereby promote their interests with you, in complaining 
of the matter aforesaid. That we could not refuse them ; and 
we hereby declare, that the said company remained several 
years consecutively in garrison within our town ; that the 
foresaid officers kept the company in such good discipline, 
and the soldiers conducted themselves so modestly and politely 
in their intercourse with the burgers, that we and the general 
community derived much pleasure from their conduct, which is 
the reason why we address your lordships. Praying Almighty 
God to have you in His holy keeping, Your honours 1 obedient 
friends, 

SHERIFF, BURGOMASTER, AND ALDERMEN 

OF THE TOWN OF UTRECHT. 
Written at Utrecht, the 25 April 1607. 

Anne oca 

JAMES R. 

TRUSTY AND WELBELOVED, WEE GREET you WELL. A subiect 
of owers, called George Ramsey, Lieutenaunt to Collonell 
Edmonds, is now a suiteur to the States Gen 1 to be releived 
w th some pension or other advancement in regard of his long 
services and infirmities contracted in their service. And hath 
had reason to alleage unto them for his suite having spent 
many yeares in their service ; had two brothers slayne there, 
and lastly weakness happened to himself, wherew th though we 
doubt not but they wil be moved to have consideracon of him, 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1607 

yet because he is one of whome we have heard well and doe 
desire to have him releived, we are pleased that you shall use 
ouer recomendacon of him to them, and move them to it, as a 
matter much desired by us, and w ch we will take in kind part 
at their handes, and require you to urge them to it, w th as 
much earnestnes as reasonably you may. 

Given under ouer Signet at our Mannour of Hatfeild, the 
five and Twentith day of July, in the third yere of ouer raigne 
of great Brytaine, ffraunce, and Irelande. 

[Addressed] 

To our trusty and welbeloved Raphe Wynwood, esquire, 
our Agent resydent with the States of the unyted provinces 
of the Lowe Countries. 

Of the xiii th of August. 

To the Council of State. 

MY LORDS, Your missive of the 24 April last was 
handed to me on the last day of the following month, and 
from it I am led to understand that your Honours' opinion 
and intention, in conformity with the note of his Excellency, 
appended to the request of William Stuart, Ensign, is to the 
effect, that I should receive him again into my company, and 
permit him to enjoy the full effect of said note, unless I 
could allege some strong reasons to the contrary. Will it 
please your Honours, therefore, to accept these as reasons to 
be taken into consideration that the deceased, killed by the 
said remonstrant, is my cousin-german, and a near blood 
relative ; obviously therefore it would be impossible for me to 
endure to have the remonstrant going about before my eyes, 
and more difficult still to have him serving in my company 
without loss of respect, and his being in it would give rise to 
divers serious inconveniences, which, owing to natural affection 
for a blood relative, might supply material for more and 
greater grievance to the other than what has been referred to. 
Therefore, I hope your lordships, duly weighing what has 
been said, will be pleased to take such action as may be most 
advisable for securing quiet, peace, and tranquillity to both 



i6o/] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 209 

parties. Moreover, may it please you to order the said ensign 
to keep himself anywhere else out of my sight. 

Herewith I pray the Almighty to have your lordships 
under the shield and protection of His grace, to whom also I 
very humbly commend myself. Your honours 1 most obedient 
servant, 

(Signed) DAVID RAMSAY. 

From Bergen on the Zoom, the first May a 1607. 

Complaint from the Town of Heusden. 

Heusden, 20 May 1607. Your lordships must already be Letters and 
well acquainted, from the correspondence of our Lord Governor, 
my noble Lord of Hierez, with the miserable condition of this of state, 
town, occasioned mostly by the six English and Scottish Com- 
panies, who have several times been in garrison within the 
town, and are still here at present, besides two other Nether- 
land companies, and chiefly by the English company of Cap- 
tain Konnock, wherein the greatest disorder is found. The 
common soldiers complaining bitterly, because of their miser- 
able rations and bad payment, and that to such a degree, 
that had not the soldiers at our earnest entreaty been 
provided with a weekly loan, by treasurer Bruynincx, we 
should to-day be in fear of a new species of mutiny. There- 
fore, along with our Lord Governor aforesaid, we pray that 
your lordships may so arrange matters, that in future all such 
disorders be provided against and prevented ; and that you 
may be pleased to intercede with his Excellency, in order that 
some companies of the said foreign nations, and in particular 
that of Konnock, which has been the longest in garrison here, 
may be changed, a measure which will not only contribute to 
the security of this frontier place, but confirm our town and 
its inhabitants in greater loyalty. Therefore we conclude this 
with humble respects to your lordships, praying the Amighty 
to spare the same, etc. 

At Heusden, this 30th May 1607. At order of the bailiff, 
the burgomasters, and rulers of the town of Heusden, 

VAN HAERSVELT. 



210 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1607 

Annexa to the preceding letter. 

MY LORDS, To-day certain soldiers of the company of 
Captain Konnock proceeded to plunder several houses of 
certain bakers and provision merchants of the bread and 
victuals exposed in their shops, doing this, as I am informed, 
through want of money ; and the citizens, because of this, are 
in perplexity and highly dissatisfied, and truly not without 
cause, since it might easily happen, particularly with the 
foreigners, that, although those in the other companies are not 
in such a state of destitution, they might be seduced into 
taking part in a factious rising of the sort, through hope of 
disorder and pillage. I pray that it may please your lord- 
ships to restore matters to due order with all diligence. I 
have written to his Ex y about changing the garrison. Eight 
Companies are here, six of which are English and Scottish. I 
hope his Ex y will send two or three Netherland companies 
here, and remove again out to the country some of the strangers, 
particularly the company of Captain Konnock, which from 
the first has continually been in bad order more so than 
proper officers ought to tolerate, as the whole city can testify. 

Meantime I shall continue to do my duty in everything, as 
God knows ; to whom I pray that He may maintain your 
lordships in a long, prosperous, and blessed government. 

At Heusden this 30th May 1607, Y. H. M. humble and 
faithful servant, MAXIMILIAN DE HORMES. 

Resolutions J u ty 21. Alexander Stuart, cuirassier in the company of 

of states- cavalry of the late Colonel Edmond, was continued in his pay- 
r* PTIPT3 1 L / 

ment of fifty guilders a month, being what he had under the 

said colonel, and the company of the Count of de Broucke. 

September 4. On the request of Colonel Brogh, he having 
received into his company 37 soldiers from the disbanded 
company of Captain Cranston, and 18 soldiers of Captain 
Robbert, also out of said disbanded company, an under- 
standing was come to that the said soldiers shall be accounted 
as the petitioner's from the date when it shall be proved he 
received them. 

December 13. On the request of Alexander Stuart, it was 
agreed that, inasmuch as the petitioner actually went into ser- 



i6o8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 

vice under Cavalry Captain Areskeyn, the pay of fifty guilders 
a month of forty-two days, allowed him by the Council of 
State, shall be paid him. 

December 15. To the surviving son of the late Captain 
Barkly, who fell in the battle of Flanders, was granted a place 
in any similar company, such as the said captain^s surviving 
widow, married to Bartholomew de Bonder, may choose ; and 
to the said widow, out of commiseration, a grant of fifty 
guilders in all. 

1608, January 19. Jaques Douglas, sometime Ensign in 
the company of Captain Cathcart, in consideration of certain 
things, was granted eighteen guilders, provided that he do not 
pester the States further. 

March 18. The request of Colonel Stuart was read, and it 
was resolved, and on the said request decided, that since the 
petitioner by particular favour, on the recommendation of the 
Earl of Orkney, got a commission to bring from Scotland, for 
the service of the Land, a company of infantry, of one hundred 
and forty men, the States-General, in order to show still 
greater favour to the petitioner, permit the same, and consent 
by these presents, to the said company being again transported 
out of these Lands to Sweden, in the king^s service and by his 
request. 

June 30. On the request of Jacques Bruce, Scotsman, late 
ensign of Captain Sinclair, praying for the post of officer of 
artillery, in the place of Peter Stuart, also a Scotsman, said 
request is refused. 

July 1. It was agreed that the Receiver pay the monthly 
payments due to the late Peter Stuart, Scotsman, officer of 
artillery, in which Stuart died, in order to cover therewith 
the expenses of his funeral. 1 

Proposals of' Captain Bruce. 

July 24. The Advocate of Holland has forwarded certain 
information, received by him from Calais, from the agent 
Digart, touching a certain plan, which one of the Scots 
captains named Bruce offers to carry out, and which would in 
the highest degree be of advantage to the Land, on condition 

1 See pp. 187 and 188. 



212 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1608 

that he be recompensed, namely, either as he may engage, or 
on a pay of three hundred guilders a month, or that he should 
be given command of one-half of the Scottish regiment of the 
Baron of Buccleuch. Otherwise he shall withhold the said 
information and depart with it to Italy. 

After consultation, an understanding was come to that it 
be ascertained from his Ex y whether he has any particular 
advice or explanation regarding the above mentioned com- 
munication, and if not, no attention is to be paid to it. 

July 25. In a report of the Advocate of Holland, heard of 
his Exc y ' s approval of the plan which Captain Herman Bruce 
offers to carry out, on terms proposed by him, as to certain 
matters, touching in the highest degree the security of the 
government of the Land. 

It was thought good to write to the Agents Aerssen and 
Digart to test the foresaid captain, and try to draw out of 
him what the service really is that he offers to do, and to that 
end to assure the same that in so far as the matters which he 
offers to carry out are, as he says, important to the government 
of the Land, he is to be given to understand that in regard to 
them the States shall recognise his services according to their 
usual discretion and the demands of the service which he may 
therein do to the Land. 

Sept tr 25. A letter was read from Captain Bruce, of 
7 September, enclosing certain advices, regarding which he has 
given more particular information, for the service of the 
Land, to the Agent Aerssen, in the full confidence that he 
will obtain from the States due recognition for this. 

After deliberation, it was resolved and agreed to write to the 
said Agent Aerssen that they have seen the explanation which 
the said captain has made to him ; for which, on their part, he 
is to thank the same, and assure him that their Highnesses, and 
his Ex y have been perfectly informed about the said design 
for more than fifteen years ; and with such certainty, that his 
Ex y . has always had it in view, as among other things was 
apparent when the Admiral of Arragon entered the territory 
of Cleves, and passed the Rhine with a powerful army, and 
made an attempt on the fortifications of Gravenweert, and at 
last, the enemy having besieged the city of Groll, at the time 



i6o8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 213 

when his Ex^, to prevent the design on Graven weert and their 
quarters, allowed a flying column to stay in that locality. 
Afterwards he led there a large fleet, with pontoons and ships, 
against the advance of the enemy. Nevertheless the States 
agree to satisfy the said Captain Bruce with two or three 
hundred crowns, or at the utmost with a thousand guilders in 
all, and he, Aerssen, is to furnish him with said sum ; or make 
him the offer, that should he desire to come here to await his 
fortune, he shall be recommended as occasion presents itself. 

December 1. The Messrs, van Loenen, Oldenbarneveld, and 
van der Aa are commissioned to converse more particularly, 
and hear from Captain Bruce, what more he has to communcate 
in the service of the Lands than what he has done. 

December 10. The Messrs, v. Loenen, Oldenbarneveld, and 
van der Aa, gave in a report of their conference with Captain 
Bruce, arrived from France, as to certain communications of 
his made in the service of the Land. And having deliberated 
thereon, it was agreed, that an order for five hundred guilders 
in all be despatched to the said Captain Bruce for his main- 
tenance; that meanwhile it shall be decided later about his 
departure, and the recognition of any good services performed 
by him to the Land, and known to the States. 

January 3, 1609. The request of Henry Bruce was read, 
but in the meantime a decision was postponed. 

June 10. There was granted to Henry Bruce, formerly 
captain, for all his claims of services, and beyond the sum 
accorded him before, five hundred guilders, provided there 
be deducted from it the sum that the agent Aerssen credited 
him with in France. 

July 17. To Captain Henry Bruce, on account of certain 
good considerations, and for all his claims on the Land, beyond 
the five hundred guilders last accorded him, is still added 
three hundred guilders. And it is agreed to despatch him an 
order for both, together amounting to eight hundred guilders, 
it being understood that the first five hundred guilders granted 
the petitioner, for some special services, are not included 
therein. 

August 10. To Captain Henry Bruce were granted letters 
of recommendation to the Margrave of Ansbach, containing in 



214 



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 



[1608 



substance : Seeing the petitioner has served very long and 
faithfully in these Lands, and that he is a man who could be 
of service to His Serene Highness, the States do therefore 
recommend His Serene Highness that he be pleased, in so far 
as he may find it prudent to have in his service people of the 
Scottish nation, to employ the same. 

Recommendation by the Burgomasters and Aldermen of the 
City of Breda. 

MY LORDS, We humbly recommend ourselves to your good 
graces. Jacques Lawson, Scotsman, burgher of this town, has 
begged us, in a written request here enclosed, to grant him 
letters favourably recommending him to your lordships for 
the post of cannoneer of this city. Which request we have 
the more willingly had written on his behalf as we are aware 
that the said Jacques has served the Land for a long time 
well and faithfully, and that afterwards, as a burgher of this 
city, he conducted himself as a reputable and respectable man, 
and we never heard any other report of him ; and in addition, 
Thomas Wymerbeeck, commander of the cannoneers, has 
certified, by mark of hand, that Jacques Lawson would be 
found highly qualified for said post. We therefore pray your 
lordships that this our recommendation be serviceable to the 
said Lawson. Wherewith concluding, we shall ever pray, etc. 
Your lordships obedient, 

BURGOMASTERS AND ALDERMEN OF THE CITY BREDA. 

This 26 July 1608. 



Letters and 

Requests to 

the Council 

State. 



The Company oj Captain Mackenzie at Aardenburg. 

MY LORDS, We have received your lordships 1 missive, 
together with the enclosed request from the clerk Johan 
Bogaert. From which we learn that the substance of his 
complaint to you refers to a certain building, on which, he 
asserts, he has expended something by way of repairs. Let it 
suffice for an answer, that at the capture of the town the 
said house was found to be an old building, and Captain 
Elderen, then major here, put a certain smith into it, and 
after he left, the said clerk affirms that he made certain repairs 



1606] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 215 

on it. Then the company of Captain Mackingi [?] arrived 
as a garrison, and difficulty was found in securing accommoda- 
tion, and the lieutenant of the said company and some of 
his soldiers were quartered in the building, and still lodge 
there. He went accordingly on the understanding that the 
house being abandoned, and no proprietor living in it, it was 
quite at the service of the Land. Further, we submit these 
repairs or claims to the discretion of your lordships, etc. 
Your mighty Honours' obedient servant, 

FBANS HASEMAN. 

At Aerdenburch, the 1 September 1608. 

1608, September 19. There was read the request of Captain Resolutions 
William Balfour, 1 recommended by the King of Great Britain, 
both by His Majesty's letters and orally by the ambassadors 
who had been in England. And it was agreed that the States- 
General, being at present so occupied with matters of extreme 
importance in regard to the Land, their High Mightinesses 
cannot attend to the request of the petitioner ; but that this 
shall be done at a more convenient opportunity, and be then 
disposed of as may be found proper. 

The Magistracy of Zwolle re Capt. Erskine^s Cavalry Company. 

1608, Dec r 3. MY LORDS, Since the decease of Captain Letters and 
Arch. Arskin, it has been found that he owed to our burghers ^ ^Coiuidi 
here, and to others, a considerable sum of money. Moreover, of state, 
some members of the said captain's family took upon them to 
remove by unlawful methods from this place, and retain the 
horses and other goods left by the captain. We have ordered 
the same to be apprehended, and did all in our power to cause 
the horses and other goods to be brought back, and stored 
beside the rest, to be kept for the benefit of the deceased's 
heir, or otherwise for the benefit of the creditors, to whom he 
is deeply indebted. And seeing that the pay of the troopers, 
due to them from said captain, is almost two months in 
arrear, and in supporting themselves they have naturally run 
into debt with our burghers, who have presented a petition, 
wherein they beg us to use our influence with your lordships, 

1 See p. 69, note 3. 



216 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1609 

in order that they may obtain payment; also particularly 
requesting that the money be forwarded to us, in order that 
payment may be made in presence of some of our number, and 
that a due liquidation be effected between them and our 
burghers, according to the wants of each one as occasion serves. 
Seeing then that your lordships have sent the Commissary 
Doubblet here, to muster the company in presence of our 
deputies, and to account with each of the troopers as to his 
arrears, and make liquidation, we cannot refrain from writing 
to you, and sending a friendly request, that an arrangement 
be made by your lordships, by which those who pay this 
money to the company, may be particularly charged to make 
such payments in presence of our deputies. And that as 
regards the captain's pay, and the horses of his own he had in 
the company, an account be left and delivered into our hands, 
and kept beside the other goods, in the interest of the heirs or 
creditors. Your lordships' good friends, 

THE BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN, AND COUNCIL 

OF THE TOWN ZwOLLE. 

Dated at Zwolle, the 3rd December 1608. 

Annexa to the request sent by the Magistrates of Zwolle. 
(Presented 28 Nov. 1608.) 

To THE WORSHIPFUL BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN AND COUNCIL 
OF THE CITY OF ZWOLLE. In all submission, this is pre- 
sented by the common troopers of the deceased Captain 
Arch. Arreskyne in garrison here in the city; who on 
their part were engaged on monthly wage or pay, and now 
on Thursday next, the first December of this year 1608, 
they will be two months in arrear, and in addition all 
previous reckonings are in arrear. Against these arrears, the 
remonstrants owe large sums of money to the burghers, who 
can in no way be satisfied, till payment be made to them of 
their arrears. Accordingly the remonstrants most humbly 
and submissively entreat and request that it may please you 
graciously to further the promotion of their request to their 
Highnesses the States, that payment may be made of their 
arrears, so that your burghers may afterwards be paid in full 



i6o8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 217 



and satisfied, as they ought to be. And this with the further 
request, that the money to be paid be delivered to none, 
except to your worships alone, so that it be honestly handled, 
and nobody, whether burgher or soldier, be defrauded, or have 
deductions made from his account. 

[Here follow forty-two signatures (in many cases difficult to 
decipher).] 



Jck Wil Wrayt. 

Jan Willemsen van Zwolle. 

Thomas Nicholles. 

Saunder van Haltringe. 

Archblde Lonide. 

Edward Lawraince, Trumelter. 

John Greene, Trumpeter. 

A. T. Grae. 

James Fozzeringam. [?] 

James flenne. 

Gel Mitsiel. 

Jan Nickles. 

Thomas Oxanfired. 

Thamas Kilpatrick. 

Mai. M. R. Kilpatrick. 

Andris A. H. Call. 

James Cox. 

[Illegible name here.] 

Andreis Kinnarie. 

Bartollemeus von Guetelberg, 

trumpeter. 
Ro* Glen. 



Patrick Innes. 

Michell Gigel, Krieger. 

Tomas Bigge. 

Gorge Davidsone. 

Crystoffel x Citon merck. 

George X Glind merck. 

David x Lang merck. 

Tomas Patton. 

Andrew Rouke. 

Tomas Haldan. 

Raff Ffensty. 

Gabriel Colbraith. 

Henri Bonare. 

Andrea Stobhil. 

David Fflint. 

Alexander Pringill. 

Patrick Bruce. 

Sam x Semmes merck. 

All. Bartholomew Cykis 

Grinda. 

Hendrik x Stockdyck merck, 
Raeff x Ensleip merck. 1 



Complaint of the Governor of Heusden. 

MY LORDS, I am much astonished that your lordships 
charged the Lieutenant-Provost of the State to deliver your 
missive to the lieutenant of Captain Hamilton here, where- 
through he passed secretly out of the town before the Com- 
missary Van den Broucke left this, and thus said lieutenant 



1 See also p. 275. 



218 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1609 

disobeyed my orders and broke his parole. For (as I wrote 
you before from here), I gave him his lodgings for a prison, and 
said lieutenant promised to regard them as such. Herewith, 
etc., your honours 1 humble servant, 

MAXIMILIAN DE HORNES. 
In Huesden, the 25th January 1609. 

Resolutions 1609, January 8. In reference to the request of John Blaire, 
General. formerly ensign, and John Stuart, sergeant of the disbanded 
company of Captain Archibald Arskin, it was decided to place 
the same in the hands of the Council of State, in order to treat 
the petitioners according to the general resolution passed in 
regard to such matters. 



DIVISION II 

THE TIME OF THE TWELVE YEARS' 
TRUCE 

1609-1621 



THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE 221 



INTRODUCTORY 

DURING the period of the Twelve Years'* Truce, the Scottish troops 
in the service of the Netherlands consisted of the two infantry 
regiments, commanded respectively by Sir William Brog and 
by Lord Buccleuch, who was succeeded in 1612 by Sir Robert 
Henderson, and apparently of two or three companies of 
cavalry. One was the company commanded by the veteran 
cavalry captain Alexander Wishart, who seems to have been 
succeeded by Sir William Balfour, with whom he was in 
negotiation in 1615, and with whom he had a. fracas at Leith 
in 1616. The other was that commanded at one time by 
Thomas Erskine and at another by Robert Irvine, and was 
probably the company formerly commanded by Sir William 
Edmond and subsequently by his son. In 1618 Sir William 
Brog described his regiment as ' the first and oldest regiment 
of foreign nationality in these Netherlands, 1 and it undoubtedly 
represented the Scottish companies which first came over to 
the aid of William the Silent. Buccleuch's regiment had 
arrived in the latter part of 1603. 1 But although the country 
was not at war, and although the documents present frequent 



1 The appearance of officers' names in the ' States of War ' does not always 
correspond with the date of entry of their commissions, and of their being 
regarded as having taken the oath. The appointment seems frequently, even 
when the original appointment is not noted as made by the commander-in-chief 
to supply death vacancies in the field, to have preceded by some time the formal 
commission and oath, and in many cases to have been originally made by the 
provincial authorities. See case of George Coutts, July iQth, 1615, p. 280. 

The Resolutions of Holland contain the following, dated November loth, 
1618 : ' H. E\y appearing in the assembly mentions the custom heretofore always 
adhered to in filling vacancies in the Captaincies of the Comp ies on Reparti- 
tion Holland ; and many Comp ies , as well foreign as native, being now vacant, H. 
Ex* desires to be told what the intentions are. Res. : H. Ex** shall continue to 
have the right to fill the vacancies in foreign comp ies and all those occurring in 
the field, in home comp ies after consulting the col. and commanding officers of 
the respective Reg ts .' 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 

illustrations that the soldiers of certain companies were living 
in the ' piping times of peace,"* there were some opportunities 
of special service, and with the active Spinola on their frontiers, 
and their own suspicions of Spanish faith, the States had to 
keep their house as a strong man armed. Indeed, when the 
first rumblings of the Thirty Years 1 War were felt in close 
proximity to their eastern fortresses, Prince Maurice took the 
field in a campaign of guarded reserve, in which Spinola and 
he mutually passed each other by on the other side, while 
practically aiding antagonists who were their respective allies. 
In 1610, when the succession to the Duchies of Juliers and 
Cleves was contested between Leopold of Austria on the one 
side and the Elector of Brandenburgh and the Elector 
Palatine on the other, an auxiliary force of British troops 
was sent to the aid of the Protestant claimants. Two English 
and one Scots regiment were made up from the British troops 
serving in Holland, and in the case of the Scots, nine com- 
panies were taken from the two regiments, Sir Robert Hender- 
son of Buccleuch's regiment acting as Colonel, Caddell of 
Brog's regiment as Lieut. -Colonel, and Sir William Balfour as 
Sergeant-Major. The command of the whole was given to 
Sir Edward Cecil (Lord Wimbledon), 1 and the force distin- 
guished itself in the siege and reduction of Juliers (Gulick). 
In a narrative of the siege by an eyewitness, 2 the writer states 
that on the 15th August 

' this day ere night the enemy threw fireworks into General 
Cecil's Main Batteries, which burnt long and did much harm 
before the same could be quenched : the enemy maintaining the 
same with cannon and musket the most part of the night : but 
Sir Robert Henderson, Colonel of the Scots, had the Guard that 
night, who shewed great judgment both to quench it and to 
hinder the enemy from attempting it any more, who shot wild fire 
and granadoes most part of the night.' 

Juliers was surrendered on 1st September. The reputation 
already gained in the service of the States is well illustrated by 

1 See Dalton's Life and Times of General Sir Edward Cecil, Viscount 
Wimbledon, List of Officers, State Papers, Holland, 1610. 

2 Weymouth's account of the Siege of Gulick, Royal MSS. (Dalton's 
Cecil.) 



INTRODUCTORY 223 

an anecdote with which Lord Wimbledon commenced his little 
* Treatise upon Cavalry. 1 * c Henry iv. of France, whensoever any 
of the Princes, Nobilitie, or Gentry desired to kiss his hand, 
would tell them they should have been much more welcome to 
him if they had seen the face of the Prince of Orange, 
meaning the wars by it.' 

The instructions given in January 1615 to Sir Dudley 
Carleton, on his being sent as Ambassador to the Hague, con- 
tained a special clause relating to the English and Scottish 
troops in Dutch pay. ' And because we have of our subjects 
in the service of the States upon the point of 200 companies 
we cannot but be sensible of their good, and therefore recom- 
mend them to your care and protection to assist them with 
your countenance in all their lawful causes and pursuits, and 
by your power to defend them from injuries and wrongful 
oppression.' 1 The English companies which had hitherto 
formed the garrisons of the cautionary towns were in 1616 
erected into an additional regiment, thus making the British 
infantry in the Dutch service consist of two Scots and four 
English regiments. 

The Ambassador's correspondence contains several references 
to the Scots in foreign service. At one time he conveys the 
apprehensions of the States that the Earl of Argyle is going 
to take service with the Spaniards ; 2 at another Sir Robert 
Henderson cautions him in regard to a deserted soldier of his 
company, who has become a c meddler with Jesuits ; 3 and again 



1 On July 7th, 1617, Carleton mentions having sent a despatch to His Majesty 
by Colonel Brogue, and on Feb. 4th, 1617-8 acknowledges having received one 
from Secretary Lake by Sir William Balfour. 

2 1618. Nov. 3rd. Carleton states that S. Horace Vere reported that the 
States am 1 " 8 came to him * to acquaint him that the States were advertised from 
Brussels, that the Earl of Argyle having there settled himself and his lady in 
their return from Spa this last summer, seeks the command of a regiment of the 
king's subjects in the service of the Spaniard, which as it would turn much to 
their prejudice by debauching with the English and Scots soldiers, who are ever 
ready upon such new occasions to run to the enemy, they beseech his Majesty not 
to give any to it.' 'Such would prove like that of the Irish, a nursery of dis- 
affected persons.' 

3 1619, May i5th, Sir Robert Henderson to Sir D. Carleton. 'Concerning 
William Gordon who had been of his company, but had left it above two years 
and took away with him 2000 guilders, he married Straghan, a burgomaster's 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 

the ambassador himself sends a cautious report upon Captain 
Henry Bruce, who has just returned from the service of the 
Emperor. 1 That the Scottish troops were a powerful support 
to the House of Orange in the struggle between Prince Maurice 
and the Calvinists, and John van Olden Barneveld and the 
Arminian party is also indicated by an experience of Colonel 
Henderson's reported by Sir Dudley Carleton on June 18th, 1619. 

' At Horn Schonoven and some other towns of Holland, the 
Arminians in considerable numbers have had these last Sundays 
past their meetings and preachings with public profession so to 
continue, though it be with hazard of life and goods : and at 
Alcmaer on Sunday last, an assembly of them being gathered to- 
gether in a wood adjoining to the town and Colonel Hynderson 
(who doth there command over the extraordinary troops sent 
thither expressly to suppress these tumults) going thither to 
accompany the states deputies who went to forbid the meeting, 
was assailed by the people with their knives, not without some 
danger to himself and the deputies, until a troop of soldiers came 
up, by whom they were beaten away, but without blood.' 



daughter, and left his wife miserably, so that it was not to be expected he would 
come into these parts. That he was a debauched Papist and a meddler with 
Jesuists. ' 

1 1620. April I5th. Carleton to Secretary Naunton. ' Here is arrived some 
few days since from Vienna a Scottish man of good place and reputation in the 
Emperor's wars [Capt. Henry Bruce] who hath presented himself unto me, and 
desired me to make known on his behalf to his Majesty that he hath voluntarily 
retired himself with good leave of the Emperor, because he would not bear arms 
against his Majesty's son-in-law. He hath served the Emperor formerly when 
he was Duke of Gratz, in his wars against the Venetians when they lay before 
Sardinia, and was now lately governor of Nidarburg in the confines of Austria 
and Moravia, whereof the town being taken from him by surprise by the Count de 
la Torre, though he rendered the castle by composition, it is thought his coming 
away is not altogether voluntary. He was once in service of this State and well 
esteemed of, but here he will be no more trusted, for he is a hot Papist, and 
Parsons, the English Jesuit's books are his chief study. From hence he intends 
to go directly into Scotland as soon as he can receive certain monies at Amster- 
dam, which he hath exchanged to a good sum from Vienna, as that which he saith 
he hath profited in the wars. Now, whether he comes as he pretends out of the 
zeal of a good subject, or (as is suspected among his fellow-soldiers) upon dis- 
grace, or (as may be doubted of one who changeth his religion in his old days) 
employed by Jesuits, whose convert I hear he is, I humbly refer to His Majesty's 
judgment. So it is, that I find him a person of that consideration that deserves 
his Majesty's care what becomes of him.' (He went direct to England.) 



INTRODUCTORY 225 

The Twelve Years' Truce, which should have expired on the 
9th of April 1621, was by the mediation of the British and 
French Ambassadors prolonged to the 3rd of August, and it 
was thought that if the Arch-Duke Albert had lived longer, it 
would have been converted into a permanent peace. He died 
on July 13th, and Prince Maurice, now by the death of his 
elder brother the head of the House of Orange, was anxious 
for fresh triumphs in the field. 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 



[1610 



STATES OF WAR (1610-1618). 



1610 




Holland. 




monthly 


men 


monthly 


Horsemen. compy pay 




pay 


Wisschardt, . 70 men 472 


Henry Balfour, 70 


1059 


Infantry. 


Thomas Arskyn, 


n 


Col. Backlouch, 200 2612 


Leuinston, . ,, 


yy 


Col. Brogh, 150 2014 


Francois Hender- 




Cap n Robert Hen- 


son, . yy 


yy 


derson, . 100 1417 


Schot, . . 


yy 


[Here follow a number of 


Wil m Douglas, 


yy 


L 

English names. 


W m Balfour, 


yy 


men monthly 


W m Hutson, . 


yy 


Caddel, . 70 1059 


George Bod well, ,, 


yy 


Oliuver Wodney, 


John Halket, . 


yy 


Mackinge, . 


Mongo Hamilton, 


yy 


W^Coutis, 1 . 


David Balfour, 


yy 


Thomas Ewingh, sergeant-major of the Regiment of Brogh, 


30 


Andrew Hunterus, clergyman of the Scots, 2 . . 33, 


s.6. 3d. 


Pensions. 




The Prince of Scotland, 5 m yearly, . . . 4<xvi 


s.13 d.4 


The children of Cap n John Nysbeth, yearly, 


200 


Widow of C n John Balfour. ..... 


50 



The children of Cap n Waddel, viz. Archibald, John and 

W m . each yearly, ...... 

Mrs. Margaret Stuart, widow of the Agent d' Amman, 
W m Murray ofPickerles, on the life of John, Agnete, 

Elizabeth, and Margarete, his children, each J 

part, 
Elisabeth Crighton, widow of the C n Dallachy, the half for 

herself and the other half for John and Catherine 

Dallachy, each 100, 

Elisabeth Forbes, widow of Cap n Willem van Nysbeth, 

the one half at her death [the other half], to W m . 

Arthur, and Margareta Nysbet, each part, yearly 

1 Probably a mistake for Allan Coutts. 

2 Rev. Andrew Hunter. See representations by, pp. 245 and 294. 



200 



400 



400 



400 



i6i3] 



STATES OF WAR 



227 



The children of Cap n Prop, Jan and Janneken Prop, 
each the half, ..... 

Mrs. Anna Kirpatricx, widow of Cap n Strachan, 

The children of C n James Egger, named Niclaes and 
Margareta, each one half, .... 

Mrs. Suana h Splithoff, widow of Cap n Kilpatricx, the 
one half till her death and the other half during 
the lifetime of her children Jan, Maria, and 
Helena Kilpatricx, . ... 

Prudentia Laurens, daughter of the Cavalry Captain 
Louys Laurent, ..... 

Anna van Dyck, widow of C n Blair, 

Joost Blair, . . . . . 



Zeeland. Infantry 

[After several English names 

come] 

men monthly pay 

Caps Walter Bruce, 70 1059 
George Homes, 

Mombry, 

Pensions 

Bart. Balfour, yearly, 1000 
The widow of Col. Morgan, 600 



Utrecht. Infantry 



200 
200 

125 



50 

50 
50 
50 



monthly 
pay 

1059 



C n Hamilton, . 70 
Setton, . . , 

W m . Martin, 1 ,, 

Pensions 
The widow of James Blaire, 

yearly 400 



Andrew Renton, 



150 



1613 
Rendered in August 




Gelderland. Foot 




Donaldson 


70 men 


1059 




Hollandt. Foot 




Col. Brogh, . 150 men 


2014 


Henry Balfour, . 70 men 


1059 


Rt Henderson, 150 


2014 


Thos. Arskyn, . 


3) 


Caddel, . . 70 


1059 


H. Levingston, . ,, 


)3 


Geo. Ramsey, 2 . 


j) 


Francois Henderson, 


33 


Mackinge, . ,, 


33 


Schot [Robert], 


3) 


Allane Coutis, . ,, 


3) 


W m Douglas, 


33 



1 See p. 203. 

2 George Ramsay succeeded Captain Udny on 23rd October 1610, having 
been recommended as lieutenant in 1607 and 1609 (pp. 207 and 240). He was 
dead before I4th April 1615, when he was succeeded by John Kininmond. His 
widow and children were recommended by Breda in 1616 (p. 283). See also 
request by his widow, 24th May 1632. 



228 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1613 



W** Balfour, . 70 men 1059 
W m Hudson, . 

Geo. Bodwel, . ,, 



Mongo Hamilton, 70 men 1059 
Davidt Balfour, . 

D. Lindesay, 1 . 



Jan Halket, 

Pay 
Col. Brogh for his person, ..... 400 

Wardens and Quartermasters 

Thos. Ewing, S fc major of Brogh, . . . 80 

Robert Mestertou q r m r of Col. Brogh, . . . 50 

Officers of Justice 
Willem Carcadie, Provost Marshal of Brogh, . . 50 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, Minister of the Scots, . . . 33 6 8 

Pensions 

The son of Cap n Penthon [Renton], . . . 12 10 

The children of Cap n Jan Nysbeth, . . . 16 13 4 

Widow cap n Jan Balfour, . . 50 434 

W m Hendrick, . .120 10 

Pieter Michiel, .... 50 434 

Gracious Pensions 
Widow Kirpatrick to enable her to keep little son at school for 

6 years, ...... 50 

Pensions for settlement of accounts and previous services 

The children of cap. Waddel, Archibald, Jan, and Willem 200 each, 600 
Maria Rig, Widow Cap n Melvil, on the lives of Jacques, Davidt, 

Janneken, Tanneken and Hester, 80 each, . . . 400 
Guilliaume Murray of Pickerles on the lifes of Jan, Elisabeth and 

Margaretha, his children, each one third, . . . 300 

Jan and Catharina Dalachy, children of cap n Dalachy, . . 200 

Elisabeth Forbes, widow cap n W m Nysbeth, etc., . . . 400 

Mistress Anna van Duvenvoorde, widow Col. Cuningham, etc., . 300 

The children of cap. Prop, Jan and Janneken, . . . 200 

Mistrees Anna Kirpatrick, widow cap. Strachan, . . . 200 

The children of Cap. James Egger, Niclaes and Margaretha, . 175 
Guiliam Sudeman cap n on his life and on that of Maria van Eyck 

his wife, or on the longest living, .... 100 

widow L fc Penbrouck, ...... 100 

Zealand. Foot 



Brouwnfielt, 70 men 1059 
Jhon Hamilton, 



Walter Bruce, 70 men 1059 
George Homes, . ,, 

Moubray, . 

1 David Lindsay had succeeded to the company of Lord Buccleuch, having 
taken the oath on 6th April 1612. He died before I2th February 1620. 



1617] STATES OF WAR 229 

Pay 

Col. Robert Henderson, . . 300 

Forbes, S* Major, . . 80 

Blaire, q r m r , . . . 36 

Michiel Henderson Pr. M., . 50 

466 
Pensions 
Col. Balfour 1000 yearly, . . . . . . 83 6 8 

Utrecht. Foot 
Setton, . . 70 men 1059 

Vriesland. Foot 
Arthur Forbes, . . 90 1297 

Groriingen. Foot 
Norman Bruce, . . 70 1059 

1614 

The list of officers (under Guelderland and Holland) is similar, and 
under Guelderland occurs e Pension Juff : Anna van Lieven, wid w 
van Cap n Arthur Stuart (yearly), 75.' 

1617 

Holland. Cavalry 

monthly pay 

Robert Ixvin, 1 ... 70 2457 

W m Balfour, 2 . 2067 

Gelderland. Foot 
Donaldson, . 70 men . . 1059 



LT-HJUUltiy, 

Col. Brogh, 
Col. Henderson, 
Thos. Edmondt, 3 

.T<Yhn KAnrnmnnr 


. 150 men 
150 

70 

t * 


3 

Hollanc 
. 2014 
. 2014 
. 1059 


9 ' 

L Foot 
Jacques Sandilants, 5 70 men 
[Mackinge], 
Allane Coutis, 


1059 



1 Robert Irvine. 2 See p. 69. 

3 Son of Colonel Sir William Edmond (p. 54) ; received commission January 
i6th, 1617 in succession to Lieutenant-Colonel Caddel. Succeeded by William 
Drummond on nth August 1625, on becoming a captain of cavalry. Report as 
to his company of cavalry, 1628. 

4 John Kininmond succeeded George Ramsay on 5th April 1615, and died 
before 2nd December 1630, when he was succeeded by John Bellenden. 

5 Sir James Sandilands, commissoned i6th November 1618, in succession 
to Captain Mackenzie, sergeant-major in same regiment (Colonel Brog's), 
26th October 1627. Lieutenant-colonel, 4th May 1631. Colonel in succession 
to Sir William Brog, 1 3th March 1636. Dead before 8th March 1639, when 
succeeded by Colonel James Erskine. Was succeeded in command of his 
company by his lieutenant, Thomas Livingstone. 



230 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1617 



Robert Coutis, 1 . 70 men . 1059 

Thos. Arskyn, . 

H. Levingston, . 

Francois Henderson, . ,, 

Robert Schot, . . 

James Lindesey, 2 . 

W m Orrock, 3 . 
[W m Balfour], . 



W m Hudson, . 70 men . 1059 

James Henderson, 4 . 
[Geo. Bodnel], . 

Jhon Hacket, . 70 men . 1059 

Mongo Hamilton, . 3i 

David Balfour, . . 
John Murray, 5 .._,, 
[David LindesayJ, 



Pay on Holland 
Col. Brogh, for his person, . . . . . 400 

Allane Coutes, lA-Col., . . . . 100 

Col. Henderson, ...... 300 

Francois Henderson, L fc -Col., .... 100 

Hacquet, s* major, . . . . . .80 

Blaire, q r m r , . . . . . .50 

Michel Henderson, 6 Provost m., . . .50 

580 

Wardens and Quartermasters 
W m Drommond, 7 
[Thos. Ewingjs* major Reg fc Brogh, .... 80 

Robert Mesterton, q r m r , . . . . . 50 



1 Robert Coutts succeeded Sir Henry Balfour, 9th August 1615, and was 
succeeded by William Drummond, 7th December 1621. Referred to as 'the late 
Captain Coutts ' in 1628. 

2 James Lindsay, commissioned 3ist March 1615. Married Isabella Mow- 
bray, divorced wife of Captain R. Scott, in 1627. Succeeded by John 
Henderson, 22nd September 1629. 

3 William Orrock took oath as captain in succession to Sir William Balfour, 
November 23rd, 1618. Served at Cleve, 1622. Deceased before 24th October 
1631, when succeeded by John Kirkpatrick. 

4 James Henderson took oath on 4th November 1618, in succession to Captain 
Bothwell. Sergeant-major, 1 3th February 1633. Lieutenant-colonel, 2Oth July 
1634. Was dead before 7th July 1638. Douglas mentions Sir James, a younger 
son of James Henderson of Fordell, along with his brother, Sir Robert (p. 60) 
as 'both colonels in Danish, Swedish, and French wars.' On 6th July 1638 
the States-General specially commissioned two representatives to attend the 
funeral of the late Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson, who had lost his life in the 
active service of the State. 

5 John Murray took oath on I2th February 1620, in succession to D. Lindsay. 
Captain Murray died before I2th March 1621. 

6 Michael Henderson. 

7 William Drummond, commissioned as captain in succession to Robert 
Coutts, 7th December 1621. Sergeant-major, 1617. Killed at Groll, and 
succeeded by Walter Murray, 2gth September 1627. He was a son of 
Alexander Drummond of Meadop, second son of Alexander Drummond of 
Carnock, and thus a cousin of Colonel Bartholomew Balfour. Genealogy of the 
Drummonds. 



i6i;] STATES OF WAR 231 

Officers of Justice 
Willem Carcadie, Provost Marshal, Reg* Brogh, . . 50 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, minister, . . . . 33 6 8 

Pensions 
[The children of Capn Jan Nysbeth], . . . . 200 16 8 4 

Janneken, the daughter of Cap n Jan. Nysbett, . 100 863 

Widow, Cap n W m Hendricon, . . . . 120 10 

Pieter Michiels, . . . . . 50 4 3 4 

Gracious Pensions 

[Widow Kilpatrick to keep her little boy at school for 2 years 
more, 50 ; this expired in Feb. 1618]. 

Pensions for settlement of accounts and previous services 
Cap n W m Balfour, for his life, . . . . . 600 

Maria High, widow Cap n Melvil, on the lifes of Jacques, David 

Janneken, Tanneken and Hester, each 80, . . . 400 

Guillaume Murray of Pickerles, on the lifes of Jan, Elisabeth, 

[Margrieta] his children, one [third] half, . . . 200 

Jan and Catharina Dalachy, children of Cap n Dalachy, deceased, 

[300] each 100, ..... [300] 200 

The children of Cap n Wm Nysbeth, deceased : [William], Arthur 

and Margrieta Nysbeth, [200] each one [third] half, . [200] 133, 6 8 
Mistress Anna van Duvenvoorde, widow Col. Cuningam, on the 
lifes of mistress Magriet van Duvenvoorde, the wife of Cap n 
of Horse Wisschaert, and Elisabeth Cuningham, . . 300 

The children of Cap n Prop, Jan and Janneken Prop, one half each, 200 
Mistress Anna Kilpatrick, widow Cap n Strachan, on her life, . 200 
The children of James Egger, Niclaes and Margrieta, each half, 175 

Guilliaume Suderman 100 on his life [or on that of Maria von 

Eyck his wife, or the longest living], . . .100 

Widow, Lieutenant Penbrouck, on the lives of Thos., Jan, Jan- 
neken, Willemke, Henry, and Richard Penbrouck , each one 6th, . 
The children of Cap" Kilpatrick, Jan, Maria, and Helena Kil- 
patrick, ....... 25 

Joost Blaire, ....... 50 

Zeeland. Foot 

Walter Bruce, . 70 men . . 1059 

Geo. Homes, . 

Brouwnfielt, . . . 

Pensions 
Col. Balfour, 1000 yearly on his life, . . * 83 6 8 

Utrecht. Foot 

Marioribankes, 1 . 120 men . . 1655 

Sitton, . . 

1 Thomas Marjoribanks took oath upon a commission in succession to Captain 
Hamilton on i6th January 1620. Dead by 4th September 1636. 



THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1617 

Groningen and Ommelanden. Foot 

George Coutis, 1 . 120 men . . 1655 

Philip Balfour, 2 . . . 

Vriesland. Foot 
Archibald Bethone, 3 120 men . . 1655 

[Names within brackets erased in original : those in italics are additions]. 



1618 
Holland 



Cavalry. men monthly pay 

Wisschart, . 70 2457 
Infantry. 

Col. Brogh, . 150 2014 

Henderson, 

[Here come 43 English 

names. ] 

John Kennimont, 70 1059 

Mackinge, 
Allane Coutis, . 
Robert Coutis, . 
Thomas Edmond, 
Thomas Arskyn, 



33 33 

33 33 

33 33 

33 )) 



men monthly pay 

Leuingston, . 70 1059 
Franchois Hender- 
son, . 
Robert Schot, . 
James Lindesay, 
William Balfour, 
William Hudson, 
George Bodwell, 
John Hacket, . 
Mongo Hamilton, 
David Balfour, 
David Lindesay, 



33 33 



33 33 



S3 33 



33 33 



Tractementen op Holland. Salaries paid only by Holland. 4 

Colonnel Brogh voor sijn persoon, .... 400 

Colonel Henderson, ...... 300 

Franchois Henderson, I/ C 1 , . . . . . 100 

Hacquet, Sergeant Major, ..... 80 

Blaire, quartiermeester, ..... 36 

Michiel Henderson, provost, ..... 50 

t'samen 566 
Officieren van Justitie 
William Carcadie, provoost van Col. Brogh, . . . 50 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, Predicant van de Schotten, . 33, s.6 d.3 



1 George Coutts received his commission in succession to Norman Bruce on 
8th July 1615 (letter from Groningen, igth June 1615). Was at Rees in 
1622, became sergeant-major, Earl of Buccleuch's regiment, 3Oth December 
1628. Lieutenant-colonel, I7th July 1629. Seems to have died in 1638, when 
Philip Balfour was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel. 

2 Sir Philip Balfour, eldest son of Colonel Bartholomew Balfour (see p. 48), 
took oath on 2nd June 1621, became sergeant-major of Earl of Buccleuch's 
regiment before Bois-le-Duc on yth July 1629. Lieutenant-colonel, 7th March 
1639. Became colonel of same regiment in succession to Lord Almond, 5th 
November 1640. Retired before igih May 1646, when he was succeeded by 
Sir William Drummond. See petitions by, in 1631 and 1639. 

3 Archibald Bethune seems to have succeeded Arthur Forbes in 1614. 

4 This list is given in Dutch, 



1 620] STATES OF WAR 

Pensioenen 

De Zoone van Cap n Renton, ... 12, s.10 

Kinderen van Cap n John Nysbeth, . . . 16, s.lOd.4 

Weduwe Cap n John Balfour, . . . . 4, s.3. 4d. 

Gratieuse pensioenen tot nu toe betaelt ten comptoire van den 
Ontfanger-generael [pensions given out of grace, hitherto 
paid out by the Receiver General]. 

De weduwe van Kilpatricx om haer soontgen ter schoole te 
houden, noch voor den tyt van 2 jaren. 's jaers [the 
widow of Kilpatrick, to keep her son at school for 2 
years more], ...... 50 

Pensioenen spruytende uyt saecke van affrekeningen ende 
voorgaende diensten [pensions originating in matters of 
accounting and for service rendered]. 

De Kinderen van Cap n Waddel, als Archibald, Jan, ende 

Willem Waddel, elck 200, .... 600 

Capn W m Balfour, 600 

Guillaume Murray van Pickerles, ten lyve van Jan, Elisa- 
beth ende Margrieta zijn Kinderen, elx een derde part 
[in lifetime of J., E., and M. his children each ], . 300 

Jan ende Catharina Dallachy, kinderen van Cap n Dallachy, 

elcxlOO, 200 

De kinderen van wijlen [children of the late] C n Willem 
Nysbeth, als Willem, Arthur ende Margrieta Nysbeth, 
elcx een vierde part [J part], .... 200 

Joffe Anna van Duvenvoord, weduwe van den Col. Cuningam, yearly 
ten lijve van Jouff [in the life of Mrs.] Margriet van 
Duyvenvoorde, huysvr [wife] van den Ritmeester 
Wisschart, ende Elisabeth Cuningham, elcx de helft 
[eachil . .... 300 

De kinderen van Cap n Prop, Jan ende Janneken Prop, elcx 

de helft, .200 

Joffr. Anna Kilpatricx, weduwe van Cap n Strachan, . 200 

John Barckley, . . . . . .150 

De kinderen van Cap n James Egger, genaemt Nicolaes 

ende Margrieta, elcx de helft, .... 125 

JofP" Maria de Lion, wed e van Cap n Henry Balfour, . 75 

De kinderen van Cap n Kilpatrick, als Jan, Maria, ende 

Helena Kilpatrick, ..... 25 

1620. 
Holland. Cavalry 

men monthly 

Robbert Wrving [?] 70 2457 

W m Balfour, . . . .70 2064 

[The rest are the same as the previous year.] 



234 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1609 



II 

EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE, RECOM- 
MENDATIONS, RESOLUTIONS, REPORTS, AND 
REQUESTS, 1609-1611. 

Letters of King James. 
(Rec. May 30, 1609.) 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, L'estat de voz affaires estant a 
P r ^ sen ^ tel que vous n'en avez plus besoin de grande partie des 
gens de guerre que vous entreteniez auparavant et entretenez 
encore, tellement qu'il vous sera necessaire de congedier 
beaucoup d'iceulx. Et d'aultant qu'il y a plusieurs de noz 
sujectz de ce mestier la en voz services, qui, n'estantz pas 
employez en vostre service voudroient volontiers chercher leur 
fortune ailleurs. Nous prions que par vostre authorite il soit 
permis a quiconque des nostres qui voudroit faire levee de 
telles gens en ce pai's la, de les enlever et transporter ou bon 
luy semblera, sans vostre empeschement ou destourbier 
quelconque. Et prions Dieu, Messieurs et Comperes vous 
tenie tousfours en sa sainte et digne garde. Vostre bien Bon 
Amy et Compere. JAQUES R. 

Escript a nostre Palais de Westminstre, le ix. jour de 
May 1609. 

(Datum, April 17. Recep. May 19, 1609.) 

MESSIEURS, Ayantz entendu de par noz Ambassadeurs 
que la conclusion s'est faicte de la trefve entre vous le Roy 
d'Espagne et les Archiducqs nous avons voulu aussy tost vous 
fre cognoistre combien nous en sommes contentz d'autant que 
croyons qu'en un tel subiect mieux ne se pouvoit fre et qu'en 



1609] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 235 

Tissue cPicelle comme aussy en la conduite chez le commen- 
cement vous avez trouve par effects de quelle sincerite nous 
nous sommes portes envers Tasseurance et prosperite de vos 
affaires. Orez estant par cest accord vre estat en termes 
d'estre estably comme vous vous asseurerez que nous ferons 
tousiours tous les offices d'un voysin amy et confedere, aussy 
pour le present se nous offrent deux considerations lesquelles 
vous recomandons a bon escient. L'une que puisque vous 
estez asseurez de repos avec ceux centre qui vous avez eu si 
longue contestation vous vueillez purveoir a la continuation 
d'une bonne et parfaicte union entre vous mesmes. Ce qui 
touche si avant a vre propre salut et seurete que ne doubtons 
point que vre prudence d'heure a autre ne le vous represente. 
L'autre est telle qu'appartient non moins a nre sollicitude et 
prevoyance qu*a vre reputation, C'est que puisqu'a cause de 
ceste trefve il est a penser que ne vueilliez charger vre Estat 
de si grande nombre de gens de guerre que par cy-devant vous 
avez entretenu, en la diminution que vous en ferez vous 
vueilliez principalement avoir esgard a la retention et re- 
muneration de nos subiectz par le long et fidele service 
desquelz comme aussy au prix de leur sang, il ne se peult nier 
que plusieurs de voz victoires n'ayent este gaignees. Envers 
lesquelles si vous monstrez maintenant gratitude et recognois- 
sance, il sera a vre honneur vers tous, et a ceste nation, grande 
occasion de continuer la bienveillance et affection a vre Estat. 
Quant a noz Ambassadeurs ayantz acheve Toeuvre pour 
laquelle ilz y ont este envoyez et en laquelle ils ont travaille si 
longuement oultre le seiour qu'a faict le Sieur Winwood par 
tant d'annees Nous les avons ordonne de revenir Fun et Tautre 
et ne doubtons nullement qu'ayant laisse chez vous si bonnes 
marques de leur prudhomie et affection en ce qui leur appar- 
tenoit en ceste coniunction vous vueilliez aussy avoir pour 
agreable le retour comme nous avons faict celuy de vre Ministre 
fidele le Sieur Carron qui s"*en est alle vers vous. Vre bien 
bon amy, JAO.UES R. 

De nre palais de Westminstre, le xvii. iour d'Avril 1609. 



THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE 



[1609 



Letters and 
Requests to 
the Council 
of State. 



From the Governor of Breda to the Council of State. 
(August 8, 1609.) 

MY LORDS, Although I have several times admonished 
and commanded the lieutenants of Captains Forbes 1 and 
Scott 2 before their departure to satisfy and pay divers burghers 
of the town of Breda, who were out of pocket both to the 
said captains and also to their officers and soldiers. For 
example, Captain Forbes owes the sum of 300gl. 5s. 2d., and 
Captain Scott the sum of 45gl. 19s. 2d., which you may 
see from the documents hereto appended. Nevertheless they 
have removed to Vendicq, in obedience to the order sent by his 
Excellency, without in any way satisfying said burghers, who 
have begged me to write in their favour to your lordships, in 
order that they may be paid their just debts, in which I most 
humbly join my petition to theirs. Not doubting that your 
lordships will so arrange that the good burghers shall succeed 
in getting payment, and they at another time will be the 
more willing to assist the soldiers in their needs. Herewith, 

etc., your W M Honours' obedient and very loyal 

servant, JUSTINUS VAN NASSAU. 

At Breda, this 8 August 1609. 



Re Captain Gordon's Company. (Oct. 6, 1609.) 

MY LORDS, Since your lordships have been pleased to com- 
mand that I should always, and from time to time, make you 
acquainted both with the situation and condition of this 
garrrison, and also of its captain and officers, stating which of 
them have been absent, and how long, I shall therefore not 
neglect as regards them, to communicate to you the following. 
First, that the soldiers here are kept in good order, the 
watches looked to, and to sum up in a word everything as 
carefully attended to as ever was the case before the date of 
this truce, which in fact you will find. 

Further, as concerning the captain and officers of the com- 
pany, your lordships will be pleased to hear that there are 



1 See p. 71, 



2 See p. 64. 



1609] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 237 

no absentees except Captain Gordon, who has not been here 
during twenty-five or twenty-six weeks ; indeed, all the year 
round, he has not been one month with his company. His 
lieutenant, too, has been absent over six months, his oldest 
sergeant over six weeks ; and the other sergeant is on the sick 
list. Thus there is but one officer, viz., the ensign, a foul 
useless drunkard, in the company, which to all intents and 
purposes has none. Moreover, the said company is very badly 
paid and upheld, so that out of extreme poverty many soldiers 
desert, and as is well known very few of the others are fit for 
duty. And (with respect I say it) such a state of matters is 
not what ought to be, and is a condition fraught with evil 
consequences. I pray therefore that your lordships may see 
good to order the said captain very sharply to betake himself 
with his officers to his garrison, to pay and uphold his com- 
pany, as other captains here do, lest for want of this it sink 
into utter ruin, for the poverty among them is extreme. 

This is what at present I had to write. And with these 
presents, etc., JOHAN DE WITT. 

Actum at Steenbergen, the 6th October. 



To the Council of State. (Oct. 7, 1609.) 

MY LORDS, Your lordships will please to understand, that 
on the 25th July last the States-General ordered me to furnish 
information monthly to their High Mightinesses regarding the 
state of these garrisons, and the condition of the soldiers, stating 
what officers were present in or absent from their companies, and 
although I have several times sent them information regarding 
these matters, and among other points, that Captain Gordon, 
whose company has been here in garrison over a year, has never 
been more than one month with the same, indeed during 
twenty-six successive weeks he has never been with his com- 
pany, and is still absent. His lieutenant was not there 
during six months, his oldest sergeant during six weeks. Such 
was the state of matters that only one officer was found in the 
company, viz., the ensign a foul, rank, and careless drunkard, 
the company being practically without a single officer. More- 



238 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1609 

over the soldiers of the said company were miserably found and 
paid, on which account very many of them deserted, and 
through poverty came to ruin. 

But in regard to these points, I have never received any 
answer, and because the company remaining almost without 
officers and oversight has gradually become so impoverished 
that the misery smouldering within it can no longer be endured 
nor the complaints and sighs, and through this the whole 
company will evidently be brought to ruin. Also that three 
times the said soldiers have besought me with increasing 
vehemence to advise your lordships of their misery and 
poverty, and some remedy must be adopted, otherwise they 
must perish in their extremity. For this purpose I have sent 
off this messenger who can by word of mouth inform you of 
the existing need and give details about it. Also that many 
burghers complain, that having out of compassion for the poor 
soldiers provided them with some necessaries, they have not 
been paid for it. Therefore I entreat most earnestly, that it 
may please your lordships to give heed to the calamities of the 
said soldiers, and everything connected therewith, that ought 
to be seen to. To order the said Captain Gordon most strictly 
to betake himself with his officers as soon as possible to his 
company, to pay and provide for his soldiers as is right, and 
also, so as to prevent the complete ruin of the company. But 
in order that I may have something wherewith to satisfy and 
comfort the poor soldiers, may it please you to write a short 
reply, and forward it to me by the bearer of this, in order that 
I may show it to them. And herewith, etc., Y H M 
obedient servant, JOHAN DE WITT. 

Actum at Steenbergen, 7th October 1609. 

To the Council of State of the United Netherlands. 

Captain John Gordon, at present in garrison within the 
town of Steenbergen, showeth with due respect, that it is 
now full three months since he, the petitioner, received payment 
from the State, either for himself or his company. He has 
therefore been compelled to burden himself to the last degree 
with the interest of borrowed money, in order to satisfy his 



1609] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 239 

company. Yea, so deeply has he engaged himself, that he has 
no means left and knows of none (having no one to solicit 
for them) by which he can maintain his soldiers. Therefore 
he prays most humbly that your lordships shall be pleased to 
advance to him, the petitioner, provisionally, the sum of five 
or six hundred pounds of forty groats, in order that he may in 
some measure satisfy his company until orders be issued some 
time and way otherwise, as to the payment, 
By doing which, etc. 

Gordons disbanded Company.^ 
To the Council of State. (Oct. 14, 1609.) 

MY LORDS, Since it has pleased your lordships to discharge 
Captain Gordon with his company ; his soldiers, owing to ill 
payment, are deeply indebted to the burghers here, which the 
accompanying specification, and the report of the Commissary 
Badburch, charged by your H. M. to effect the disbandment 
will well show and explain, said soldiers having due to them a 
considerable sum of arrears of pay. Yet they do not wish to 
act otherwise than to pay their debts, and satisfy the burghers, 
who supported them so loyally with victuals and drink in their 
extreme poverty, to such a degree indeed, that but for their 
having done so, the company would have perished long ago 
as everybody very well knows. Said support also was proffered 
mostly by my persuasions out of pity for the poor soldiers. 
I have thus earnestly entreated your lordships, that you 
may be pleased so to assist the burghers, and who have little 
enough, to obtain payment of their just debts. For other- 
wise many of them will be ruined, for here we are but a scant 
community, which, as your High Mightiness well knows, can 
bear no loss. Therefore, again praying you to take into con- 
sideration the circumstances of the case, may your High 
Mightiness be pleased to assist the poor people in this, since 
in so doing you will truly perform a work of charity. And 
with these present, etc., JOHAN DE WITT. 

Actum at Steenbergen, 14th October 1609. 



1 See also pp. 243, 253 and 292. 



240 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1609 

Recommendation of George Ramsay. 
(Datum. Nov re . 25. Recep. Dec r . 16.) 

MESSIEURS. Ce gentilhomme George Ramsey, lieutenant du 
Colonel Brog, ayant este absent au temps de la mort du feu 
Colonel Edmonds, faillit de la place de Capitayne de sa Com- 
panie qu'il pretend de droict luy appartenir. Or parce qu'en 
cela il a este moins recogneu que de raison luy estoit deu ; 
estant a present vacant de capitaine la companie du Cap. 
Rondneys, 1 il vous vient supplier de la luy conferer, tant pour 
le regard de ses merites passez, ayant perdu en vostre service 
de son sang et un sien frere, comme pour luy faire reparation 
du dommage soustenu pour avoir failly de la Companie du 
Col. Edmonds. Ores estant son desir fonde sur tant de raison, 
nous ne ferons de long propos a le vous recommander, sachant 
que tant pour le respect de justice que pour Tamour de nous, 
vous ferez tout ce qu'appartient a vre honneur de faire. Vre 
bon Amy et allie, JAQUES R. 

Royston, le xxv iour de Novembre 1609. 

Recommendation of John Young 
(Dat. Nov r . 10. Rec. Decem r . 24). 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, Ce porteur Jean Young bourgeois 
de nostre ville d'Edimbourg, ayant avance diverses sommes de 
deniers aux capitaines et autres officiers par vous employes a 
faire levee des gens de guerre en nostre royaume d'Escosse, et 
ne trouvant nul moyen d'estre paye (les dictz officiers s'excu- 
santz come n'ayantz point en payement de vous) est en fin con- 
trainct de recourir a vous ; et partant nous a tres bumblement 
supplie de se recomender come celuy qui a tousiours employe 
sa personne et moyens pour vous faire service. Et d'autant 
que sa demande ne nous semble point desraisonable. Nous 
vous avons bien voulu prie de cognoistre sa cause et donner tel 
ordre pour Famour de nous qu'il en soit paye tant des deniers 
susdictz que des decomptes de feu son beaupere, mort en vostre 
service. Et sur ce, Messieurs et comperes, prions Feternel vous 
tenir en sa sainte et digne garde. Vostre bien bon amy et 
Compere, JAQUES R. 

Escrypte a nostre palais de Westminstre, le dixiesme de 
Novembre Tan 1609. 

i Udny? 



i6o;] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 241 

Remonstrance des Ambassadeurs et Colonels de la 
Grande Brittagne 

(Exhibit, in the assembly of the States- General, May 22, 1607.) 
[Partly destroyed.] 

MESSIEURS, MESSIEURS LES ESTATS GENERAUX. MESSIEURS, Diplomatic 
nous supplions bien humblement . . . . en ce 
reglement qu'on faict a present de vos trou . . . qu'il 1612. 
leur plaise avoir soin de Fhonneur de nostr . . . Nations 
suivant les recommendations que sa Ma . . .a faictes 
par ses lettres et nostre remonstrance . . la dessus 

ayans esgard tant au merite de leurs services qu'a la bonne 
alliance que de long temps a este entre nos Royaumes et 
vos Provinces. 

Nostre nation a este la premiere qui est venue a vostre 
service et y est continue sans iutervalle, insques a la derniere 
heure. Avec quelle resolution, zele et fidelite nos gens se sont 
tousiours comportes durant vos guerres ; vos victoires en par- 
lent et le present estat de vos affaires remonstre vivement ; en - 
bien de recognoissance de leurs services, nous prions de ne nous 
mectre pas une tasche d'ignominie ce qui nous ingerons estre 
faict si on nous range a 70 testes, pesle mesle, avec le reste de 
Tarmes. (Test ce que nous demandons [?] et soubz correction 
non sans raison, et iustice que les compagnies tant angloises 
qu'escossoises, qui a la derniere monstre ont este soubs cents 
testes, puissent demeurer au mesme estat, et celles qui sont au 
dessus ce nombre, la soient reduictes a cent testes. 

Pour faciliter cela, les Collonnels soubsignes se contenteront 
que leurs compagnies demeurent chasque a deux cens testes, 
contents que le nombre supernumeraire que hier leur a este 
accorde, soit distribue parmy leurs regimens. Nous croyons que 
vos seigneuries ne scauront pas faire chose qui puisse estre plus 
agreable a sa Ma t6 , ny plus advantageuse au bien et honneur 
de leur service. 

Ri. SPENCER. RODOLPHE WINWOOD. 

H. VERB. ED. CECYLL. 

TH. OGLE.- 

[The signatures are those of the two Ambassadors and the English colonels. 
Although the Scots troops are mentioned, neither Colonel Brog's nor Lord 
Buccleuch's names are appended.] 



242 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1609 

Requeste des Amb rs de la grande brettagne, pour le traittement 
des Ministres aupres des Compagnies de leur nation. 

(Exh. 10 June 1609.) 

A MESSIEURS, MESSIEURS LES ESTATZ GENERA ux. MESSIEURS, 
Nous presentons cette requeste a V. S ies au nom des Collonels 
de nostre nation et de leurs regiments, laquelle ne tendant 
pas a autre but que a Fhonneur de Dieu, au service de vos 
provinces et au bien des subiects de sa Ma t6 de la gran Bret- 
tagne, nous confions que V. S ies Faccorderont sans difficulte. 

C'est qu^il leur plaise accorder en chasque compagnie, tant 
angloise qu'escossoyse, qu'est a present et doresenavant sera en 
vostre service, une mortepaye pour le traittement de six 
ministres de nostre nation, gens scavants et de bonne vie, 
dont deux feront leur residence icy a la Haye, le troysiesme 
a Berghen op Zoome, le 4 e a Breda, le 5 e a FEscluse, le 
sixiesme a Nimeghen, pour catechiser et instruire en la 
cognoissance de Dieu et de la vraye religion, les compagnies 
qu'y seront en garnison et aux lieux circonsvoysins, suivant la 
lyste mise au dessoubs. 

Ceste requeste estant tant recommendee par soymesme, nous 
recommendons bien serieusement aux Vos bonnes graces. 

Ri. SPENCER. 

RODOLPHE WlNWOOD. 

Les deux Ministres residents a la Haye iront prescher a 
Tergaw, 1 Worden, 2 Dordrech, Leyden, Delff, Rotterdam, 

Le 3 e , qui reside a Berghen, prendera a sa charge toute la 
Zelande. 

Le 4 qui reside a Breda, aura pour sa charge, Gertruide- 
berghe, Huysden, 3 Gorcum, Worcum, 4 Bummell. 6 

Le 5 e TEscluse 6 et toute la flandre. 

Le 6 Nimeghen, Arneham, Doesbergh, Zutphen, Deventer, 
Grave, Voiche. 7 



1 Tergouw, Gouda. 2 Woerden. 

3 Heusden. 4 Woudrichem. 5 Zalt-Bommel. 

6 Sluis. 7 Vucht (?). 



1 6 10] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 243 

July 25. On the request of Magdalena Hume, formerly Resolutions 

oftheStj ' 
General. 



widow of Captain David Stuart, it was decided that since the of the states ' 



town of Bruges is particularly kept in view in the claim of the 
petitioner, she is thereupon to address herself to that town. 
Nevertheless the States grant her, out of commiseration, the 
sum of fifty guilders in all. 

The Sutlers of Gordon's Company. 
From the States- General to the Council of State. 

(May 11, 1610.) 

MY LORDS, The sutlers of the disbanded company of the 
late Captain Gordon were by us again referred to the States 
of Utrecht, in order that they might sue there for their pay. 
We therefore recommend you so to assist these poor petitioners 
once more with your Lordships' intercession, that they may 
succeed in getting their payment, or at least come to an agree- 
ment with the other creditors in Utrecht ; inasmuch as an 
attempt is being made, against all reason and justice, to nullify 
their right of hypothec. Herewith, etc., your Lordships good % 
friends, 

THE STATES-GENERAL OF THE UNITED NETHERLANDS. 

CAROL BENTINCK, V*. 
By Order of the same 

AERSSEN. 
From the Hague, the llth May 1610. 

Recommendation of James ErsJcine. 

(Recep. June 8, 1610.) 

HAULTS ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS, NOS BONS AMYS ET ALLIEZ, Diplomatic 
Ayants eu occasion de nous servir par deca du Chevalier Jaques Corres Pa- 
Arskyn, Gentilh. de nre Chambre privee, capitaine d'une com- 1609-14. 
pagnie de cuirassiers a vre solde, Favons retenu de sa charge 
plus longuement que de son gre il n'eust voulu. Lequel 
desirant de s'en retourner vers vous maintenant pour s'acquicter 
de tout ce qui luy appartient, Nous Tavons voulu accompagner 
de ceste cy, tant pour vous faire scavoir la vraye cause de son 
absence, laquelle nous esperons ne vous sera point desagreable, 
come pour vous prier de luy continuer tousiours vre bonne 
grace en tout ce qu'il aura occasion de vous en requerir. Et 
si vos aff rs le peuvent permectre et que la paix continue avec 



244 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1610 

voz voisins, de sorte que pour le present vous n'ayez a faire de 
son service, nous prions de le nous renvoyer, iusques a ce que 
Toccasion se presente de vous servir de luy. Ce que nous 
aurons pour fort agreable et demeurons. Votre tres affectione 
amy, JAQUES R. 

De fire Palais de Westminster, le xxiv jour d'Avril 1610. 

October %5th. Thomas Stuart, Englishman, having served 
these Lands about eighteen years, and having been severely 
wounded in the head in the trenches before Gulick, 1 was 
granted, out of commiseration, and in order to effect his cure, 
twenty-four guilders ; but this is not to be used as a precedent. 

Letter from the Municipality of Wilmstadt. 
(Nov. 10, 1610.) 

MY LORDS, It would appear that William Nory, Scots- 
man, at present an inhabitant of our town, received at the 
taking of the Sconce of Crimpen, during the first troubles, a 
wound in one leg from a shot, which, as time went on (in spite 
of every remedy applied by him), got much worse and festered ; 
so that now there are no means by which he can be cured. 
Owing to this, and the great expenses he incurred, he has 
fallen into such poverty, that he has no means wherewith in 
his old age to support himself and his wife. Wherefore we 
write to your Lordships in his favour (also he has conducted 
himself honestly and burgherlike in this town for a consider- 
able number of years). And we humbly pray, that you be 
pleased to grant the said William Nory some reasonable 
aliment, both on account of his former services, and because 
he is unable to earn his bread, in order that he may thereby 
support himself in his extreme poverty and old age. By 
doing this, you will perform a work of mercy before God the 
Lord, and comfort the recipient in his great misery. We 
conclude with our humble respects. My Lords, your Lord- 
ships' obedient, etc., THE SHERIFFS, BURGOMASTERS AND 

ALDERMEN OF THE FORESAID TOWN. 

Written in Wilmstadt, this 15th November 1610. 

1 Juliers. 



i6ii] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 245 

Petition of Colonel Earth Balfour. (Exh. Dec. 7, 1610.) 
To their High Mightinesses the States-General. 

With becoming reverence and respect, James Cracke, on Requests 
behalf of Colonel Bartolm. Balfour, residing abroad in Scotland, Jl^jjj*" 
begs leave to intimate, that in the year 1594, your High Mighti- 
nesses granted the said colonel a yearly pension of two hundred 
pounds, of forty grotten each, in payment of his services ; which 
pension has been paid here by Mr. Doublet, the Receiver- 
General. But when the same pension became due on the 16th 
day of April 1610, the said colonel empowered a merchant from 
Scotland to receive the money, but he received none ; and in 
consequence lodged a protest, to the great injury of the said 
colonel. Therefore the petitioner prays most humbly that it 
may please your High Mightinesses to order the Receiver- 
General, Mr. Doublet, or his commissioner, to pay the said 
pension as previously, amounting to one thousand pounds, 
without delay or objection, in order to avoid all extraordinary 
expenses. By doing this JACQUES CRACKE. 

Petition of Rev. Andrew Hunter. 

(Receptum Januar 5.) 

ILLUSTRISSIMIS ET CONSULTISSIMIS DOMINIS D.D. ORDINIBUS Letters and 
GNALTB, Anno superiore per anticipationem accepi cent, flore- {^council 
nos in castris, deinde coram Juliaco a Domino Dubeletto triginta of state. 
octo florenos ; hinc ex ducentis illis florenis quos in extra- 
ordinarium stipendium quotannis conceditis sexaginta duo 
floreni supersunt ; et plane statueram vos per anticipationem 
non urgere, sed familise sustentandae et creditoribus satis- 
faciendi circa et necessitas (praeter valetudinariae et decum- 
bentis uxoris meae statum) invitum me hue rapiunt, ut una 
cum 62 illis florenis centum etiam florenos per anticipationem, 
expetam. Cavebo in posterum (si fueri possit) ne vobis in 
huiusmodi negotio molestus sim. 

ANDREAS HUNTERUS, Evangelij 
Jesu Christi Minister. 

Captain Forbes's Company at Tiel. (April 18, 1611.) 
The Commander of the Garrison in Tiel to the Council of State. 
MY LORDS, This afternoon the officers here at present, 



246 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1611 

and most of the soldiers, of the company of Captain Forbes, 1 
garrisoned here, came to me with the complaint, that now in 
the twenty-seventh week, they have as yet received no advance of 
money, and during all this time had supported themselves very 
poorly and with difficulty, and that it was impossible for them 
to endure this state of matters or to support themselves any 
longer : that also because of hunger and anxiety they must 
have been forced to desert, had they not been supplied with 
victuals by the good burghers and inhabitants of this town, 
particularly by the widow of T. Reyner Gijsberts. But this 
support the citizens no longer could or would give, as there is 
now due to them by the company a considerable sum of money. 
On account of which they (the soldiers) have also pledged 
themselves to such an extent, that they have lost all credit. 
Therefore in regard to this humbly praying I make this strong 
representation in the name of them all, that now after such 
long patience and miserable support they may be comforted 
and their arrears paid ; a duty which (in order to avoid more 
confusion) I neither could nor would neglect. And therefore 
having expressed on their behalf my sentiments regarding 
these matters, I pray most humbly, and entreat your High 
Mightinesses to make ample provision, so that the said soldiers 
be paid their arrears, and that no further delay occur, and also 
that all serious tumults and misfortunes (evidently to be expected 
otherwise) may be prevented. Therefore trusting entirely to 
your High Mightinesses for ample provision against further 
troubles, and for satisfying the soldiers, I pray the Almighty, 
etc. Your High Mightinesses most ready and obedient 
(Signed) DIEDERECH VIJGH, Lord of Soelen 

Sheriff in Nederbetuwe, Commander of 

the Garrison in Tiel. 
At Tiel, the 18 April 1611, old style. 

To the Council of State. (May 6, 1611.) 

We, the undersigned Aldermen of the city of Tiel, hereby 
declare, that yesterday being the 5th day of May 1611, new 
style, Francois Doublet, army paymaster, brought the officers 

1 See p. 71- 



i6u] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 247 

and common soldiers of the company of Captain Forbes into 
the church in the foresaid city, having been ordered and 
commissioned to do so by your Lordships, Councillors of 
State ; and they were asked in our presence how they stood 
with their captain, with respect to the payment of their 
services, and what amount of arrears was due to them by 
their captain. After the said questions were put by the 
paymaster two distinct times, the people declared unanimously , 
that the said captain on the day previous to the paymaster's 
arrival, being the 20th May, had paid the arrears of the 
company (sixteen or eighteen men excepted) wholly and in 
full up to the 6th of May inclusive, that he (the captain) was 
not able to pay the remainder of the unpaid soldiers, owing to 
the shortness of time, but he promised in our presence to do so 
to-day. At which the whole company, particularly those who 
had not yet received their money, were satisfied ; that the 
captain had also satisfied the widow of Reynier Gijsberts, who 
had long supplied the said soldiers with victuals, paying her 
800 guilders in cash, and having assigned the balance to be 
paid her in Friesland. 

We have signed this declaration at Tiel, this 6th May 1611. 
M. V'd BOCHELL. BOTH VAN DER EEM. 

The Council of War at Zwolle to the Council of State. 
(June 27, 1611). 

The citation which your Lordships have been pleased to draw 
up at the request of the quartermaster, David Arskyn, dated 
the 17th June last, new style, was delivered to us on the 17th of 
the same month, old style ; and from it we have learned that 
the quartermaster's servant, named Robert Hardy, though 
innocent, was before this accused and placed under apprehension 
for stealing certain linen from the Commissary Bloemendaal. 

Item. That the said Robert Hardie, after long imprisonment 
and accusation, was on the 19th February 1609, when nobody 
had any thing to say against him, acquitted by us, and ordered 
to be sent out of prison, he being also condemned to pay the 
costs of the imprisonments, though we ought properly to have 
condemned the said Commissary in them. 



248 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1611 

Item. That on account of these costs, the said Robert must 
have remained under apprehension, he having no means to pay 
them. 

Item. That the influential provost, Herman Westmeyer, 
brought an action against the quartermaster before us, and 
pled on Robert's behalf to have the cost of his imprisonment 
paid by said quartermaster. 

Item. That finally, proceedings went so far, that by mis- 
take, on the 7th of March last, we by our sentence condemned the 
petitioner to pay the costs of the imprisonment of the foresaid 
Robert; from which sentence the quartermaster appealed to 
your Lordships, and thereupon you charged us, in as far as this 
business concerns us, to appear before you at the Hague, or to 
send our commissioners. And even if this matter does not 
concern us, seeing we have administered justice (as we were 
bound to do) ; yet we could not neglect, in obedience to your 
Lordships, to answer the citation, not in any such way as to 
make ourselves parties in this business, but only that you may 
acquire a just knowledge of the facts of the case, which are as 
follows : 

The Commissary Bloemendaal did not cause the said Robert 
to be apprehended and put in prison, also did not accuse him, 
as the quartermaster too liberally intimated to your lordships. 
But the procedure in the case was such as is to be gathered 
from the precognition and the extract from this Council of War 
protocol, both dated 7th June 1609, of which we here enclose 
copies. 

Further. It is true that the late bailiff of Salandt, who at 
the time was at the Hague, conferred at length about this 
imprisonment case, with some of your peers. On that occasion 
(as the bailiff frequently related) they expressed themselves as 
very thankful that his Lordship was keeping such good order 
here, and begged that henceforward he would continue to 
punish all other inconveniences and petulances that might 
occur, and that troopers or soldiers here might set agoing. 
And when the late bailiff informed your lordships that Robert 
had no way of paying his board, it pleased you to permit the 
bailiff and provost to allow said board (to wit, six stuivers 
daily till the 19th January, that is, to the day of Robert's 



1611] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND REPORTS 249 

release) to be included in the justiciary expenses, and the said 
money was immediately delivered to the provost by the bailiff 
coming at that time from the Hague. And whereas no appre- 
hension was asked for by Bloemendaal, nor was any accusation 
made by him (as will appear from the foresaid documents), we 
had no reasons to condemn him to pay the costs. It is also 
to be noted particularly, that while all this was going on, 
the quartermaster, whose imprisoned servant was declared free 
on the 19th January 1609, ought to have let him go and remain 
free, and not have commanded him anew to remain under the 
charge of the provost (as will appear from testimony of wit- 
nesses produced, of Philip Edgar, of the prisoner himself, 
Robert Hardie, and of two servants from Zwolle). But the 
quartermaster did not trouble himself about this, wherefore he 
ought to blame himself and nobody else, and in reference to 
this should not be of opinion that we made a mistake in our 
judgment given on the 7th March, seeing that what was then 
done took place after full deliberation and mature consulta- 
tion, in the presence of fifteen military officers standing there, 
who had been fully admonished on oath to act rightly in the 
matter. Also it is to be noted that the quartermaster carried 
through a suit before the magistrate of Zwolle regarding this 
matter, against the said Commissary Bloemendaal, but with 
what result we do not know. Perhaps if it had gone well 
with him there, he would not have come to trouble your High 
Mightinesses. And as far as we can make out, the quarter- 
master is doing it solely to give annoyance to the provost, 
which, with submission, we could not withhold from your 
lordships. Herewith we humbly pray the Almighty to pre- 
serve you long in health, under the peaceable rule of salvation. 

J. G. TENGNAEGEL, V*. 

Dated Zwolle, this twenty-seventh June, Anno sixteen hun- 
dred and eleven, old style. 



250 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1611 



III 



EXTRACTS RELATING TO THE SERVICES AND 
CLAIMS OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR AND 
CAPTAIN HENRY BALFOUR. 1 

1611-1615 

To their High Mightinesses the States- General of the 

United Netherlands. 

Sir Henry Balfour humbly and with due reverence hereby 
showeth, that he has now served your Highnesses and 
the Provinces during twelve years as captain, in which 
capacity (without boasting) he hopes that he conducted 
himself as becomes a nobleman, on all occasions which 
presented themselves in your service. And since the office of 
lieutenant-colonel in the regiment of Colonel Brock is at 
present vacant, the petitioner begs .to submit that he has 
favourable recommendations from His Majesty of Great 
Britain, directed to Lord Wynwout, His Majesty's Ambassador 
here, claiming your Highnesses' intervention in order that it 
may please your Highnesses to grant the office of lieutenant- 
colonel to the petitioner, in consideration of the foregoing, to 
which he begs to refer as giving your Highnesses information 
of the request of the petitioner, and of His Majesty's particular 
desire in his favour for his promotion. Moreover, with the 
same view, the petitioner has also obtained the written recom- 
mendation of Ambassador Carron here annexed. It is there- 
fore the petitioner's humble and most respectful prayer, that it 
may please your Highnesses out of regard to His Majesty 
aforesaid, and for consideration of the petitioner's long and 
faithful services, to do him the honour and favour of preferring 
him before others, and graciously to bestow on him, the fore- 
said command of lieutenant-colonel, etc. 

1 Sir Henry Balfour, see p. 61. Sir William Balfour, see p. 69. 



1611] SIR WILLIAM BALFOU1TS CLAIMS 251 

MESSIEURS, J'ay charge de la part de sa Ma t6 de la grande 
Brettagne de recommander a Vs S ries les pretensions du 
suppliant; ce que ie fais tres affectueusement, suppliant Vs 
S es sur les raisons alleguees en cette requeste et les recommen- 
dations de Sa Ma t6 de luy accorder sa demande en recompense 
de ses bons et fideles services. RODOLPHE WiNwooD. 1 

Letter from the Dutch Ambassador, Noel de Car on. 
To their High Mightinesses the States-General. 

MY LORDS, His Highness the Prince of Great Britain has 
sent Sir David Murray, first Lord of his bedchamber to me, 
with the request that on his behalf I would recommend to you 
Sir William Balfour, the bearer of this, one of His Majesty ""s 
Privy Councillors. His request is (and he claims to be one of 
the oldest captains in the regiment of the late Colonel 
Sutton, 2 in whose place Colonel Brog is now appointed) that he 
shall get the post of lieutenant-colonel, as that post has been 
long vacant, and he hopes that his appointment will be agree- 
able to the said Colonel Brog, and that in other respects he 
may thereby be able to render better and more acceptable 
service to the Land. This is all that I know about this request, 
and the said Sir William has intimated as much to you confi- 
dentially. I therefore wish, should your High Mightinesses 
resolve to fill said post, that this nobleman be preferred before 
others, NOEL DE CARON. e 

From South Lambeth, the 8th July, 1611 (old style). 

1613, June 3. On the request of Captain Henry Balfour, 
praying to be appointed as lieutenant-colonel in the regiment 
of Colonel Brogh. Taking into view the strong recommenda- 
tion of the Electoral Princess Palatine, written from Arnhem in 
a missive of the 18th ult. to the Advocate of Holland, it was 
resolved that their High Mightinesses give favourable consider- 
ation to said recommendation, so soon as they shall proceed to 
the disposal of that and other military appointments. 

1 Henry Balfour refers to a letter of recommendation of the Dutch 
Ambassador wherein William Balfour is recommended. As William and Henry 
were both in the service of the States, their names were probably confounded, 
and Caron intended to recommend Henry. See also the Resolutions of the 
States-General. Winwood wrote the French lines on the request. 
3 This is a mistake, Brog succeeded Edmond. 



252 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1613 

June 13. Upon the request of Captain William Balfour, the 
eldest, and at that date, only son of the late Henry Balfour, 
formerly colonel of a regiment of Scotsmen, in the service of 
these lands, praying for payment of his late father's arrears 
for services. 

After deliberation it was agreed and declared, that the 
petitioner in respect of the good services of his late father, and 
the recommendation of the King of Great Britain, shall be 
held as recommended when occasion offers. But as regards the 
foresaid request of payment for his father's services in Brabant 
and Flanders, being outside the United Provinces, their High- 
nesses cannot enter on that matter. 

June 18. Upon the request of Sir William Balfour, as sole 
heir of the late Captain David Cant, for the payment of the 
said captain's services, it was resolved that this request be 
placed in the hands of the Clerk of the Treasury, that their 
Highnesses may be advised concerning the situation of the 
matters therein related. 

June 26. The Clerk of Court gave in a statement of 
arrears due for services rendered to the Lands by the late 
Captain David Cant with his company, from 1st September 
1585 to 17th April 1592, giving the amount according to the 
two existing settlements of accounts, as 21343 pounds, 11 
shillings, whereof Captain William Balfour, as heir of the 
*said deceased Cant, requests payment. Hereupon, after con- 
sultation, and having regard to the strong recommendation of 
Her Highness the Electoral Princess Palatine in favour of the 
above mentioned Balfour, it was agreed that, without satisfy- 
ing all his claims (the services of Colonel Balfour in Brabant 
among them), he is to be gratified with a pension of 400 
guilders yearly, to be paid him until he be invested with the 
lieutenantship [i.e. lieutenant-colonelcy] of Colonel Brogh, or 
otherwise advanced, always providing he shall first prove that 
he is the heir of the late above mentioned Captain Cant. 

September 10. The request of Captain Henry Balfour 
was read, praying that in regard to the recommendation of 
the Electoral Princess Palatine regarding him, their Highnesses 
should provisionally allow him to increase his company to one 
hundred and ninety or one hundred and eighty heads. But 



1615] SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR'S CLAIMS 253 

on that matter decision was postponed till after the revisal or 
reading of the minutes of the State of War. 

August 26. Two requests were read the one from John 
Gordon, 1 and the other from Henry Balfour praying to be 
appointed to the post of sergeant-major in the regiment of 
Colonel Brog, or that of lieutenant-colonel in the same regi- 
ment. But in the meantime decision thereon was postponed. 

1615, January 19. A letter was received and read from Resolutions 
the King of Great Britain, dated October 25th last, from the 
Court at Royston, and written on behalf of Sir William 
Balfour, eldest and only surviving son of the late Sir Henry 
Balfour, formerly colonel of a regiment of Scots in the ser- 
vice of the Lands, and heir along with his two nephews 2 (for 
whom he holds power of attorney 3 ) of the late Captain Cant, 
deceased ; that payment may be granted him of arrears for 
services rendered to the Lands by the said late Captain Cant. 

After consultation, it was resolved to put the above men- 
tioned missive, with the accompanying request of the said Sir 
William Balfour, and the accounts of the late Cant aforesaid, 
into the hands of the Clerk of Court for revisal, and to note 
whether any alterations have occurred in them, or any part of 
them has been paid ; further, to ascertain what still remains 
due to the said late Captain Cant for his services since the 
accounts were made up, and of all this fully to inform their 
Highnesses privately. 

January 25. The report of the Clerk of Court was given 
in on the claims of Sir William Balfour as heir of the late 
Captain Cant, in regard to the arrears for service of the said 
captain, both these of which an account was drawn up, and 
those for services subsequently rendered. And as the said Sir 
William Balfour appears to be carrying on negotiations with 
Witschart, cavalry-captain, with a view to his taking over 
Witsart's company of horse, and in return paying him said 
arrears, it was proposed on the part of the States-General to 
promise to said Witssaert and his wife, as a full settlement of 
the aforesaid arrears, a pension of 500 or at the most 600 

1 John Gordon's company had been dismissed in 1609. It does not appear 
whether this was or was not the same man. 

3 The word may equally mean cousins or nephews. 2 Procuration. 



254 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1615 

guilders yearly during the lifetime of the said Witssaert and 
of his wife. And it was agreed that the Advocate of Holland 
shall arrange matters with the parties, and find what their 
opinion is. 

February 19. On the petition of Sir William Balfour, 
asking for payment of account for services rendered to the 
country by the late Captain Cant, his uncle, up to his death ; 
also of the services rendered by his late father as colonel, 
amounting to a sum of about ^40,000, according to docu- 
ments and bonds thereanent in possession of the petitioner, 
it was resolved and agreed, on account of several important 
considerations, that the Clerk of Court shall interview the 
petitioner and treat with him for full settlement of all his 
claims, with respect both to the services of his father aforesaid 
and of the late Captain Cant, and in lieu of the same shall offer 
him an annual pension, to continue during the lifetime of said 
petitioner, of 600 guilders, and a cash sum of 1000 guilders, 
on condition that in return he shall bind himself to receipt in 
full, and hand over the said account and the old bonds of his 
father in his possession, and drawn up in the usual form on the 
States- General. 

March 3. The Clerk of Court reported that he made to 
Captain Balfour their Highnesses offer, for the full settlement 
of all his claims both in respect of the services of his late father, 
whose bonds he is in possession of, and of Captain Cant, his 
uncle, to whom he is heir, amounting in all to more than 
62,000 guilders, but that the said Captain Balfour would not 
be satisfied with this offer, but desires to have, in addition to 
the pension of 600 guilders annually, a further cash sum of 
^3000, and that the pay of his uncle of 1000 guilders per 
annum be settled on him for life. Whereupon, after delibera- 
tion, it was resolved to adhere to the offer of the pension 
of 600 guilders annually, but to increase the offer of 
a cash sum of 1000 guilders to 2000, of which sum 1000 
guilders are to be paid at once, and the remaining 1000 
guilders within a year, always providing that he shall show 
that he is sole heir of the said Cant, his uncle ; and in case said 
Captain Balfour does not accept this offer, negotiations with 
him are to be stopped. 



1615] SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR'S CLAIMS 255 

1615, April 7. The Clerk of Court reported that Captain 
Balfour has accepted the offer, which their Highnesses allowed 
him to make, in settlement of all his claims as heir of the late 
Captain Cant, and of his father, the late Colonel Balfour, for 
services rendered by them both in Brabant and Flanders and 
in this country, none of these services excepted ; and the 
accounts and bonds for the same he is willing to give up, he 
receiving a pension of 600 guilders annually and a cash sum of 
2000 guilders, of which 1000 to be paid immediately, and the 
remaining 1000 guilders within the next year, and making the 
one proviso that the pension be settled on his life and the life 
of his son. This having been deliberated on, it was agreed to 
give the said captain the choice either to have the pension 
settled on his own life or on the life of his son ; or else the one 
half of it on his own life and the other half on the life of his 
son, on condition that he shall take the responsibility of sub- 
sequent recriminations, if any others should come forward and 
claim to be joint heirs of the said Captains Cant or Balfour, 
namely those for whom he has declared he holds power of 
attorney; the said pension to begin from the day when the 
offer was made to him. 

April 23. In the matter of the petition of Captain Sir 
William Balfour, it was agreed that the pension of ^600 
per annum voted to him, half on his life and half on the life of 
his son, William Balfour, be settled only on the life of his said 
son, William Balfour. 



256 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 



[1611 



IV 



Council of 
State. 



EXTRACTS RELATING TO THE SERVICES AND 
CLAIMS OF COLONEL LORD BUCCLEUCH AND 
HIS SON THE FIRST EARL OF BUCCLEUCH. 

1611-1620 

1611, May 21. In reference to the statement of arrears of 
the superior officers of the regiment of Colonel Buccleuch, 
communicated by the Receiver-General, by desire of the 
States-General, it was agreed that the Receiver-General pay the 
officers, viz., Lieutenant [Colonel] Henderson, Quartermaster 
Blair, Sergeant-Maj or Forbes, and the Provost of the regiment, 
their arrears of pay for last year 1609 up to 51st December 
last inclusive. 

HAULTZ ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS, NOZ BONS AMIS ET CON- 
FEDERES, II n'y a longtemps que nous avons escript en faveur 
du Sieur Baron de Bucklugh, vous ayant represente ses occasions 
et nfe desir de se pouvoir absenter pour quelque temps de la 
charge qu'il tient chez vous pour nous servir de luy aux affaires 
de nfe Royaulme d'Escosse. Lesquelles occasions comme elles 
s'accroissent de plus en plus, le mesme desir nous pousse aussy 
pour vous reiterer noz premieres instances et vous prie qu'avec 
vfe permission et gre, il y puisse faire plus grand seiour sans 
encourir prejudice en sa charge et ce qui en depend. Et cepen- 
dant sur la moindre occasion qui se presentera et a la premiere 
semonce que luy en ferez, nous ne fauldrons de le renvoyer 
quant et quant, pour se ranger promptement a vfe service. 
A laquelle nfe requeste nous avons a adiouster aussy que le 
vueilliez traicter gracieusement en matiere de son traictement 
pour le temps passe, afin qu'il puisse trouver en effect que 
nfe premiere intercession quVvons faict pour luy, ne luy sera 
este inutile, come nous avous comande nre Ambassadeur 
aupres de vous, de vous en faire instance plus particular e. 



i6n] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 257 

Nous nous confions que pour le regard de nfe service ne ferez 
difficulte de nous attribuer ceste requeste, et serons prestz de 
le recognoistre quant Foccasion nous sera offerte. Vfe tres 
affectione Amy 

De nfe Palais de Westminstre, ce 24 e jour d'Avril 1611. 

JACQUES R. 

May 25. Lord Winwood, Ambassador of the King of Great Resolutions 
Britain, was present at the meeting, and presented a letter 
from His Majesty, dated the 24th April last at Westminster, 
in favour of the Baron Buccleuch, to the end that the king 
might still for a time be permitted to employ him in Scotland 
in His Majesty ""s service without prejudice to his commission 
here, and all pertaining thereto. Requesting that he be treated 
graciously as to his pay for the time, His;Majesty having em- 
powered the above mentioned lord as his deputy to make a 
point of this, after which his Excellency made and delivered in 
writing the following proposals. 

Voz Seig ies entendent par les lettres du Roy mon Maistre 
de quelle affection sa Ma t6 desire que Fabsence de Mons r le Baron 
de Bouclough, laquelle toutesfois n'est pas advenue sans vostre 
licence et permission, puisse estre excusee ; et pour quelque peu 
de temps davantage, soubs votre bon plaisir encore prorogee, 
ce que Sa Ma t6 ne demande pas a Finstance dud. Sieur de 
Boucloughe, ny pour quelque bien qu'il en tirera, ains pour le 
respect particulier de son service ; scachant par Fexperience 
qu'il a eue de sa suffisance que sa presence en Escosse, moyen- 
nant que cela puisse estre, sans prejudice a voz affayres, y sera 
fort necessayre pour le reglement de la polyce, laquelle pour 
estre bien establie, requiert Fauthorite des Seig rs du pa'is, qui 
sont non seulement estimez pour leur qualite, mais reverez 
encores pour leur prudence et preudhommie. CTcst la privaute 
que sa Ma 16 use envers vous, de se servir de vos serviteurs, 
laquelle liberte vous pourrez prendre hardiment en son endroict 
de vous servir des siens pour le bien et advancement de voz 
affayres. L'instance que sa Ma t6 faict, que tant pour le passe 
que pour le venyr, durant son absence, le traictement qui luy 
appartient en quallite de Collonel, ne soyt pas retranche, puis- 
qu'il n'a este absent que par permission de voz Seig ries . C'est 





258 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1611 

pour monstrer le soing qu'elle a que le Sieur de Bouclough, 
employe en son service, ne re9oyve point de dommage, non pas 
qu'elle doubte que voz octroys, en lieu de graces, soyent con- 
vertis en mulctes et amendes : Quod in gratiam est concessum, 
in odium non debet detorqueri. La faveur qu'il vous plairez 
faire a ce Seig r , sa Ma t6 prendra en tres bonne part et la 
recognoistra par tous offices de meilleur Amy et Allie. Je 
supplie que je puisse avoyr par escript vostre responce et pour 
ma decharge et que le Baron de Boucloughe tant mieux se 
puisse regler sans y contrevenyr, a ce que de vostre part sera 
ordonne. Faict le 25 e de May 1611. 

Signe RODOLPHE WINWOOD. 

A consultation was held on the proposal, made at the meet- 
ing in the forenoon, by the Lord Winwood, Ambassador of the 
King of Great Britain, in favour of the Baron of Buccleuch, in 
order that he may be permitted to remain for a certain time 
still in Scotland, in the service of His Majesty. And all things 
considered, an understanding was come to that it would be 
difficult to agree to said request because of the disservice and 
bad precedent of it to the Land. But especially seeing that 
the said Lord Baron, petitioning as having been more than 
seven years in the service of the Land, has not been present 
personally in the same, in all, more than six months. And 
that therefore the said Lord Winwood be requested to take 
this excuse in good part and transcribe it. 

In case, however, his Excellency should further insist, it was 
agreed that on the recommendation of His Majesty, consent be 
given for the said baron to have six months more leave from his 
regiment without reference to or stoppage of his pay that is 
due or will be due, and as besides there is no reason for that 
since the regiment as yet is not accepted on any repartition. 
But we declare nevertheless, that the matter shall be attended 
to, as soon as the assembled deputies of the provinces shall 
have arrived. 

1612, January 10. Mr. Magnus presiding, intimated that 
through his Excellency he had received intelligence of the 
death of Colonel Buccleuch, and being afraid that the King 
of Great Britain might again set about recommending in his 
place as commander of the regiment some one not having the 



1612] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 259 

necessary skill and experience, that therefore his Excellency 
would ask their Highnesses to take into consideration whether 
it might not be advisable (in anticipation of such action), that 
they at once commission a fit colonel ; that his Excellency 
recommends the lieutenant-colonel of the said regiment, Robert 
Henderson, whom he knows as a good soldier, and who is well 
fitted for the position, and that a provisional instrument might 
be granted him to assume the command of the said regiment 
and keep it in good military order. All which having been 
considered and weighed, it was agreed on the said recom- 
mendation of his Excellency that an instrument be granted to 
the said Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson, whereby he shall be 
commissioned to command the foresaid regiment in the same 
quality as hitherto he has held, and containing further a pro- 
mise that should their Highnesses decide to appoint or com- 
mission a colonel at some future time over the said regiment, 
he was to be preferred before any one else. 

r 

Recommendation of Lord Buccleuch. 
(Jan. 4. Rec. Feb. 8, 1612.) 

HAULTS ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS NOZ BONS AMIS ET ALLIEZ, Diplomatic 
Nous vous avons desia par noz lettres assez instammen reco- d ence 1509 
mande Taffaire du Baron de Bucklugh, lequel pour vous estre 1614. 
bien et particulier* cognu, il n'est pas besoing par redites 
inutiles de vous plus representer. Seulement vous prions 
encore par celle-cy d'y vouloir avec telle promptitude qu'il 
conviendra mettre la derniere main et de comuniquer a nr e 
Ambassadeur demeurant aupres de vous (auquel avons n'agueres 
renouvelle la charge de vous en faire instance de nr e part, et 
de nous advertir au plustot de ce qui s'en sera ensuivy) vfe 
premiere resolution la dessus. Ce que ne doubtons point que 
vous ne vueilliez faire tres volontiers, non seulement pour 
exempter la partie interessee de toute fascheuse attente, ains 
pour nous faire voir par mesme moyen le soing que vous avez 
de satisfaire a noz subiects, mesmement a ceux que nous avons 
en estime, en toutes leurs iustes poursuittes, co de nre cdste 
nous demeurons. Vre bien affectionne amy, JAQUES R. 

De nre Palais de Westminstre le 4 e jour de Janvier 1612. 



260 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 



[1612 



Resolutions 
of the States- 
General 



Diplomatic 
Correspon- 
dence. 



July 16. The request was read of Johan Cleck, and Johan 
van Thielburgh, the servant and solicitor of the late Colonel 
Buccleuch, with an appended letter of the King of Great 
Britain, dated 12th January last, in favour of the son of the 
said colonel ; written to urge that an order be issued about 
the payment of arrears for services of the said colonel. And 
it is decided to have the advice of the Council of State there- 
anent, with the admonition that they attend well to all the 
particulars. 

September 1. The advice is read of the Council of State, 
convened 25th August last, concerning the request of the ser- 
vant and solicitor of the late Colonel Buccleuch, and first it 
was agreed that, before disposing of the matter, inquiry be 
made in what state the affairs of the said Buccleuch are, and 
what passports he has had. 

1613, February 8. Hereafter the said Lord Winwood 
declared that he was charged by His Majesty to present to 
their Highnesses a letter of His Majesty, dated the 4th January 
last, whereby His Majesty again strongly recommends and 
requests that they will be pleased to show all diligence in the 
affairs of the Baron of Buccleuch, with such promptitude and 
willingness as is fitting; and to communicate to His Majesty's 
Ambassador residing here their resolution, to be taken finally 
thereon. To which end the said Lord-Depute made urgent 
request, and asked that said resolution be given to him in 
writing. 

After consultation it was resolved in substance to reply that 
seeing the pay of the late Baron of Buccleuch has never been 
accepted by the Provinces on the repartition of which he held his 
footing, therefore no resolution can be come to about the pay- 
ment of the said pay until the Provinces shall have given their 
consent to the quota demanded from each towards payment of 
the old debt. That being done, proceedings will be taken 
with all due consideration for the recommendation of His 
Majesty ; and a resolution will be arrived at in the business of 
the said Baron of Buccleuch as favourable as in the present 
situation of the government of their Lands shall be found just, 
reasonable, and right. 

1613, Feb. 8. Sur le contenu de la lettre du roy de la 



1613] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 261 

Grande Bretaigne, datee le quatriesme iour de Janvier dernier, 
escript par Sa Maj. en faveur du baron de Bucklugh, presentee 
et recommandee ce jour d'huy en Tassemblee a Messeigneurs 
les Estats Gnlx des Pays Bas Unis par le S r Winwood, 
ambassad r de sad. Majeste, declarent iceulx Seigneurs Estatz 
aultant que le tractement de feu le baron de Bucklugh n'a 
jamais este accepte par la province sur laquelle il avoit este 
repartie. C'est pourquoy qu'il ne peult estre resolu sur le 
payement d'icelluy, avant que les provinces soient d'accord sur 
le faict des quotes d'icelles (a quoy Ton travaille tous les iours) 
et que les consentemens requis pour le payement de vielles 
debtes seront accordez. Cela faict sera alors avec toutes 
bonnes considerations, avec regard a la recommendation de 
sad. Maj 6 et sur Paffaire du diet baron de Bucklugh si favor- 
ablement resolu, comme selon la constitution presente de Pestat 
de ce pays il sera trouve en justice, raison et equite convenir. 

Faict en Tassemblee des d. Seigneurs les Estatz Gnlx le 8 e 
jour de Febvrier Tan xvi c et treize. 

August 7. The request of the son of the late Colonel 
Buccleuch was read, requesting liquidation, settling of accounts, 
and satisfaction for the arrears for his father's services. But 
it was agreed, before coming to a decision, to read the minutes 
of the advice regarding it drawn up by the Council of 
State. 

October 19. A request was read, presented on the part of 
the son of the late Baron of Buccleuch, praying for payment 
of arrears of his father's services. 

And it was agreed to place the same in the hands of the 
Council of State, to be examined more particularly, and thereon 
to advise their High Mightinesses. 

October 26. Read the advice of the Council of State, 
dated the 24th inst., on the request of the son of Colonel 
Buccleuch, holding, for reasons mentioned therein, that their 
Honours in this matter do not know how otherwise to advise 
than they advised a year ago, 1612, August 23rd, on the request 
of the servant and solicitor of the late Colonel Buccleuch, for 
settlement and payment. They have to advise the States- 
General that his regiment landed at the close of 1603, and he 
himself in the beginning of 1604. And according to a resolu- 



262 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1613 

tion of their High Mightinesses, his pay as colonel commenced 
on the 1 st of January, and as captain on the 1 6th January 
1604 ; and so continued serving till the 25th December 1611 ; 
that he was absent most of the time in Scotland and England, 
as he left with passport at the commencement of the siege of 
Sluys in May 1604, and in 1605, a little before they went 
afield, and was that summer not with them in the field. Also 
in 1606, even before the war, he was not afield. So that in 
the year 1605, or till the beginning of the year 1606, he was 
little in this Land, except that he returned ouce or twice, and, 
nevertheless, he was paid as colonel till 29th of June 1609, and 
as captain till the 6th July 1609. Nor has he had here any 
continuous passports of absence except what were sought for in 
the interval. From all which it is rather to be inferred that 
his place was kept open for him than that he has a right to 
enjoy pay. And we should therefore be of opinion, under 
correction, that the remonstrant ought to be well content with 
the wages and payments he received. 

November 25. The advice of the Council of State was read 
again, of date 24th October last, on the request of the son of 
the late Colonel Buccleuch. And it was agreed to commission 
the Clerk of Court to sound the petitioner's commissioners as 
to whether they are empowered to come to an agreement and 
treat in regard to all the petitioner's claims, and in that case, 
it is suggested that they might negotiate for a yearly pension 
during the life of the petitioner, as satisfaction in full of all 
the petitioner's claims, none excepted. 

1615, January 20. Taking into account negotiations pre- 
viously begun on the part of the heir of the late Baron and 
Colonel Buccleuch, and what was offered to his commissioners 
in full payment of his arrears. It was agreed, that to Delia 
Butler, legitimate daughter of the late Captain Thomas Butler, 
whom the said Baron, being then only fifteen years of age, 
seduced and bent to his will and lust, there shall be paid, by 
way of deduction from the sum that shall be agreed upon, 
and settled as due to the said heir, one hundred guilders in all. 
The one half ready money, and the other half within the next 
six months. 

August 15. On the recommendation of Lord Wotton, 



i6i5] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 

Ambassador Extraordinary of the King of Great Britain, with 
the view of obtaining for the heir of the late Colonel Buccleuch 
satisfaction in reference to the foresaid colonel's arrears. 

After deliberation, it was understood and agreed that the 
offer already made shall be renewed to the commissioners of 
the foresaid heir, and in the transaction they are to remember 
the little daughter of the foresaid colonel, by Delia Butler, 
daughter of Captain Butler. 

August 26. Hereafter the foresaid Lord Ambassador 
recommended two matters, the one about the son of the late 
Colonel Buccleuch, that the same should be satisfied and paid 
his father's arrears in money and not by a pension. 

September 8. The Clerk of Court was again commissioned 
to confer more particularly with the commissioners of the heir 
of the late Colonel Buccleuch, about the offer of the life pen- 
sion of twelve hundred guilders a year, during his whole life 
long, made to him as in full payment of all his claims. Also 
in reference to the satisfaction he undertakes to give for the 
support of the mother and bastard child, left by the foresaid 
colonel, for which urgent request is made to their High 
Mightinesses. 

November 11. The Clerk of Court reported that he, in 
pursuance of the charge of their High Mightinesses, has been 
in communication with the commissioner of the son and heir 
of the late Colonel Buccleuch, about the offer made to him 
here on a former occasion, of a pension of twelve hundred 
guilders a year, in full payment of all the claims of the said heir 
to the arrears for his late father's services to the Land, and 
that the said commissioner has declared that he will accept the 
foresaid offer, provided their High Mightinesses please to 
grant him a deed to the effect that if at any future time a new 
regiment were to be raised in Scotland for their service, that 
they should appoint him master over it, and commission him as 
colonel. And otherwise that he is content to acquit and dis- 
charge on the offer of the said pension of twelve hundred 
guilders yearly, provided their High Mightinesses be pleased to 
provide him with the first colonelcy of the Scots presently in 
service, that shall become vacant by the death of the colonel. 
Declaring further about the claim of the woman by whom the 



264 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1615 

late Colonel Buccleuch had a child, still living, that the said 
woman received from the foresaid colonel one thousand guilders, 
that she also received from their High Mightinesses at the 
expense of the arrears of the said colonel, in one sum, one hun- 
dred thalers, and in another, sixty guilders. That in addition 
he is willing to pay her four hundred guilders more, and that in 
his opinion, the said woman ought therewith to be well con- 
tented. But should their High Mightinesses, in spite of all 
this, consider the offer not enough, he leaves it to be fixed at 
their discretion. 

It was agreed that the said Clerk of Court shall refer the 
matter as above to the said woman, and learn from her whether 
she is willing to be satisfied with these terms. If not, what 
more she claims, and with what she would be contented, and in 
addition, whether she would be willing to part from her child. 

December 3. Heard the report of the Clerk of Court on his 
conference with the commissioners of the son of the late Baron 
Buccleuch, formerly Colonel of a Scottish regiment in the ser- 
vice of these Lands, and with the mother of the bastard child 
of the said Baron by her. In satisfaction of all said mother's 
claims for her own support and that of the said child, she 
asked one thousand guilders ready money, and four hundred 
guilders yearly, whereupon the foresaid commissioners offered 
her only six hundred guilders ready money and two hundred 
guilders yearly, and to relieve her from keeping the said child. 

After deliberation their High Mightinesses concluded and 
resolved, that the said mother, for all her claims, is to receive 
eight hundred guilders in ready money once, and over and above 
that two hundred guilders yearly for her support, and besides 
that, two hundred guilders a year for the support of the said 
child, until by legal attestation from the city of Edinburgh, it 
shall be shown to their High Mightinesses that the said child 
shall have been adopted by the heir of the said Baron of Buc- 
cleuch and supported. On which the said two hundred guilders 
for the child here shall cease. 

December 19. A remonstrance handed in by the commis- 
sioners of the heir of the late Baron of Buccleuch was read. 
And it was agreed that the Clerk of Court shall confer more 
particularly with the same, in order to understand the remon- 



1616] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 265 

strant's intentions and say to him, that their High Mighti- 
nesses do not desire in this matter in any way to use their 
authority, but that the remonstrant shall have to give his 
consent to the offers made, as well in regard to the principal, 
as in respect to the woman or mother of the child, willingly, or 
refuse to do so. 

1616, January 31. On the petition of Delia Botlers, re- 
questing that it may please their High Mightinesses to increase 
the 200 guilders assigned to her as a provision by way of 
deduction from the claims of the late Baron of Backlough by 
such additional sum as may enable her both to satisfy her 
creditors and to live on in this cold winter: it is resolved 
that the petitioner must be satisfied in the meantime with the 
said 200 guilders, on the understanding that her creditors may 
not seize her goods. 

April 30. On the request of Miss Delia Butler, praying 
that the child the deceased Colonel Buccleuch had by her be 
left in her charge, and that for the support of herself and the 
foresaid child, the resolution made some time ago by their High 
Mightinesses regarding this matter be allowed to take effect. 
After deliberation it is understood that they will not permit 
the child to go to the heir of the foresaid Colonel Buccleuch, 
but let it remain with the petitioner on the footing of the 
foresaid resolution. 

July 16. To Delia Butler, by whom the late Colonel 
Buccleuch had a child, there was granted for her support, and 
that of the child, fifty guilders ready money, and fifty guilders 
more within the next six months, by way of deduction from 
the arrears of the foresaid colonel. 

July 22. On the request of Hans van Thielburch, praying 
for payment of the three thousand guilders, which the late 
Baron of Buccleuch is justly indebted to him for moneys 
advanced and services. But a resolution as to that is post- 
poned till the transaction commenced with the heir of the 
foresaid Lord Baron shall be concluded. 

November 1. In consideration of the coming cold winter, 
a further sum of 150 guilders is voted to Delia Botlaers on the 
same conditions as before ; this sum to be deducted from the 
arrears still due by the country to Baron Bachlough. 



266 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1617 

1617, May 10. To Miss Butler on the foregoing footing is 
yet granted 100 guilders once, for the support of her little 
daughter, which she had by the late Baron of Buccleuch. 1 

Noel de Caron to the States- General. 
(Oct. 19, 1617. Rec. Nov. 14.) 

MY LORDS, Annexed is an autograph letter of His Majesty, 
in which he requests me, on his behalf, to direct the attention 
of your High Mightinesses to the case of the Baron of Buccleuch, 
in order that he be paid the money, which the State owes to 
his late father. In effect, the king charged his secretary Lord 
Winwood to state, that it seems the said Buccleuch would be 
willing to give an acquittance and full discharge for the debts 
your High Mightinesses owe to him in consequence of the 
circumstances referred to, provided he be appointed a colonel 
in their service ; which the king thinks can be done, without 
further expense to the country, if an agreement could be made 
with Colonel Brock, whom the king considers will now be 
pretty well up in years ; 2 and that it is time he should retire 
from war. In addition, he should receive a certain honorary 
pension, to be provided for Colonel Brock by the said 
Buccleuch. The king is of opinion that this matter would 
be speedily settled if you would arrange matters with the said 
Brock. The king, with the same end in view, will write to 
his ambassador Carleton, in order that on the king's behalf he 
may do all he can. I willingly recommend this proposal to the 
consideration of your High Mightinesses, His Majesty being so 
much interested in the matter, as the said Lord Winwood 
informed me. I have also written to his Excellency who, I 
suppose, will also communicate with your High Mightinesses in 
order that the matter may be so arranged as to be of the 
greatest service and profit to the land. Truly, my lords, the 
said Buccleuch is a young nobleman, brave and well fitted for 



1 It is interesting to note the ultimate fortune of the child who had been the 
subject of so much application and negotiation. ' Jeane Scot, natural sister of 
Earl Walter, called by Satchells "Holland's Jean," married Robert Scott of 
Quhitslaid, who, on 8th November 1633, granted a discharge to Earl Walter for 
8000 merks of tocher with her. ' Sir William Eraser's Scott s of Buccleuch. 

2 Colonel Brog was nevertheless able to render good service for nineteen 
years more. 



1617] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 267 

war. I well know that in attending to this matter, your High 
Mightinesses will perform an act of great friendship to His 
Majesty. NOEL DE CARON. 

MONSIEUR CARON, Encores que ie vous aye souvent rec- 
comande 1'affaire du Sieur de buccleugh pour interceder 
aveques messieurs les estats, qu'il puisse avoir quelque satis- 
faction d'eux, pour les debtes deues a son pere ; si est ce que 
ie n*en ay encores receu aucune responce, afin donques que 
vous puissies scavoir, aveques quelle instance ie demande que 
iustice luy soit faicte aveques toute faveur et bonne expedition 
en ce cas, ie vous envoye ce mot escripnt de ma main propre, 
remectant a secretaire Winwoode de vous informer plus 
particulierement sur ce subiect et vous recomendant a la pro- 
tection du tout puissant. Vostre bon amy, JAQUES R. 

November 4. The Messrs. Goch, Bouchorst, and Vernau 
report that they have intimated orally to the Lord Ambassador 
Carleton the conditions on which their High Mightinesses have 
agreed to grant the requested deed of expectancy to the Earl 
of Buccleuch, as to which also some argument took place 
between both parties. It was thought proper, before resolving 
further thereon, that a concept of the deed or resolution be 
drawn up in writing, that afterwards it may again be read 
over here, and checked in such a way as may be found necessary. 
It is to contain the complete discharge of all his claims on the 
Land on account of his father's services, and otherwise, the 
payment of his father's debts here in this Land not excepted. 
The missive of the King of Great Britain was read over, dated 
from Belvoir, the 5th August last, in favour of the Lord Earl 
of Buccleuch, in order that he be satisfied whether in ready 
money, or by his being provided with some honourable charge 
in the service of the Land. And looking closely at all that 
had been previously done in this matter, it was found that 
their High Mightinesses have always shown themselves inclined 
to the completion of the matter aforesaid, and that it was 
owing to the said Earl of Buccleuch himself that the affair had 
not terminated sooner, he not having been willing to accept 
the equitable offers made. 

Out of regard to the strong recommendations of His Majesty, 
and the good qualities of the foresaid earl about whom their 
High Mightinesses have certainly had other good reasons to 



268 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1617 

excuse them and in order yet to show their inclination to 
and affection for the good qualities of the said earl, and how 
much they esteem what His Majesty has been pleased to recom- 
mend about the matter through the foresaid missive and His 
Majesty ^s ambassador, also through their own commissioners 
who were last in England, it was resolved that the foresaid 
Lord Earl of Buccleuch be granted satisfaction in one of the 
said two ways : either, one way, by granting him a deed to the 
effect that he shall have the first colonelcy that shall become 
vacant among the troops of the Scottish nation, and in case, 
before a vacancy occurs, a new regiment of Scots should be 
raised, that the same shall be done under him. 1 But it is to 
be understood that in accepting this he is to renounce the 
other proposed way of satisfaction, 2 and to resign all his claims 
on the Land, their High Mightinesses understanding it to be 
just and in order that the large debts due by his late father, 
the Baron of Buccleuch, to his solicitor, here in this Land, be 
paid by the said earl. 3 

The ' Acte Expectatif: 

1620, July 14. The States-General of the United Nether- 
lands, on account of the earnest prescript of His Majesty the 
King of Great Britain, and the very serious recommendation of 
Lord Carleton, His Majesty's ambassador, also in consideration 
of the merits of the late Lord Baron of Buccleuch, and the good 
qualities of the present Earl of Buccleuch, have, in conformity 
with their High Mightinesses 1 resolution of the 4th November 
last, and the declaration regarding it, drawn up in writing, by 
the said Earl of Buccleuch, in his missive of the 19th May 
last, with the said Earl of Buccleuch therein agreed, and we 
do agree by these presents to this Act of Expectancy (' Acte 

1 i.e. that the colonelcy of the new regiment should be given him. 

2 This apparently refers to a money settlement. 

3 It will be seen that when the colonelcy of his father's regiment fell vacant, 
by Sir Robert Henderson's death at Bergen-op-Zoom, it was given, not to the 
earl, but to Sir Francis Henderson, the next in command, the reason probably 
being the critical condition of military affairs, and the necessity for appointing 
an officer of experience. It was not till 1629, when the States reorganised their 
Scottish troops in three instead of two regiments, that the earl received a com- 
mand, being then appointed to the new regiment. As to his services, see Sir 
William Fraser's Scott s of Buccleuch^ vol. i. p. 253. 



i62o] CLAIMS OF LORD BUCCLEUCH 269 

Expectatif ' ), to wit, that his lordship shall have conferred on 
him by their High Mightinesses the first colonelcy that shall 
fall vacant among the troops of the Scottish nation, here in the 
Land on military duty and service. 

Or if, before a vacancy occur, a new Scottish regiment be 
raised, such levy shall be made by his lordship's person all 
without guile. 

Drawn up at a meeting of their said High Mightinesses, the 
States- General, under their seal, signed, and the signature of 
the Lord Recorder, on the 14th day of the month July, in the 
year 1620. 

The Earl of BucdeucKs letter of thanks. (July 16.) 
HAULTS ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS, La favorable resolution 
de voz Seigneuries, touch ant mon affaire sur la recommanda- 
tion de Sa Ma t6 nFa donne Foccasion et la hardiesse de vous 
addresser ceste lettre icy. Le contenu est seulement de vous 
rendre graces en toute humilite pour la faveur qu'il a pleu a 
Voz Seigneuries monstrer en mon endroict et vous resoudre x 
que je suis content d'accepter et embracer la susd e resolution 
avec les conditions y comprinses. Suppliant cependant tres 
humblement Voz Seig ries de vouloir donner vfe Acte la dessus, 
par quel moyen voz Seig ries couppants chemin a tous aultres se 
depescheront de leur importunite et me encourageront de pour- 
suivre alargiement la dessus de Fenvie que j'ay tousjours eu de 
vous servir. Car ce n'este pas Favarice qui m'a pousse a cecy, 
mais seulement (come j'ay tan tost diet) Faffection que ie porte 
au service de voz Seigneuries et le desir que j'ay d'estre employe 
en quelque chose honorable en la guerre. Ce n'est pas nm 
faulte que voz Seigneuries n'ayent entendu de moy, il y a 
longtemps, car je n'ay jamais receu advertissement de vostre 
resolution, que depuis ces quinze jours; aultrement j'eusse este 
narri 2 d'avoir differe sy longtemps de donner a voz Seig ies 
notice de mon intention. A raison de quoy plaist a voz 
Seigneuries de m^excuser, ainsy laissant de vous importuner 
d'avantage pour cest fois icy, mais vous baisant tres humblement 
les mains, je demeure de vos Seigneuries le tres humble et tres 
loyall serviteur (et estoit soubzsigne) BUKILEUGHE. 

De ma maison le 29 e du May 1620. 

1 Repondre (?) 2 Marri (?) 



270 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 



[1612 



RESOLUTIONS, REPORTS, REQUESTS, RECOMMEN- 
DATIONS, AND OTHER ENTRIES. 

LETTER OF KING JAMES i. 
Recommendation of 'Thomas Cumyn, student of theology. 

(Dat. March 11, 1612. Rec. Octob. 24, 1613.) 
HAULTS ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS NOZ BONS AMYS ET ALLIEZ, 
Ce pauvre Gentilhome Thomas Cumyn, filz du feu Guillaume 
Cumyn, Lieutenant d'une compagnie de gens de cheval, lequel 
a este tue en vostre service, ayant luy aussy en sa premiere 
ieunesse suivy les armes, s'est depuis peu adonne aux estudes 
et princip* de la Theologie, en laquelle il a si bien employe le 
temps qu'il desire sur toutes choses poursuivre si heureux 
comencements en cas qu'il y soit encourage par suffeditation de 
moyens a ce convenables. Or d'autant qu'il a este ne soubz vre 
obeissance bien que des parens Escossais et comence ses estudes 
en voz pai's, ou il desire les continuer, nous avons a sa tres 
humble requeste trouve bon le vous recomander et vous prier 
que le vueillez fournir de quelque appointement qui le puisse 
encourager a Fachevement de ses estudes, a ce qu'il se rende 
capable de servir vre Estat ou il aura este esleve, et FEglise de 
Dieu y establie. Vre bien bon amy, JAQUES R. 

Escript a Thetford, le xi e . jour de Mars 1612. 

Provincial States of Utrecht to the Council of State. 

(April 9, 1612.) 

MY LORDS, In reference to the matter made known to us 
by Alexander Wishart, Captain of the Cavalry Company here 
in garrison, regarding which he complained, and made a re- 
quest to us, your Honours will learn the particulars thereof 
from the annexed document. And since we consider his 
request reasonable and to the interest of the Provinces, and 



1612] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 271 

particularly serviceable to this place, we could not refuse to 
recommend his request to the consideration of your Lordships, 
since otherwise the authority of the magistracy and of the 
commanders and officers of the army would be brought into 
utter contempt, and might cause serious detriment to the 
Provinces. Herewith, etc., the Deputies of the States of the 
Province of Utrecht. 

At Utrecht, the 9th April 1612. 

To their Lordships the Deputies of the three 
Provincial States of Utrecht. 

Alexander Wishart, Captain of a Cavalry Company, in the 
service of the States- General of the United Netherlands, begs 
with all due reverence to offer the following remonstrance. That 
he, the remonstrant, never gave any one belonging to his 
company the slightest reason to revolt against his Excellency, or 
take part in any plot or unlawful gathering. Although a good 
number of them lately chose to hold a meeting in this city, in 
a certain yard near the Green Horse Belt. The one summoning 
the other there, and forming a plot of this nature, that a cer- 
tain number of them had their opinions and claims set down 
in a written document which they signed, as will appear from 
the enclosed copy of their request. And since the same has a 
taste of sedition and disobedience, and also was entered on 
without notice to their Lordships, the Governor, the Com- 
misary Lemm, or any of their lawful superiors, and as they did 
not pursue their claim by way of remonstrance ; and such in- 
subordination being not only injurious to this city and garrison, 
but also to this company, besides being of disadvantage to the 
Provinces. Therefore he, the remonstrant, would like to dis- 
charge some of the ringleaders from his company. But he 
would prefer to do so, with the cognisance and previous know- 
ledge of their Lordships, the Councillors of State. Therefore 
he humbly begs your Lordships will be pleased to grant him 
your favourable recommendation to said Councillors of State, 
in order that his Excellency may be permitted to dismiss six 
or seven individuals, and at once receive an equal number in 
their place, etc. 



272 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1612 

COPY 
To the Governor and Council of War in Utrecht. 

We the undersigned, all of us troopers of the Company of 
Alexander Wishart, humbly pray that your Lordship, the 
Governor and the Council of War will be pleased to pardon 
the liberty we have taken in approaching you with our claims, 
as set forth in the request we have signed. It happened 
through our ignorance, and we are heartily sorry to have given 
occasion to my Lord Governor and Council of War to be 
incensed at our conduct; sorry likewise that we revolted 
against our captain. In all this we petition you graciously to 
pardon us. By doing so, etc. 

Signed by twenty- two both in marks and names, and presented 
in the Council of War on the 28th March 1612. 

Signed after comparison with his private copy, and presented 
at the time above mentioned. This copy is found therewith to 
agree, by me, the Magistrate, (signed) D. VAN LEEUWEN. 

Companies of Captains Douglas and Balfour. 
To My Lords the Council of State. (April 25, 1612.) 

May it please your Lordships to receive the rolls, which I 
herewith forward to you, of the musters by me carried out, of 
the company of Captain Douglas (leaving for Grave) and like- 
wise of the company of Captain Balfour exchanged 1 by the 
Commissary Corens ; both being fine bodies of men, but armed 
after the manner of their nation, contrary to the resolution 
passed some time ago by your Lordships, regarding the arming 
of the soldiers. Moreover, I find daily that with increasing 
frequency the captains grant leave to the majority of their 
soldiers to go out and work far and near ; yea, many remain 
absent from their respective garrisons during the night, 
making provision for their watches (so they say), which, if it 
happened to a small number, it might, I think, in present cir- 
cumstances, be tolerated for a time, so that they may living 



1 Exchanged by Commissary Corens. Perhaps, by alternation with Com- 
missary Corens, i.e. taking my alternate turn of mustering it. Literally it is, 
by Commissary Corens brought in exchange, alternation. Translator's Note. 



1612] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 273 

being so dear in the district better support themselves in the 
service. But since it has gone beyond all bounds, and takes 
place without any order, particularly during the daytime, 
whereby posts are left almost deserted, as your Lordships may 
observe from the enclosed list of the review held by me in the 
afternoon at Ysendyck, as a matter of duty, I cannot refrain 
from acquainting your Lordships with this, that you may give 
due attention to it. And that your Lordships be the more 
certain of what has been said I shall detail the circumstances 
of the said review, or in case any captain should complain of 
being circumvented or improperly taken by surprise. At the 
muster in the St. Cataleynen redoubt on the 20th inst., in 
order to keep the surrounding garrisons at their posts, I at the 
same time advised the commandant in Ysendyck of the musters 
in such a manner that Captain W. Wabbe (then in command 
in the absence of Mons r d'Hautheyn) received my letter in good 
time, as he acknowledges, between 10 and 11 o'clock forenoon, 
shortly after which I arrived and commenced by reviewing the 
company of Captain Balfour in the Jouffrouwen redoubt, it being 
about three in the afternoon when I commenced to review the 
said company. May I add, my Lords (under correction), that I 
am of opinion there was ample time in the interval to have got 
more men together had they not been scattered far and wide, 
working here and there, some of them I tell you usually 
working at a distance of two or three miles from their garrison. 
These I pretended to discharge, not choosing to have informa- 
tion of their exodus from the garrison. But by reasons given 
I wished first to advise your Lordships of the matter, that you 
may be pleased to instruct me what course I should take ; at 
the same time praying that it may please your Lordships to 
write to the governor or the commanders respectively on the 
subject, and let them keep their men better together, so as to 
be always properly ready for muster. From which much 
good advantage will result, and confusion and misunder- 
standing be prevented. . . . Herewith humbly recommending 
myself to the good grace of your Lordships, I pray God, etc. 
Your Lordships humble faithful servant, 

D. VAN BOMBERGEN. 

At Sluys, 25th April 1612. 



274 THE TWELVE YEARS^ TRUCE [1612 

Annexa (in original Dutch). 

Reveue van den Garnisoene binnen Ysendyck, op den 
xx Aprilis 1612. 

De compa ie van mons r d'Hautheyn. 

Musquetten, . . 14 
Spiessen, ... 22 

36 coppen. 
De compa ie van den Cap n Yerhorst. 

Musquetten, . . 21 
Spiessen, . . . 15 

36 coppen. 
De compa ie van den Drossaert Straelen. 

Musquetten, . . 22 
Spiessen, . . 15 

37 coppen. 
De compa ie van den Cap" Livingston. 

Musquetten, . . 25 
Spiessen, ... 21 

46 coppen. 
De compa ie van den Cap" Wabben. 

Musquetten, . . 22 
Spiessen, . . ^22 

44 coppen. 
De compa ie van wylen den Cap n Ram. 

Musquetten, . . 10 
Spiessen, . . . 16 

26 coppen. 

Records of 1613, December 31 . There was read the advice of the 

amend. Council of State, dated the 19th inst on the request of 

Robert Henderson, and also on the resolution before mentioned, 
of their High Mightinesses to the effect that they are of 
opinion that the 'petitioner's pay as colonel ought to com- 
mence from this date onward. That the States of Zeeland 
have shown that they are satisfied to accept that he is to 



1614] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 275 

receive his pay upon their repartition, according to what (in 
accordance with the contents of said resolution, viz. of the 28th 
April 1612) he himself has declared ; on condition that the 
Lords of Zeeland also further agree to give him said pay. In 
addition, said pay of colonel is to be kept at three hundred 
guilders a month, as it is appointed also in the State of War, 
and he is to be satisfied therewith like other colonels, par- 
ticularly of our own nation. But a resolution on the matter 
is postponed until the consent of the Province be examined, 
and it be understood what the Council of State think of it. 

To the Council of State. (Jan. 7, 1614) 

MY LORDS, There was handed to me by the bearer of Letters and 

,. .. .. TIT- ,1 Requests to 

this a certain missive from your Lordships concerning the the council 

request of the creditors of Cavalry Captain Arskyn. 1 From of State, 
which I understand that your Lordships were informed by 
these creditors, that I out of eighteen whole months 1 pay 
received by me since the said captain left have retained 
under name of my own pay 5400 guilders belonging to the 
creditors, and that I allowed myself to be induced by the 
cornet of the said company to let said sum together with 
further sums the creditors had a claim on out of the arrears of 
pay be forwarded to the said cornet, in payment of what the 
captain is said to have promised him for the transport of the 
company. As to this, I most humbly cannot withhold from 
your Lordships that as regards the money which I received 
from the States of Vriesland, the long continued bad payments 
have obliged me to spend for the support of the company, not 
only the said sum, but above ten thousand guilders more (which 
I advanced from my own pocket, and negotiated for on my 
credit), but for which said company would necessarily have 
dwindled away and fallen into confusion. Besides, in all cases 
where a liquidation and full payment of a company's pay is 
made there has always been an opinion prevalent that the 
money should go to the creditors, and that they should get a 
share in some way due to them on the strength of the resolu- 
tion of their High Mightinesses the States- General and by 

1 See also supra, p. 215. 



276 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1614 

injunctions given to the captain. It never occurred to me 
that the cornet or anybody else should in the slightest degree 
be favoured to the injury of the creditors. And since mention 
is made in your Lordships' letter, that the creditors claimed a 
right over the sum of three hundred guilders per month, I 
cannot omit humbly to recall to the recollection of your 
Lordships that the resolution of the States-General, dated the 
3rd November 1610, is to the effect that the captain may pay 
said debts, with the half of his pay, as paid monthly, retaining 
the other half for his maintenance; and in such a manner 
that on no account shall more than two hundred guilders a 
month of the captain's pay be allowed to the creditors. Besides, 
in addition to this, the captain had yet assigned out of the 
other half to Bartholomew Reminger the sum of twelve 
hundred and seventy-six guilders, payable at the rate of a 
hundred guilders a month, which sum aforesaid of two hundred 
guilders a month, altogether amounting to twelve hundred and 
seventy-six guilders, I shall do all I can to pay as soon as the 
company receive payment of their arrears. But also out of 
what was left of the captain's pay I kept his horses and servants 
and cleared away divers other charges left by him. Also many 
difficulties occurred daily, because of these long-continued bad 
payments. I humbly pray herewith that your Lordships will 
not permit that any further deductions of the captain's pay 
[be made] beyond the said two hundred guilders a month, 
together amounting to twelve hundred and seventy-six guilders, 
since I could not otherwise make ends meet ; and then my 
faithfulness, if I have proved it to the company during the 
time of these bad payments, would be miserably rewarded. 
Herewith, etc., your obedient and always willing servant, 

(Signed) THIMAN VRIESE, Secy. 
Datum Zwolle, the 7th January 1614. 

(Jan. 31, 1614.) 

MY LORDS, I duly received the missive of your Lordships 
of 27th November last, with appended copy of the request, pre- 
sented to you by Captain Wishart. In the missive you charge 
me to observe at the next inspection how many troopers in 
that company are badly mounted and personally unfit for the 



1614] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 277 

public service. And to find out how long all such badly 
mounted and unfit troopers have been in the service, and to 
advise your Lordships, giving the names of said troopers. 
And in submitting my answer I cannot conceal from your 
Lordships that in pursuance of your instructions I did my 
duty in the matter, and by way of giving superabundant 
satisfaction to your Lordships, I did after the muster which 
took place on the 8th of this present month of January 
interrogate on oath all the officers of the said company, each 
one apart, whether they maintained daily the ordinary watch, 
and as to knowledge of fit and unfit among their troopers, 
whether they knew of any badly mounted men belonging to 
the company unfit for the public service, other than those 
presented to me at the place of muster, and that they were bound 
in the interest of the land to give their names and surnames. 
Whereupon I could discover nothing except that accidents had 
happened to one or two of their horses, and that they had 
bought young ones instead, which, within the year, would be 
fit enough for the war. Item, two or three of the horses are 
a little under the size, but suitable and well handled. More- 
over, there are also two old troopers, one of whom is maimed 
in the leg, and the other quite an old man. They are both 
old soldiers, the elder having honourably served those Lands 
for more than twenty-eight years in succession ; and because of 
his years is unable to bear arms. I leave his case to the 
discretion of your Lordships. This advice may be of use, 
that as the captain has absolute command over his company 
he must know his troopers better than I do. Your Lordships 
might be pleased to charge him to reform his company in 
such a manner as he shall consider he is responsible for in 
the public service. On these, my arguments above detailed, 
may it please your Lordships (taking them in good part) to 
dispose of the matter and command me according to your good 
pleasure. Herewith, etc., (Signed) JOERIEN VAN LENNIP. 
Utrecht, the 31st January 1614. 

(April 9, 1614) 

MY LORDS, In pursuance of the missive of your Lordships, 
forwarded to me with the enclosed request of Captain Wishart, 



278 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1614 

In presence of the said Captain Wishart, I paid careful 
attention during my last muster of the 4th inst. to the quali- 
fications and fitness of the cavalry and horses, and found 
among those hereinafter described, persons having small but 
well-trained horses. And although I sharply charged each of 
them separately to get themselves better mounts against the 
next muster, my orders have not as yet been carried out, for 
the reason they offer in excuse that they have not means to pur- 
chase proper horses ; and they asked three months, which the 
captain granted them, so as not to ruin them. And by desire 
of your Lordships the names of the persons with small horses 
are given as follows : Jan Banckerts, Jacob de Heuvel, Jan 
Michel, Jone Allen, one among them named Egbert Segerssoon 
is to be excepted, as to be exact he has a young unfit horse 
with a spavin on both hind legs and I discharged him till 
further orders from your Lordships. Besides there is a certain 
Evert Gevers, who has been absent more than six weeks beyond 
his leave, contrary to my instructions, of all which I could not 
but inform your Lordships. Requesting respectfully thereupon 
your Lordships 1 advice, according to which I shall be regulated. 
Praying etc., Your Worshippful Mightinesses obedient servant, 

JoERIEN VAN LENNIE. 

Utrecht, 19th April 1714, new style. 

Resolutions 1614, October 29. Read the advice of the Council of State, 
of states- O f date the 25th inst., regarding the request of the widow of 
Captain Berckley, to the effect that she cannot rest her case in 
particular on the current pay of his company, inasmuch as said 
company, during his period of service was all along on the foot- 
ing of payment by the States of Holland. And after consulta- 
tion the request of the petitioner was refused. 

November 1. The widow of the late Captain Berckley and 
present wife of Bartholomew Bonder, was granted out of com- 
miseration for her present poor circumstances thirty guilders 
in all. 1 

To the Council of State. (Feb. 27, 1615.) 
Letters and 

Requests to MY LORDS, As to what took place in the garrison here, 

of state. between Jacques Nering, a soldier in Colonel Brogh's company 

1 See p. 211. 



1615] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 279 

and Jan Davidts belonging to Captain Bredenrode^s, your 
Lordships may ascertain from the request, which, with a 
similar missive to his Excellency, I have caused to be forwarded 
to you. In which affair, on the first complaint made by 
Captain Lieutenant Majoribank, commanding the company of 
Colonel Brogh, proceedings were carried so far that it came 
before the Council of War here. But the said Captain Lieu- 
tenant, well seeing that the request was not to the advantage of 
his soldiers, requested that a fuller inquiry be made before pro- 
ceeding further, and also that meanwhile his wounded soldier 
be released in order to get himself cured of his several pitiable 
wounds and bruises ; which requests were both granted on con- 
dition that the said Captain Lieutenant would stand bail 
and promise to deliver into custody at any time his soldier 
aforesaid. Which promise the said Majoribank made, in 
the presence of a full meeting of the Council of War, and like- 
wise Captain Bredenrode made along with him the same 
promise, on behalf of his soldiers. 

Now whether any evil intention lurked under this I cannot 
say, except that what followed may well awaken suspicion ; 
if one considers what was afterwards committed on the 
person of Jan Davidts by the foresaid Jacques Nering as to 
which the foresaid inquiry will give your Lordships fuller infor- 
mation. And be it noted, the said Jan Nering has on account 
of that become a fugitive, the said Captain Lieutenant having 
become answerable for his person. And so (after previous 
consultation with some of the Lords of States here) I could 
not but inform you about this as it is a matter fraught with 
evil consequences. And I fear, as the said Majoribanks stated to 
me, that further troubles may arise between the two companies 
aforesaid. Therefore I request the advice and commands of 
your Lordships about this, how to guide myself further therein, 
both in regard to the said Jacques Nering and to Asbal Flack, 
who appears to have excited himself gambling, and on that 
account sits in prison, as is indeed noted in the foresaid 
request. With which I, etc. Your Hon. Mightinesses humble 
servant, TH. OGLE. 

Actum Utrecht, the 27th February 1615. 



280 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1615 

To the Potent Lords of the Council of State of the United 
Netherlands. 

Robert Baelze, sergeant of the company of Colonel Hender- 
son, begs most humbly to inform you, that he, the petitioner, 
has necessary matters of business to transact in England, of 

such a nature, that he has got leave from his for the 

period of the ensuing three months, in order to attend to his 
affairs ; therefore he humbly prays that your Lordships may 
be pleased to grant him leave of absence to England for the 
period of three months. 

To the Council of State. (June 19, 1615.) 

HIGH AND MIGHTY LORDS, Since my lords the states of Stadt 
en Landen, after the death of Captain Norman Bruce, appointed 
in his stead as captain the honourable and doughty George 
Coutts, and as yet have presented him with no formal commis- 
sion, or even administered to him the oath ; we beg therefore, 
in the most friendly way, that your High Mightinesses will 
order a regular commission to be drawn up, in favour of the 
said Captain Coutts, and administer to him the oath in order 
that this having been done, he may rejoin his company, as 
soon as possible. Herewith, etc. Your High Mightinesses 
good friends, THE DEPUTIES OF THE CITY OF 

GRONIKGEN AND SURROUNDING DISTRICTS. 

At Groningen, the 19th June 1615. 

Letter from the Scottish Privy Council. (Aug. 2, 1615.) 

ILLUSTRISS. GENERO. AMPLISS. DIGNISS. DOMINI, Georgius 
Bothvellus,centurionum unus Legionis Scoticae, apud vos,vestro 
commeatu, ac licentia, hue ad nos, non ita pridem, instructus 
redijt: negotiorum, ac rerum causa 111 ustris ac generosi Domini 
Joannis Bothvelli, fratris sui, Baronis Sanctae crucis, Senatoris, 
ac consiliarij Regni hujus nuper defuncti. Quia vero, illaipsa 
familia, resque, ac negotia, administratore altero ejusdem 
fratre, Francisco Bothvello, qui non ita pridem fato functus est, 
in discrimen ac periculum, ejus obitu, tale deducta sunt, ut 
non parvum familiae, nomini ac loco, quern ipse inter pares 



i6is] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 281 

Regni sustinuit, incommodum minitentur : nisi hoc unico 
fratre superstite supremo stirpis illius azylo refocillentur. 
Cujus etiam iudicio, instructione, ac testimonio, reliqui Regni 
Senatores, tarn gravissimarum quaestionum examinandarum, 
inter vasallos defuncti causa, quam restituendarum difficultatum 
ac disceptationibus forensibus, quae jam inter ipsos agitantur, 
non alio, quam illo assertore ac vindice uti decreverunt. 
Aequum nobis visum est, hisce literis intercessionis, proroga- 
tionem commeatus, a vobis concessi, ejus nomine, ab Illustris. 
Gener. Ampliss. Dignitatibus vestris enixe poscere. Vosque 
amice rogare, ut hanc Centurioni vestro a militia tantisper 
emorandi licentiam indulgeatis, ac tempus commeatus, in 
commodum ac conveniens aliquod rebus tantis peragendis (quae 
non nisi ipso praesente, ac assertore expediri possunt) spacium 
prorogetis. Quibus facile, et familiae suae, quae unice rebus 
vestris semper addicta fuit, et nobis, ac controversijs tarn 
intricatis dirimendis, provideatur. Quia vero Capitaneus ipse 
sub tessera, ac partitione stipendiaria, Illustrium Ordinum 
Hollandiae hactenus fuit, pariter obtestamur, ut harum 
literarum lectionis, ipsi Illustrissimi Hollandiae Ordines par- 
ticipes, nullum praejudicium, ex tarn legittimis emorandi 
ausis, ipsi, aut centuriae suae militibus, fieri patiantur. Rebus 
suis hie peractis (nisi vestrarum rerum graviora, repentinum 
quid suggerant, ut vestris monitorijs evocandus sit) cum nostris 
commendatitijs quasi rerum peracturum indicibus, ad vos, quam 
citissime fieri possit remeabit. Si qua vero in re parem, aut 
majorem benevolentiae significationem. Amplitudinibus 
vestris edere poterimus, id sedulo, et lubentissime praesti- 
turos nos, sancte pollicemur. Datum Edenburgi secundo die 
mensis Augusti Anno Dm 1615. 

Vestris Illustr. Gener. ac Ampliss. Dignitatibus addictissimi, 

DUNFERMELJUS CANCELL R . 

BINNING. 

Jo. PRESTOUN. 

ACKJBURN [sic]. 

ALEX. HAY. 

OLIPHANT. 

MURRAY. 

[Indorsed] : Illustriss. Genero. Ampliss. ac Digniss. Dominis 



282 



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 



[1616 



D. Confoederatarum Belgij 
nobis syncere dilectis. 



Provinciarum Ordinibus Amicis 



Resolutions 
of States- 
General. 



Letters and 
Bequests to 
the Council 
of State. 



Diplomatic 
Correspon- 
dence, 
England, 
1615-1617. 



1616, January 23. On the petition of Jacob Scott, a 
nobleman at present in the company of his Excellency Count 
Henry of Nassau, it is resolved to increase the petitioner's pay 
extraordinary of six guilders per month (so as to increase it), 
from this date to twelve guilders per month, in the place of 
John Atkinson, who died at Alkmaar before Christmas last, 
and who was sergeant of the company of Captain Cathcart. 

To the Council of State. (Feb. 6, 1616.) 

. . . Which muster I carried out with such diligence and 
care as was in any wise possible for me to do, in order to pre- 
vent any frauds which might operate against the interests of 
the country. And I found said companies in such condition 
and of such strength as your Lordships will learn from the 
said rolls. And in pursuance of your commission I passed 
none among the French, English and Scotch soldiers, except 
those belonging to their own respective nations ; at which the 
captains have bitterly complained, and requested me to state 
in a note, on the margin of the roll, how many Germans 
were present ; how long they had served ; and how much 
they were paid weekly. (Signed) VAN DER MULL. 

Recommendation by the King of the wife and the children of 
the late Colonel Edmond (1616). 

MESSIEURS ET COMPERES, Encores que ce soit chose superflue 
que de vous recomender les homes de bien ou de vous ramen- 
tevoir leurs bons services, mesmes apres tant de preuves de 
vostre bonne volonte envers toutes sortes des gens de vertu, si 
est ce que la bonne memoire du feu Colonel Edmond nous a 
donnee a cest^heure Toccasion de vous recomender sa femme et 
cnfantz. Et bien que nous nous asseurons que les merites de 
feu son mary et sa propre vertu soyent bastantz de la faire 
obtenir de vous chose quelleconque qui ne soit pas par trop 
desraisonnable, neantmoins nous vous avons bien voulu prie de 
la respecter et luy donner telle recompense pour le soulage- 



1617] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 283 

ment de soy et ses enfantz que vous donnez aux autres de sa 
reng et qualite. Ce que nous asseurantz que vous ferez et 
tant plus volontiers pour Famour de nous, Prions Dieu, 
Messieurs et comperes, vous tenir tousiours en sa saincte garde. 

Escripte a nostre palais de Grenewich le xxii [?] de May 161 [?]. 

[N.B. The date is obscure ; the year probably 1616.] 

To the States-General. 
MY LORDS, Since the widow of Captain Ramsay has re- Records of 
quested letters of attestation from us as to the conduct of her 
late husband, we are bound to declare that the said captain, 
during the years that he remained here in garrison, conducted 
himself very well, was honourable and burgherlike in his deal- 
ings, and maintained as good order and discipline in his com- 
pany as any of the captains of this garrison. Indeed his death 
was very much lamented by all the burghers and soldiers. 
Wherefore we are moved humbly to pray your High Mighti- 
nesses that the said widow and children may find grace and 
favour in your eyes, and that said children, being three sons 
and a daughter, may be reared for the service of the country, 
in order that they may follow the footsteps of such a brave 
and virtuous father, etc., 

BURGOMASTERS AND ALDERMEN OF THE CITY OF BREDA. 

Advice of the Council of State regarding a demand for increase 
of pay by Colonel Henderson. 

HIGH AND POWERFUL LORDS, . . . That Colonel Henderson 
insists on an increase of pay is doubtless more in order that he 
may not be paid less than another of the same standing, than 
that a company, and such good pay as three hundred guilders 
a month, should be considered too little. Therefore our 
opinion is (under correction) that it would be better, money 
being so scarce at present, to reduce the pay of the other 
colonels to three hundred guilders, rather than to increase the 
pay of the said Henderson to the level of the others, to, at 
least, four hundred guilders a month. So we advised your 
High Mightinesses in this matter on the 6th April 1613, 
though it pleased your High Mightinesses to do otherwise. 

The Hague, the 7th February 1617. 



284 



THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE 



[1617 



To the Council of State. (Oct. 17, 1617.) 

But certain companies are still mixed with many Germans. 
The French companies again begin to receive some people 
from France, but they are persons without experience, like 
those to be found among the recruits which the English and 
Scottish captains received. 

Moyens plus expedients pour le recouvrement de noz soldatz 

fugitifs. 
1618 [without date]. 

En premier son Ex ce donnera s'il luy plaist un Acte a 
chacun Colonel pour en vertu d'iceluy requerir du Commis- 
saire, fourier, ou aultre Officier de chacune ville qui prennent 
congnoissance des soldatz entretenuz entre les Compaignies 
de leur garnison, les noms des Anglois qui y auront este receuz 
depuis que Tarmee des Estatz a este en Campaigne. 

Et quTceluy Acte estant delivre par chacun Collonel a un 
ou plusieurs officiers de son Regiment pour faire recherche 
du leurs fugitifs, et iceulx estant trouvez en quelque ville ou 
lieu que ce soit, d'estre assistez des susdictz officiers et Magis- 
trats de la garnison pour les faire mettre en prison ou lieu de 
surete, en attendant la comodite de les faire mener en TArmee. 

Et d'aultant que la briefvete du temps requiert extreme 
diligence pour le renfort de noz trouppes, il seroit necessoire 
(sy son Ex ce Ta pour agreable) de faire delivrer a chacun 
Collonel plusieurs coppies du dit Acte, signees de sa main, 
pour employer en mesme temps plusieurs officiers en divers 
lieux, pour amener au iour nomme, s'il est possible tous les 
soldatz qui seront trouvez fugitifs. 

Representation by Colonel Sir William Brog. 

Requests to To THE HlGH MIGHTINESSES MY L.ORDS THE STATES-GENERAL 

states-General. OF THE UNITED NETHERLANDS. The faithful servant of your 
High Mightinesses, Sir William Brog, knight and colonel, 
hereby showeth with due reverence, that, according to mili- 
tary usages worthily observed in these Netherlands, all regi- 
ments were and still are provided with high officers, as 
colonel, lieutenant-colonel, sergeant-major, quartermaster and 
provost, as also was the case in the petitioner's regiment, 
some months ago now ; that by the death of the late Lieu- 



1618] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 285 

tenant-colonel Caddel his place has become vacant, and 
by the absence of Captain Gordon the post of sergeant- 
major is also vacant, and these two places, which are the 
highest and most important next to his own, ought justly 
by succession to pass to the two eldest captains in his said 
regiment, viz., Captain Allane Coutis and Captain Donald- 
sonne ; so that he, the petitioner, hopes that his regiment will 
not be held in less esteem by your High Mightinesses than the 
others, and the more for this reason, because it is the first and 
oldest regiment of foreign nationality in these Netherlands, 
and has also rendered so many notable and excellent services, 
as the chronicles show, and as are still fresh in the memory of 
everybody, and will continue certainly to be so till death. 
And considering that it is highly necessary for the service of 
the country that the said places should again be filled by good 
and able men of quality and experienced persons, who have a 
just claim to them, and have merited them by their services, 
in order that they may thereby be encouraged, and that all 
good discipline may be maintained for the benefit of the 
country, and that the order in the petitioner's regiment may 
be improved, therefore the petitioner turns to your High 
Mightinesses, praying and requesting very humbly that it may 
please you, in consideration of the reasons before adduced, 
graciously to command that the said Captain Coets [Coutis] 
may be promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and Captain Donald- 
sonne to sergeant-major, in the petitioner's regiment, which they 
will repay by faithful obedience unto death, and will always 
try to do their duty to the petitioner respectfully. By doing 
so, etc., SIR WILLIAM BROG. 

Petition on behalf of Sir William Brog, Knight and Colonel. 

As, on account of the large amount of public business, it 
has pleased your High Mightinesses only to examine and read, 
without deciding upon, the petition presented to your High 
Mightinesses by Sir William Brog, colonel, in which he requests 
that the two gentlemen, Captain Allane Coutis and Captain 
Donaldsone, may receive commissions for the posts of lieu- 
tenant-colonel and sergeant-major, in which they are daily 
employed, in order that they may discharge their duty with 



286 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1618 

more respect and authority ; and as he, the petitioner, earnestly 
hopes that his regiment, as being the oldest in the service of 
the country, will not be held in less esteem than any of the 
others. So he very humbly prays that it may please your 
High Mightinesses provisionally to dispose favourably of his 
request concerning the commissions, till the situation of affairs 
permit negotiations about their maintenance ; and that in the 
meantime all opportunities for serving the country may be 
taken advantage of in the best way. 

Memorial for Captain Andrew Donaldson. 

MY LORDS, Whereas on the earnest petition of Colonel Sir 
William Brog, regarding the disposal of the places of lieu- 
tenant-colonel and sergeant-major in his regiment, it pleased 
your Lordships to look up the State of War, where it was 
found that only the sergeant-major of the said regiment is 
known there, which post Captain Andre Donaldsonne, as due 
to him by succession, has already filled for some years, at very 
great costs, for the service of the country, without as yet 
having received authority or commission from you, although 
he has made applications for it, and the matter has until now 
been postponed. Therefore he prays again very humbly your 
Lordships to promote him, the petitioner, to the said post of 
sergeant-major; hoping to render such services to the country 
in that position, that they will receive every benefit and satis- 
faction therefrom. 

Petition of Captain James Seyton. 

To their High Mightinesses the States-General 

of the United Netherlands 

Captain James Seyton, lying in garrison at Utrecht, in 
the regiment of Colonel Brog, having served this country 
well and faithfully for the period of sixteen years, hereby 
showeth with all humility and respect, that he has learned 
that it pleased your Honours recently to grant a com- 
mission in favour of Captain Donaldson to hold the post 
and office of sergeant-major of the said regiment, notwith- 
standing his unfitness, for the said Donaldson had never pre- 
viously in his life before been a soldier, until at the close of 
the siege of Sluys he brought over to this country from 



i6i5] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 287 

England a company of infantry on his own responsibility 
(without having had any commission or command from your 
High Mightinesses, his Excellency, or any other) ; but, on the 
contrary, had been scraping a livelihood by mechanical traffic, 
as the sale of hosiery and suchlike wares, at Flushing and 
elsewhere, where the best markets were. And during all the 
time that he has held a commission as captain, he has never 
been face to face with the enemy nor been in action, except 
lately before the town and at the capture of Gulick ; which 
post aforesaid, and the office of major, should certainly (under 
correction) be required and demanded to be filled by an abler 
person, and one more practised or experienced in warfare 
and military affairs than the said Donaldson, and it was not 
in any way his due (I say nothing about some pecuniary con- 
ditions, which caused him to be recommended for the post 
by his aforesaid colonel) ; and because he never allowed the 
flag of any regiment to be carried in his company, except only 
since the siege of Gulick. So, on account of this the remon- 
strant, out of zeal for the service for the Land, has recourse to 
you, humbly praying and making request that it may please 
your High Mightinesses favourably to consider what has been 
stated, and to fill the said place with some able, fit, qualified 
and experienced soldier and officer. Not that the petitioner 
is ostentatiously offering himself for the appointment, but 
your High Mightinesses may be pleased, with the advice of 
his Excellency, to take such measures that the said regiment 
and the land may be well and properly served. Inasmuch as 
there are in said regiment enough brave, efficient and qualified 
persons available; by doing which, etc., J. SEYTONN. 

To their High Mightinesses the States- General 

of the United Netherlands 

Captain James Seyton, in the regiment of Colonel Brogh, 
hereby showeth with all humility and reverence, that he, 
the petitioner, having lately presented a petition regarding 
the post and office of sergeant-major in the said regiment, 
and being still concerned about it, by reason of the notable 
injury which is happening and may happen to the said 
regiment through the want of brave and experienced officers ; 



288 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1618 

therefore he, the petitioner, turns to your High Mightinesses, 
humbly praying and beseeching that it may please you to 
appoint to the said post (with the consent of his Excellency) 
a qualified, thoroughly experienced and brave person, to the 
end that the service of the country generally, and the com- 
mands of his Excellency regarding the said regiment, may be 
properly carried out and executed. By doing this, etc., 

J. SEYTON. 

To their High Mightinesses, the States-General 

of the United Netherlands. 

Your faithful and humble servant, Sir Robert Hindersoun, 
colonel of a regiment of Scottish Infantry, showeth with humility 
and reverence that he, the petitioner, having served in these 
Netherlands for the time of twenty-four consecutive years in 
one grade of service after another, was finally by the kind 
favour of your High Mightinesses promoted in January of the 
year 1612, with a commission to be colonel, in the place of the 
late Lord of Backluge, having also served since that time till 
February 5th of the year 1614, in the said position and also in 
that of lieutenant-colonel, without receiving any pay except 
only a compliment considerately presented by your High 
Mightinesses, with which also he, the petitioner, is satisfied. 
Thus, though the petitioner's predecessor in said office received 
monthly till his death the sum of five hundred Carolingian 
guilders, and though likewise every colonel of the English and 
Scottish nation in the Land's service earns no less monthly 
than four hundred Carolingian guilders, yet the petitioner 
himself from that date till now has received no more than three 
hundred Carolus guilders monthly. Wherefore, the petitioner 
also presented several petitions to your High Mightinesses, and 
humbly requested that it might please you to increase his pay 
by the said one hundred guilders per month, and thus to treat 
him with consideration as all the other colonels of his nation- 
ality are treated ; and on all these petitions, the last of which 
was presented more than six months ago, your High Mighti- 
nesses have come to no other decision than that the petitioner 
should have patience for some time still, which hitherto has 
been the case with him. Therefore he has recourse again to 



i6iS] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 289 

your High Mightinesses, praying and requesting very humbly 
that it may please you, in consideration of the reasons given 
and the continual kind considerateness always shown to all old 
and faithful servants of the country, to increase the petitioners 
pay as colonel by the said one hundred guilders per month, and 
he will try to repay such a favour with ever faithful service. 
Which doing, etc. R. HENIIYSOUN. 

To their High Mightinesses, the States- General of the 

United Netherlands. 

The faithful servant of your High Mightinesses, Sir Francis 
Hindersonne, showeth with respect and reverence that he, the 
petitioner, having petitioned to receive payment of the arrears 
of his salary as lieutenant-colonel, it pleased you to refer his 
petition to their Lordships, the Council of State of the United 
Netherlands, for their advice, which they, in the accom- 
panying closed missive, reserve for your High Mightinesses ; 
and although their Lordships in such cases usually give 
advice to the greatest advantage and profit of the country 
generally, they, apparently, according to the aforesaid advice 
are of opinion that he, the remonstrant, should for all his 
claims be content with a third part of them, or thereabouts. 
Therefore he, the petitioner, prays very humbly that it may 
please your High Mightinesses to consider the multifarious 
and long-continued solicitations made by him about this 
matter, and the great and excessive expenses incurred, and in 
addition that he, in fulfilling the duties of his office has, like 
others of a similar calling and profession who were in receipt 
of full pay, given his services diligently and faithfully, and 
therefore hopes from the considerateness and prudence of your 
High Mightinesses to receive no less pay than they, and the 
more so, inasmuch as the money of his, the petitioner's, arrears 
of salary, as well as the salaries of all the other officers of the 
said regiment have been handed over and paid in full by the 
States of Zeeland, into the hands of the Receiver Guil. 
Doublet. Therefore his humble prayer is that it may please 
your High Mightinesses kindly to see to it that he, the peti- 
tioner, in regard to the above-mentioned unsatisfied claims, 
may receive satisfaction and be paid, [he] being always willing 
to repay such a favour by loyal thankfulness. 



290 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1618 

[In the margin the following resolution is written :] 
It was ascertained from the clerk, Volbergen, what payments 
have been made to the petitioner by the States of Zeeland, 
and how much is still owing to him for his previous services. 
Actum March llth, 1618. 

Col. Fr. Henryson. 
1618 [without date.] x 

Petitions to MY LORDIS, I have resseived your 1. insinuation and per- 

the council seived thair by that your 1. ave bein hardlie informed and 
hichelie displesed about that infortunat maleur whitche 
against my intentione and to my great regreat is fallin out in 
my hand. I dout not bot your 1. hes had the ful relation 
theirof boithe frome my frendis and enemeis thair are sudjet 
avenche as it is hapned to miscon strew my intentione. I have 
no thing to my defence and to beir me witnes save my con- 
sience whitche is abil to defend me against al malitious and 
senistreous reports whitche kan or has bein giffin your 1. The 
fact I wil not excuse, seing it is hapned, bot my intentione to 
have done it as your 1. hes resseved informatione I will intrait 
you not to beleif, for as god sal beir me witnes and as I houp 
to be saved, I nether menit the father who is hurt nor the sone 
who is deid any harme tho it be most malleruslie fallin other- 
wayis. I confes I gave the fellow who is deid twa strokkis, bot 
far frome my intentiones to have takin his lyf, the on was efter 
he had confessit to me to have bein commandit by his master 
to have so natoraslie thrie tymes as he confessit himself have 
takin my lyf he promisit to go allong to me and justifie the 
and out the dor he brok almost away out of my 

hand. Thair upon I gave him with the pommel of my sword, 
upon what part of the heid I know not, bot if it hes protured 
his deithe, never man died of one les strok, the other strok 
whitche is set doune in the informatione hi did hing out his 
toung at al whitche is and was efter he had cuttit me in 

the schin with a glas fit him than to weil he was als weil 

by al appirance as ani man could be, if he be deid of thois 
strokkis, it is best knowne to god for as I sal answer to him I 
kan not beleif it, always it was far frome my intentione he 

1 The original is in English, and difficult to decipher. 



i6i8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 291 

should have died. I houp your 1. may easily forbidden if I 
had had any intentione to ave takin his lyf, I could have takin 
it in mane other fassione thein efter this kynd and seing that 
it is most malleruskie hapned to my extrem greif and kan not 
be amendit, I wil most ernestly intreat your 1. favoribil censur 
for the offence and oversycht I have comitted to your 1. and 
your justice, and think that it is only by ignorance that I have 
prosed it efter this fassione and not in contemp. I will most 
humblie intreat your 1. that what ever ordur it pleseis you to 
take with me that ye wil be pleased to pardone the soldier who 
hes no wyl at al and who in manie sundrie occasions has done 
your 1. good service sum of them 20, sum of them 30 yearis I 
wold have tune according to your directione bot I am nether 
weil nor hellger [?] and hes a greit manie affairis of my brothers 
children (who is leitly died) that I ... presently in hand with, 
so that I wil intreat your 1. favorabel permission. Intreatting 
most humblie your 1. favorabil censur of al I kis in humilty 
your 1. handis and sal as I have ever bein remayne, your 1. 
most humbel and obedient servant, (s.) FRANC. HENRYSON. 

[In February 1618, Sir Dudley Carleton wrote to Secretary 
Naunton that Sir Francis Henderson's pardon had been granted 
by the States, on Carleton's promise in conformity with his 
Majesty's express letter of October last, for which 'he had so 
well prepared the matter before, by the means of the Prince of 
Orange, that it could not well receive a denial, though it was 
subject to many main difficulties.'] 

Captain Scott's Representation. (Feb. 15, 1618.) 

MY LORDS, . . . There was handed to me on this day, 
llth of February, a certain copy of a suit, raised against me on 
the part of Isabella Moubray, soliciting a divorce, in respect of 
which your Lordships were pleased to order that eight days 
were to be given me to respond after the issue of the summons. 
But since, in absence of Captain Mackenzie, the command has 
been laid upon me, here in Hambach, to restrain the soldiers 
from all outbreaks and disorders, according to the decrees of 
your Lordships, and consequently, in his absence, it would be 
very bad in me to absent myself without commission from 
their Mightinesses. Therefore, with all due reverence, it is my 



292 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1618 

humble request that their Lordships will please to pay some 
little consideration to this, and arrest procedure in the case 
for a short time, till Captain Mackenzie shall have arrived 
here ; and I shall then immediately appear in person, and 
defend myself by word of mouth, and make remonstrance to 
their Lordships about the injustice and abuse which hitherto 
has been done me; not doubting their benevolence, and the 
righteous judgment which their Mightinesses shall administer 
to me. Herewith kissing their hands with all reverence, I 
remain meanwhile your Honourable Mightinesses obedient 
servant, ROBERT Scorr. 1 

Actum Hambach, 15th February 1618. 

Advice of the Council of State in the case of John Gordon. 

HIGH MIGHTINESSES, We do not know for what reasons ex- 
Captain Johan Gordon 2 was discharged with his company, 
since it happened by order of your High Mightinesses, who 
undoubtedly had reasons for it. 

On the strength of the old services, which he mentions in 
his petition as having been done in Brabant by his late father, 3 
he can make no claims on these united provinces, though it 
seems he mentions them, not with a view to receive any pay- 
ment for them here, but in order that your High Mightinesses 
may be the more inclined to dispose favourably of his request. 
And for the services rendered to these Lands by the petitioner, 
he has been fully paid, so that (under correction) it is our 
opinion, you knowing as well as we do how little the Govern- 
ment can bear to be burdened with new salaries, that the 
answer to be given to the petitioner's request be : ' Patience.' 
Nevertheless, submitting ourselves to the wise and prudent 
discretion of your High Mightinesses. 

The Hague, 17th February 1618. 

Actum. (May 26, 1618.) 
To their High Mightinesses the States-General of the 

United Netherlands. 
Alexander Balcanquall humbly showeth that he, the 

1 See pp. 64, 65, 298 ; also, 230, note 2. 

2 The company was dismissed in 1609. See pp. 236, 243, and 253. 

3 See p. 47. 



I6i8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 293 

petitioner, having come over to this country from Scot- 
land at the earnest request of the late Lord of Balclough, 
with him and his regiment, served in said regiment as 
surgeon for the space of over four years ; and thereafter, 
on the death of Mr. Robert Beton, formerly pensioned 
surgeon of the older Scotch regiment of the late Colonel 
Edmont, who departed this life about the year 1607, the 
petitioner has from that time till now acted and been employed 
as doctor and surgeon- general of both the Scottish regiments. 
And now, the said Lord of Balclough having recently left for 
Scotland, the petitioner, by his advice, does not neglect to 
request of your High Mightinesses ordinary pay, such as the 
said Mr. Robbert Beton received in his lifetime. Further, the 
petitioner was advised, in case his request should not be dis- 
posed of by your High Mightinesses, to let the matter rest till 
his said lord and colonel should have returned from Scotland ; 
while he, the petitioner, was, in consequence, biding his time, 
without pressing further the said request, the said Lord of 
Balclough in the meantime departed this life in Scotland ; 
whereby the petitioner's well-founded purpose has made no 
advance and been ineffective. 

And as it is known, and some of your High Mightinesses 
are very well aware, that the petitioner has for almost fifteen 
years consecutively served the country in the aforesaid capacity 
with fidelity, and that there has from the very beginning been 
no expedition or camp where the petitioner was not present 
provided with the necessary medicines, instruments and ser- 
vants, and all at his own expense, and without having received 
for it the smallest payment, either from the Land or from the 
captains of the said regiment, since the decease of the afore- 
said Lord of Balclough ; whereby he, the petitioner, finding 
that he has spent enough, and knowing of no means to make 
at this time any profit in this country, would like to return to 
his native country. Therefore he, the petitioner, requests very 
respectfully that it may please your High Mightinesses, in 
consideration of what has been stated, to grant the petitioner, 
for his long and faithful services, such a sum as, after customary 
deliberation, may seem to your High Mightinesses to be proper. 



294 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1618 

Request of Andrew Hunter. 

ILLUSTRISSIMIS POTENTISS. ET CONSULTISSIMIS D.D. DOMINIS 
ORDINIBUS GENERALIBUS UNITARUM PROVINCIARUM, Numerosa 
familia, labores mei in sacrosancto ministerio, passim in 
omnibus vestris provincijs, apud longe dissitas vestras scoticas 
centurias et non exiguae impensae factae in itineribus satis 
periculosis a me necessario susceptis versus Juliacenses trans- 
isulanos et eos qui in finibus Brabantiae et Cliviae morantur, 
me adeo urgent ut in extraordinario mini longum concesso 
stipendio vestrarum Illust ium opem implorare cogar. Peto 
idcirco obnixe ut decurrentis hujus anni (cuius pars una est 
elapsa, altera elabitur) stipendium ducentorum florenomm 
concedere dignemini. ANDREAS HONTERUS, 

Euangelij Jes. Christi Minister 
in Copijs Vestris Scoticis. 

[The Recorder of the States-General noted on the margin] 
Fiat continuatie van het advertissement van des suppl.'s tracte- 
ment. gelyck hij dat voor desen genoten heeft. Actum den 
xxvii July 1618. 

To the Council of State. (Nov. 6, 1618.) 

Letters and MY LORDS, I was a short time ago at Alckmaer on par- 

tiie Council ticular business, when I learned from trustworthy burghers, 
of State. that the lieutenant of Colonel Henderson, then in garrison, 

passed off a great number of 6 passevolenten ' l and inhabi- 
tants on half pay in his company; and the same was also 
told me by a soldier who formerly served under him. And 
even after he had left the service, the lieutenant requested 
him to pass as a ' passevolant,' at the last review. In short, 
it is true, that the majority of the burghers complained 
about it, and the lieutenant himself was frequently blamed, 
even in presence of the bailiff, for having held false mus- 
ters ; and I doubt not, that if he were taken unawares, with 
a muster extraordinary as it were, of which he should have no 
suspicion, there would certainly be an exposure, for I have 

1 Men hired for the inspection. 



i6i8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 295 

learned that it is too gross and extensive, and that he thus 
passes a considerable number. But I wished to inform your 
worships. Herewith etc., your Worships 1 obedient servant, 

FLORES SEROOSKERCKE. 
Tholen, 6 November 1618. 



To their High Mightinesses, the States-General of the 
United Netherlands. 

Bentgen Jansz, sorrowing widow of Captain Wilhem Mon- Records of 
cryff, 1 Scotsman, humbly showeth, that as her late husband Ge^ral. 
served this country for many years and lately departed this 
life in the service of the country, having been wounded at the 
Couwensteyn Dyke, leaving her at the age of nearly seventy- 
one years without livelihood, except from the generosity of 
your High Mightinesses, which she has received annually out 
of commiseration, and for which she must thank your High 
Mightinesses, and whereas she never troubles you on other 
occasions, except in the greatest need and at the most pressing 
times, being also past the set limit of lifetime, therefore she 
prays you in her old age, poverty, illness, and distress, in this 
hard winter, to consider her desolation, to take into favourable 
consideration her husband's services, and accordingly as you 
deem best, to give her generous assistance to maintain her this 
winter that she perish not in her old days on the streets. And 
by your doing so, she will ever feel bound to pray for the 
prosperity of the rule of your High Mightinesses and the 
unity of the good inhabitants. 

[In the margin is written :] ' Let the last resolution taken 
regarding the previous request of the petitioner be first looked 
into. Actum 17th November 1618. 

To the Council of State. (Oct. 81, 1618.) 

MY LORDS, Your lordships 1 letters of 30th inst., new style, Letters and 
with the annexed request of Lieutenant Livingston, having t 
been handed to us, we summoned before us the following of state, 
creditors of said lieutenant, and directed their attention to the 

1 See p. 46. 



296 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE [1618 

offer made by him in the said request. And on the part of the 
same begged them to rest satisfied therewith. Whereupon the 
widow of the late Dirck van Kattenborch, to whom he is 
indebted forty-eight guilders, also the man Van Oerken Segers 
of the Heringbuijs, to whom he owes a like sum of forty-eight 
guilders, and Wilhem van Kattenborch, to whom he is indebted 
twenty-six guilders, all declared, avowed, and answered, that 
they would accept the said offer, provided Captain Sir Henry 
Livingston, brother of the said lieutenant, shall guarantee and 
be security for payment in full. Item. Floris van Riemsdyck 
in regard to his arrears, amounting to the sum of two hundred 
and fifty three guilders ten stuivers declared that he held the 
promissory notes and bond of the said captain's wife. And 
Beel the brewer said, that the said captain had made her a 
promise for the amount due to her of one hundred and three 
guilders, and had signed for it in her account-book, and both 
of them wished to abide by that. In regard to the man and 
the house rent, with a claim according to the foresaid 
request amounting to fifty-seven guilders, he does not live in 
the town, but under the jurisdiction of the Maas and Waal, 
and we spoke to his brother Wilhem van Freycamp about 
it, who declares that he will invite his brother to come 
us with his answer. Also Johan van Kattenborch appeared 
before us, to whom the said lieutenant owes the sum of three 
guilders four stuivers, and like the first three creditors aforesaid, 
declared that he was satisfied. All of which we mention to 
your Hon. Mightinesses also as a more complete reply, respect- 
ing the rearrangement of the request aforesaid. 

BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN AND THE COUNCIL 

OF THE TOWN OF TlJEL. 

31st October 1618. 

To the Council of State. (Nov. 27, 1618.) 

My LORDS, We cannot in the first place omit to mention 
in regard to your Lordships repeated writings of 21st inst., new 
style, with the request again presented to you by Lieutenant 
James Livingston, brother of Captain Sir Henry Livingston, 
that we have summoned before us and exhorted to our utmost 
the creditors of the said lieutenant, mentioned in his previous 



1618] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 297 

request presented to your Lordships and forwarded to us, to 
rest satisfied with the offer of payment made to them. Where- 
upon Floris van Riemsdyck, mentioned in our last, declared 
that not only he himself, but also the others refused to accept 
the offer, for reasons stated in our foregoing rescript, addressed 
to your Lordships (which the foresaid lieutenant neither con- 
ceived nor directed). To-day we have once more summoned 
before us and exhorted the said Riemsdyck, and besought him 
to rest satisfied with the offer made by the foresaid lieutenant. 
And with that end in view, strongly urged him to weigh well 
the reasons mentioned in your Lordships last writings. On 
which the said Reimsdyck answered, and expressly declared, 
that he would have no dealings with the said lieutenant, but 
on the contrary since said captain's wife had granted him a 
certain bond for goods received, he would have recourse to the 
law, and bring said captain before the court of this town. After 
hearing his answer, sentence was pronounced, an extract of 
which is annexed. To this he wished to adhere, trusting also 
to be upheld therein, according to the bounden duty of the 
judges. And if the said Captain Livingston considered him- 
self oppressed thereby, he could have his appeal according to 
the laws of this town. Thus we could not induce the said 
Floris van Riemsdyck to agree to the request of your Lord- 
ships. He said also that it did not concern him when and 
where the said lieutenant came by his sickness and maiming, 
except to remember well that when he came into garrison here 
he was whole. And in this we have done nothing further, and 
we know not what to do, nor can we do anything, etc. 

BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN, AND COUNCIL 
OF THE CITY TIJEL. 



COPY. 

Extract from the Foreigners' Case. The Signets 
ofTijel 

The Court, in view of the representation or complaint of 
Floris van Riemsdyck, handed over, along with the bond in 
favour of the pursuer, on the one side, and on the other side 



298 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1618 

the answer of Henry Livingston, knight and captain, defender. 
After weighing properly the contents of these documents, as also 
the power of attorney, given by the said Livingston on the 4th 
February in favour of his wife, who acknowledges the foresaid 
bond ; do condemn the said defender to lay down and pay to 
the said pursuer, within the period of three weeks, the two 
hundred and fifty-three guilders ten stuivers mentioned in the 
foresaid bond, with the costs of the action, in terms of the 
verdict, by right of authority. 

Actum 31st October 1618. 

(Feb. 14, 1619.) 

MY LORDS, Captain Robert Scott in garrison at Hambach 
has come to me with the complaint that your Lordships 
summoned him to the Hague for the disposal of the suit 
against him. Now since the said captain, as the senior among 
the Scottish soldiers here, is in command of the garrison, and 
sometimes certain disorders and disputes arise, so that his 
presence among the soldiers of his nation is necessary, I 
hereby submissively entreat your Lordships to be graciously 
pleased to inquire into the circumstances of his charge, and 
therein make such good provision that he may be despatched 
soon and again returned hither to command and maintain due 
order among the people of the Scottish nation, and to 
command. . . . (Signed) FIUD PITH AX. 

In the Castle of Gulick, 14th February 1619. 



(Feb. -i-f 1619.) 

MY LORDS, It has been reported to me by John Law, 
soldier, belonging to the company of General Cecyl, by way of 
complaint, that the lieutenant commanding the company gave 
the said soldier his leave, and against his desire handed him 
his passport because of this, that said soldier was struck in the 
face by God Almighty, and the lieutenant heard that he was 
declaring so. And since, through the testimony of officers, I 
have ascertained that the said soldier has long and faith- 
fully served the country both in Ostend, Flanders, and 



1619] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 299 

elsewhere and has served latterly seven or eight years in the 
company of the said Mr. Cecyl, I hereby object to the dismissal 
of the said soldier, and to hunting him out of the country. 
I have therefore thought good to inform your Lordships 
regarding this affair, with the request that you may be pleased 
to write to me, stating what course I shall take in the matter. 

Your Worshipful Mightinesses' obedient servant, 

(Signed) JACOB CROESSEN. 

Utrecht, this if February 1619. 

(March 19, 1619.) 

MY LORDS, Since the magistrate of the city of Thijel, etc., 
handed to us a certain missive, with a copy of the request of 
Thomas Brussen and Jacques Stuart, forwarded to us by your 
Lordships, wherein they as petitioners made known, and 
declared what they knew, regarding the murder committed 
by Sergeant Geddi on the person of Jan Brusson. So we 
could not do otherwise than inform you that we have used all 
proper means in order to obtain evidence. Of which evidence 
we immediately granted a copy to the petitioners. Then we 
also notice from the request that they have not shown the said 
copy, and have grievously accused some soldiers, who had been 
present at the fight, and on whom they desire to have justice 
and judgment administered, whilst we cannot discover that 
these soldiers had any hand in the deed. Therefore we feel 
bound to forward hereby the said evidence to your Worshipful 
Mightiness in order that your worships may thereby be able to 
perceive the real state of the case. Which having seen, we 
expect the advice and commands of your Lordships as to what 
we shall have to do further in the matter. Praying, etc. 

THE GOVERNOR AND COURT-MARTIAL, CONVENED IN TIJEL. 

(March 19, 1619.) 

Evidence taken in the case of the murder committed by 
N. Geddi, sergeant, belonging to the company of Sir Francois 
Henderson, Kt., etc., on the 3rd February 1619, in the 
chamber of the redoubt on the person of Jan Bruessen. 

Elsken the wife of Antonis Dirck, living in the redoubt, 



300 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1619 

on being heard, declared on oath that she saw that Sergeant 
Geddi wishing to go home about eventide, had had some 
words with Jan Bruessen, soldier, belonging to the company of 
Sir Henry Livingston, and that the words c thou liest' were 
spoken, though she knew not who uttered them. Hereupon 
the said Jan Bruessen struck the said sergeant in the face. 
On which the sergeant seized the chamberpot, and threatened 
to strike with it. Then as she the witness prevented him from 
doing so, the sergeant felt for his rapier, drew it, and ran 
at Jan Bruessen. After which she, witness, noticed that the 
said Jan Bruessen was wounded in the body, from which 
wound he died during the night, between the 3rd and 4th day 
of February 1619. But the witness declared that she did not 
observe in what manner the wound was made. This was 
signed with the following mark + 

Andrew Grant, corporal under Captain Henderson, declared 
that on the 3rd of February 1619 he sat on the redoubt with 
Jan Bruessen, above the town of Tijel; and as the company 
were about to separate, some words passed between Sergeant 
Geddi and Jan Bruessen the deceased about betting, running, 
and shooting; and that they had a dispute about the two 
pounds of the bet that was arranged. After which he the 
witness saw that Jan Bruessen the deceased, with hot words, 
struck Sergeant Geddi in the face ; and after this happened 
then Geddi and Jan Bruessen shook hands, but I know not on 
what terms. And on separating, Sergeant Geddi unsheathed 
his rapier and stabbed the deceased, but he the witness did not 
observe how the wound was made. He the witness declared 
that he knew nothing more about the wound, and he signed 
his declaration with the following mark A. 

John Watson, soldier in the company of Sir Francois Hen- 
derson, declared, that he, witness, sat on the redoubt drink- 
ing with other soldiers, on the 3rd February 1619, and that 
in the company there remarks were made about leaping by 
Sergeant Geddi and Jan Bruessen. And finally there was a bet 
between them for two tuns of beer, as to who should be first in 
a foot race to Nimmegen. For which Jan Bruessen pledged his 
coat, desiring that Geddi likewise should give his mantle in 
pawn ; who immediately ran to Sergeant Fressell and brought 



1619] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 301 

his mantle, saying there is my pledge. Whereupon Jan Bruessen 
said, that is not your mantle, I wish to have your mantle, you 
are not worthy to carry such a mantle. Which conversation 
being ended, remarks were afterwards again made about the same 
bet and the mantle, which Geddi would have given in pledge, of 
such a nature that Jan Bruessen, after some passing words, again 
said, you are not worthy of such a mantle. After which he, 
witness, saw that Jan Bruessen struck Sergeant Geddi on the 
left cheek, but he could not make a pertinent declaration as to 
the reasons. He, witness, also declared that he saw the said 
Geddi with his rapier under his arm, which he unsheathed, 
and struck with it towards Jan Bruessen ; but he, witness, did 
not observe in what direction the stab was made, and the above 
was signed with the following mark M I. 

John Mueleman, Cadet, declared, that he along with other 
soldiers sat on the redoubt above the town Tijel, on the 3rd 
February ult., where there were present among others Sergeant 
Geddi, and Jan Bruessen, soldier, under Sir Henry Livingston, 
Knight, etc., between which two persons words were exchanged 
about betting. And finally a bet was made between the two 
for the sum of two pounds, as to who should gain a foot-race 
to Nimmegen. For which bet Jan Bruessen pledged his coat, 
which he undid from his person, asking Sergeant Geddi that 
he in like manner would pledge his mantle. And as Sergeant 
Geddi had no mantle by him, he, witness, declared that he had 
seen the said Geddi go to Sergeant Fressel and request from 
him his mantle, which Fressel handed to him. And as Geddi 
offered to pledge it against the coat, Jan Bruessen would not 
receive it, saying, it is your comrade's mantle, I will have your 
own mantle. After which he, witness, saw that Jan Bruessen 
gave the said Geddi a slap on the cheek, and forthwith 
Bruessen immediately ran to the gun, which lay on the bed in 
the room. And he, witness, saw that Sergeant Geddi immedi- 
ately on receiving the slap drew his rapier and passed him 
the witness, going towards Jan Bruessen with a naked rapier. 
Thereafter he, witness, heard that Jan Bruessen was wounded, 
but he, witness, did not see how he came by the wound. 

Piere La Rame, soldier in the company of Mr. Brichenau, 
capt., declared that he, witness, was on the redoubt above 



302 THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE [1619 

the city Tijel on the 3rd February 1619, when among others 
sat Sergeant Geddi and Jan Bruessen, that the last named 
Jan Bruessen slapped the said Geddi, and Sergeant Geddi 
immediately drew his rapier and stabbed Jan Bruessen, 
through which he died during the night. He, witness, declared 
that he knew not out of what the dispute arose. 

Thus done and sworn in the Assembly of the Court Martial 
at Tijel on the 8th February 1619, by me the Auditor, 

(Signed) JOHAN DIEREN. 



Recommendation by the Council of Scotland of Margaret Hamil- 
ton^ daughter of the late Captain John Hamilton. (1620.) 

TRES-HAUTS ET TRES-ILLUSTRES SEIGNEURS, Le Capitaine Jean 
Hamilton, qui vous a fidelement servi plus de quarante ans en 
vos guerres, estant depuis peu de jours mort, sans laisser 
aucuns enfans legitimes en vie excepte Damoiselle Marguerite 
Hamilton, sa fille unique, qui pour recouvrer la succession de 
son feu pere allant aux pai's de vostre obeissance, nous a supplie 
de la recommander a vos Seig ries afin que par vostre juste 
faveur elle puisse obtenir la possession et paisible jouissance 
des biens appartenans a son feu pere et recouvrer payement de 
ses debtes et descomptes. Et si la malice des parties interessees 
la contraint d'entrer en proces pour ses legitimes affaires et 
actions, qull plaise a vos Seig nes de commander que bonne et 
brieve justice luy soit faicte. Encore que soyons asseurez que 
requite de sa requeste soit suffisante pour impetrer de voz Seig ries 
ce que ne refusez a personne, ayant recours a vostre j ustice. Ne- 
antmoins le respect que nous portons a beaucoup de gens de bien 
et d'honneur en ce Royaume, ausquels lad. damoiselle appar- 
tient, nous a induit a vous supplier bien affectueusement de la 
proteger et favoriser en toutes ses bonnes affaires et actions, et 
la recommander aux Magistrats et autres ayans jurisdiction et 
charge es lieux ou les biens de son pere seront trouvez, Afin que 
par leur faveur equitable, elle puisse obtenir bonne et brief ve 
depesche de ses affaires. Ce que nous obligera de continuer ou 
plustost augmenter envers les subjects de vos Seigneuries, ayans 
affaire par deca, la bienveillance que de tout temps nous leur 
avons monstre a toutes bonnes occasions, selon Festroite amitie 



1 620] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 

que vous porte nostre treshonore Seigneur et Roy, et le devoir 
et respect des tresassurez et bien humbles amis de vos tres- 
illustres Seig ries pour vous servir. 

Le Chancelier et Conseillers de sa Majeste au Conseil 
et Estat de son Royaume d'Escosse. 



DUNFERMLIN. 


MAR. 


Cancell. 


SANCTANDREW 




JA. GLASGOW. 


WlNTOUN. 


LOTHIOME. 


WlGTOUNS. 


MELROS. 


ARSKYNE. 





Lislebourg, ce premier jour de Fevrier 1620. 



DIVISION III 
THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 

1621-1648 



THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 307 



INTRODUCTORY 

' THE gold and treasure of the Indies,' wrote Sir Thomas 
Urquhart of Cromarty, ' not being able to purchase all the 
affections of Scotland to the furtherance of Castilian designs, 
there have been of late several Scottish colonels under the 
command of the Prince of Orange in opposition of the Spa- 
gniard, viz., Colonel Edmond, who took the valiant Count de 
Buccoy twice prisoner in the field; Sir Henry Balfour, Sir 
David Balfour, Colonel Brog, who took a Spanish general in 
the field upon the head of his army ; Sir Francis Henderson, 
Colonel Scot, Earl of Bucliugh, Sir James Livistoun, now Earl 
of Callendar, and lately in these our turmoyles at home, lieu- 
tenant-general of both horse and foot ; besides a great many 
other worthy colonels, amongst which I will only commemorate 
one Colonel Dowglas, who to the States of Holland was often 
serviceable in discharging the office and duty of general 
engineer.' Of the worthy colonels specified by the Knight of 
Cromarty, some had closed their service by honourable deaths 
in the preceding war, and the others were to be equally illus- 
trious in the long struggle which recommenced in 1621. 

When hostilities were resumed, the Scottish Infantry con- 
sisted of two regiments, the old one under Sir William Brog, 
and Lord Buccleuch's, to the command of which Sir Robert 
Henderson had succeeded. The son of Lord Buccleuch, 
Walter Scott, created Earl of Buccleuch in 1619, had obtained 
an ' Act Expectative ' from the States- General in 1615, pro- 
mising him the command of the first regiment that should fall 
vacant, or of any new one that might be formed. When, how- 
ever, Sir Robert Henderson died in 1622, Prince Maurice 
insisted upon the command passing to his brother, Sir Francis, 
the lieutenant-colonel, and when Sir Francis died in 1628, the 
condition of affairs in the field was such that Prince Frederick 



308 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR 

Henry, who regarded the Scottish troops in his own famous 
phrase as ' the Bulwark of the Republic,' again thought it 
inadvisable to pass over the experienced lieutenant-colonels, in 
favour of a nobleman from Britain, who, however brave, had not 
yet had practical training in Low Country campaigning. The 
States-General therefore resolved to divide the two regiments 
into three. Sir John Halkett was promptly appointed to 
succeed Sir Francis Henderson, with Sir David Balfour as his 
lieutenant-colonel, and Archibald Bethune as his sergeant-major, 
while the Earl of Buccleuch was in 1629 given the command of 
the newly organised third regiment, with Sir William Balfour as 
lieutenant-colonel, and George Coutts as sergeant-major. In 
a very short time, however, there was a considerable change in 
the personnel of the field officers. Halkett was killed at Bois- 
le-Duc, and succeeded by Sir David Balfour. Sir William 
Balfour left the service of the States, and was succeeded by 
George Coutts, who received promotion, and the Earl of Buc- 
cleuch having died in 1633, the higher officers of the three 
regiments in 1634 were : 

1. Colonel, Sir William Brog ; lieutenant-colonel, Sir James 

Sandilands (in succession to Allan Coutts) ; sergeant- 
major, James Erskine. 

2. Colonel, Sir David Balfour; lieutenant-colonel, James 

Henderson ; sergeant-major, Archibald Douglas. 

3. Colonel, Sir James Livingstone, Lord Almond (formerly 

lieutenant-colonel of Sir David Balfour's regiment) ; 

lieutenant-colonel, George Coutts; sergeant-major, Sir 

Philip Balfour. 

It will be convenient, therefore, to refer to the three regi- 
ments for purposes of identification as Sir William Brog's (or 
Sir Henry Balfour's and Brog's) old regiment, Lord Buccleuch's 
regiment, and Lord Almond's regiment, it being remembered 
that the Earl of Buccleuch was the first colonel of the third 
regiment, and was succeeded by Lord Almond. 

In August 1621 the war was resumed, and Spinola promptly 
laid siege to Juliers, which surrendered in February 1622. 
The Dutch camp at Emmerick was surprised one night by the 
Spaniards, and among the prisoners taken was ' Sir William 
Balfour, a Scoche man whoe is returned upon his ransom.' 



INTRODUCTORY 309 

The army of the Estates was formed in three brigades, the 
first under the Prince of Orange, consisting of English and 
Dutch ; the second under Count Henry of Nassau, of Walloons 
and French, and the third under Count Ernest of Nassau, of 
Dutch and Scotch. ' They (the Dutch),' remarks an English 
observer, ' mingle and blend the Scottish among them, which 
are like Beans and Peas among chaff. These (the Scots) are 
sure men, hardy and resolute, and their example holds up the 
Dutch.' l 

Concealing his intentions by a feint on the borders of Cleves, 
Spinola sent Velasco to seize Steenbergen, and following with 
the mass of his army laid strenuous siege to Bergen-op-Zoom. 
But the fall of Steenbergen having unveiled his intentions, 
Prince Maurice sent Colonel Sir Robert Henderson with a con- 
siderable body of troops to reinforce and command the garrison. 
A gallant defence was made. ' Colonel Henderson, 1 says the 
English eyewitness, ' being a discreet and valiant gentleman, 
conferred with General Cecil, who was his great friend and his 
general at Gulick. 1 In one great sally of three or four 
thousand men, the English and Scots had the van, the Dutch 
the battle, and the French the rear, and Colonel Henderson 
was subsequently killed ' in a terrible fight which lasted a night 
and a whole morning.' 

' I will say nothing," 1 says the chronicler of the siege, * in 
commendation of Colonel Henderson ; his own actions commend 
him in the highest degree, for he stood all the fight in as great 
danger as any common soldier, still encouraging, directing, 
and acting with his Pike in his hand. At length he was shot 
in the thigh : he received his wound at the front, or, as most 
say, being over earnest he stepped into his enemy's trenches. 2 
So he was nothing but spirit and courage. He shewed it 
chiefly in his devotion, and in his earnest calling upon God in 



1 Account of siege and relief of Bergen-op-Zoom, 1622, by an English eye- 
witness, in Royal MSS. Dalton's Cecil. 

In 1624 * Colonel Sir Andrew Gray, and one, Ramsay, were spoken of to 
command Scots regiments for the Palatinate.' 

2 In the Memoirs of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, it is stated that 
'entre autres le Coronel Henderson fut blesse dont il mourut peu de temps 
apres combattant valeureusement a la deffence d'un ouvrage qu'il avoit commence, 
que 1'ennemi ne put emporter, quelque effort qu'il fist. 5 



310 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR 

his time of sickness, and he was so willing to die that he made 
but a recreation of it, for after he had received the Sacrament 
he remembered his friends very cheerfully, and being extremely 
hot, he asked his physician [for leave] to drink some water ; so 
his Physician, seeing he was but a dead man, let him have his 
will. He drank five healths ; the first was to the King, the 
second to the Prince, the third to the Queen of Bohemia, the 
fourth to the Prince of Orange, and the last to the Earl of 
Marre. When he had done he desired his brother to thrust 
him down into his bed, and so took his leave of this miserable 
life/ 

On the 2nd October Spinola reluctantly raised the siege, 
having lost 10,000 men, and the reduction of Fort Papenmuitz 
on the western frontier was but a small success to set against 
so great a failure. 

In 1624, Spinola laid siege to Breda. The Scots and Dutch 
are recorded as having held the Antwerp Gate. The defence 
was gallant, but unsuccessful, and the fall of the place hastened 
the death of Prince Maurice. His mantle fell upon his brother, 
Prince Frederick Henry, born a few months before the murder 
of their father, William the Silent. In 1626, the Dutch took 
Oldenzeel, after a siege of eight days, 1 and in July 1627, Prince 
Frederick Henry laid siege to Groll, on the confines of Zutphen. 
Before the lines of the besiegers were finished, they were 
furiously attacked by the enemy in an attempt to relieve the 
place, but after a sharp action ' the Spaniards were at length 
repulsed by some companies of Scots who were there on guard.' 2 
Sergeant-major Drummond of the Scots was killed before the 
city, 3 which surrendered after a siege of one month. 

In 1628 Spinola was recalled, and Prince Frederick Henry 
began a series of triumphs. 4 On the 30th of April 1629, he 



1 The notes of promotion in succession to officers ' deceased ' supply some 
indication, although not in all cases a reliable one, of the losses in the field. In 
1623, Captain Home ; in 1625, Captain William Hudson, and in 1626, Captains 
Mowbray and Sir Henry Livingstone had their places filled upon their decease. 

2 ' Historical Account,' Memoirs of Prince Frederick Henry. 

8 The death-roll of 1627 also included Captains Scott, Donaldson, and Sir 
Walter Bruce. 
4 Colonel Sir Francis Henderson died, or was killed, in 1628. 



INTRODUCTORY 311 

laid siege to Bois-le-Duc, a famous fortress, and the capital of 
North Brabant, the three Scots regiments forming part of his 
army when assembled on the heath of Mook, and their conduct 
in that famous siege, where Sir John Halkett, one of the 
colonels, was killed, 1 was such that the Prince of Orange 
publicly described them as the ' Bulwark of the Republic,' and 
ever afterwards c shewed them many marks of his favour and 
esteem.' In the month of June Count Ernest Casimir, lately 
reinforced by two thousand Scots, carried on his trenches 
against the Horn-work before the gate leading to Hintem. A 
formidable irruption of strong Spanish forces into the Betuwe, 
to cope with which the Prince had to detach a large part of his 
force, under Count Ernest, including the new Scottish regiment 
of Lord Hay of Kinfauns, temporarily taken into service, was, 
however, checked by the surprise of Wesel, where their maga- 
zines and stores were, by the garrison of Emmerick ; and the 
result of this stroke, and the jealousies between the Spanish 
leaders, and those of the Imperial army under Montecuculi, was 
that the efforts of an army of fifty thousand men were rendered 
fruitless, and the city being reduced to a two days' supply of 
gunpowder surrendered on 14th September on honourable 
terms. The siege took rank with those of Ostend, Breda, and 
Rochelle among the military achievements of the age ; and 
Prince Frederick Henry was henceforth regarded as equal in 
conduct and courage to his father, William the Silent, and his 
brother, Prince Maurice. A fourth Scottish regiment, that of 
the Earl of Morton, commanded by Lord Kinfauns, was tem- 
porarily employed for five months during this campaign. 2 

The Dutch were also successful on the Lower Rhine ; in the 
following year in the country of Juliers, and in various 
encounters in 1631. 3 In 1632, an alliance having been con- 
cluded between the States and Gustavus Adolphus, then in the 



1 There also fell in 1629, Sergeant- Major Archibald Bethune, Lieut. - 
Colonel James Haddon, and Captain William Douglas, an officer of inventive 
genius. See pp. 358-368. 

2 See pp. 396-405. 

3 In 1630, Captain Kinninmond, and in 1631, Lieut. -Colonel Allan 
Coutts, Captain Bellenden, and Captain Brock were succeeded upon their 
decease. 



312 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 

midst of that career of victory in Germany, which owed so 
much of its success to the hardy valour of his Scottish brigades, 
Prince Frederick Henry made another great effort to per- 
manently increase the dominions of the United Provinces. 
Venlo, Stralen, and Ruremonde successively surrendered, and 
on the 10th of June he invested Maestricht, the three Scots 
regiments forming part of his army. In vain did the fiery 
Pappenheim, at the head of an Imperial army, again and again 
assault the besiegers 1 lines, in the attempt to relieve the place, 
and in vain did the besieged make furious sallies, in repelling 
which gallant English lives were lost. The city surrendered 
on 2nd August, and its fall was followed by those of Limburg, 
and of Orsoy. Rheinberg also fell in the following year, 
one of the two approaches having been intrusted to the 
English and Scots, and the other to the French, Germans, 
Walloons, and Dutch. In the campaign of 1635, in which a 
French army co-operated with the Dutch, the Scots troops 
formed the vanguard, and the left next to the cavalry when 
encamped before Louvain, the Germans being in the centre, 
and the English on the right or in the rear. The combined 
forces, however, failed to reduce Louvain. The Fort of Schenck 
was taken by the Spaniards, and the only successes were the cap- 
ture of several small towns. The Fort of Schenck was recovered 
in the following spring. In 1637 the Prince of Orange laid 
formal siege to Breda, which in spite of frequent sallies was 
forced to surrender on 6th October, the garrison receiving the 
same terms as had been granted by Spinola twelve years 
before. 2 

In 1638 the Scots Brigade experienced the greatest disaster 
they had suffered since the morning on which so many brave 
men fell on the Flemish Downs. Groll, Hertogen-Bosch, and 
Maestricht had in succession fallen before Prince Frederick 



1 Captain Elphinstone is noted as dead in 1632, and Sergeant- Major M. 
Hamilton in 1632. 

a In 1635 Captain Patrick and Captain William Brog, in 1636 Colonel Sir 
William Brog, and Captain Marjoribanks, and in 1637 Lieut. -Colonel George 
Coutts and Captain Williamson were succeeded upon their decease. 

The position of the three Scots regiments (Balfour's, Sandilands', and 
Almond's) at the siege of Breda, under Count William of Nassau, was at La Hage, 
a village on the Antwerp road. 



INTRODUCTORY 313 

Henry's victorious arms, and he burned to crown his triumphs 
by the capture of Antwerp. It was necessary to get posses- 
sion of the Flanders side of the Scheldt to prevent the enemy 
succouring the city, and the plan adjudged most practicable, 
though very difficult, was to pass through the inundations of 
the island of Doel to the dike of Fort Calloo. The Prince 
ordered Count William of Nassau, with six thousand men, on 
this expedition. The troops selected were ' part of the three 
Scots regiments of Balfour, Sandilands, and Hammond (Lord 
Almond), of the three German regiments of Count Henry, of 
Eerenruyter, and his own, a Walloon regiment, and two national 
Dutch, those of Brederode and North Holland, with six half 
cannons and twelve field pieces. 1 1 

Count William met with greater difficulties than were 
expected, the water of the inundations being much deeper 
than had been represented, and the bottom almost a mire. 
These inundations had to be waded through for six or 
seven miles before Fort Calloo was reached, ' but the soldiers 
having overcome all these difficulties by their labour, patience, 
and valour, the fort was taken.' The Spaniards, however, 
collected a strong army of twenty thousand men, among whose 
chiefs was the famous Piccolomini, who attacked the Dutch in 
their lines in five places at once, on the 20th of June. The 
Spaniards were repulsed after an engagement of eleven hours, 
eighteen hundred of their troops and five hundred of the Dutch 
being killed. Before, however, reinforcements sent by the 
Prince of Orange could arrive, the Spaniards renewed the fight, 
and took some forts which covered the Dutch lines. ' Count 
William, not thinking himself any longer in a condition to 
maintain his ground, retreated in the night-time, the 22nd of 
June, in order to rejoin the Prince of Orange on the side of 
the Schelde, but was charged so furiously by the Spaniards 
that the Scotch, who marched in the rear, were for the most 
part cut off, which caused such a consternation in the whole 
army that they retired in great confusion, and with so much 
precipitation that many, who could not soon enough get 
aboard the ships, were drowned in the river.' The Dutch lost 



1 Memoirs of Prince Frederick Henry, ' Hist. Acct.,' Hist, of Holland. 



314 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 

fifteen hundred killed and drowned, and twenty-two hundred 
taken prisoners, 1 and the Scots captives, consisting of four 
officers and six hundred soldiers, were sent to the Fort of Lillo. 

A sharp but indecisive action subsequently took place near 
Bergen-op-Zoom, where the Prince of Orange was collecting 
the remains of Count William's army, and the Prince of Orange 
was subsequently forced to raise the siege of Gueldres. The 
campaign of 1639 was also without definite result. 2 In 1640 the 
Prince of Orange besieged Hulst, and a severe battle was fought 
with a relieving force, which drove the Dutch into their lines 
with the loss of many brave officers, and the Prince was ultimately 
compelled to raise the siege. 3 In 1641 he took Gennep, and 
his son was married to Princess Mary of England. In 1642 
the whole of the States army, nearly one-half of which were 
British and French, were reviewed by Queen Henrietta Maria, 
and in 1643 the young Prince William distinguished himself 
in a hot skirmish near Antwerp. 4 

In 1644 Prince Frederick Henry transported his army to 
Flanders, his first operation being the passage of the Lys, to 
which the troops advanced in the following order. 'The 



1 On June 25th the Prince, when with 'the army on the Noortgeest,' gave 
a commission in succession to Lieut. -Colonel Henderson, deceased, whose 
funeral was attended by representatives of the States-General. On I3th Sep- 
tember, by a commission given at Velp, near Grave, Captain James Halkett, 
deceased, was succeeded. On October 25th Colonel Sir James Sandilands, 
deceased, and on December 4th Colonel Sir David Balfour, deceased, were 
succeeded in command of their companies. For King Charles's interposition on 
behalf of the Scottish prisoners, see p. 449, and for a complete list of their names, 
pp. 450-455. They included Sergeant- Major Caddell, and Captain Patrick 
Stewart, of Sandiland's regiment (formerly Colonel Brog's), as well as several 
subalterns of all three regiments. 

2 Colonel Sir Archibald Douglas died in this year, who had succeeded Sir 
David Balfour in command of Lord Buccleuch's regiment. He was succeeded 
by Colonel John Kirkpatrick. Colonel James Erskinehad succeeded Sandilands 
in command of Sir William Brog's old regiment, and Lord Almond being engaged 
in the Covenanting troubles in Scotland, his regiment was given to his lieut.- 
colonel, Sir Philip Balfour. 

3 Lieut. -Colonel A. Caddell died in 1640. 

4 This review was in a great plain near Voorne. ' The infantry,' says the 
' Historical Account,' ' was drawn up in three lines, at the distance of 100 yards 
from each other ; the cavalry in rear of the third line of infantry. The Queen 
passed along each line in her coach, the Prince of Orange accompanying her on 
horseback, and telling her the names of the colonels and officers as they dropped 



INTRODUCTORY 315 

Prince of Orange's Horse Guards ; the three regiments of the 
Scots Brigade, whose colonels were Erskine, Kirkpatrick, and 
Balfour ; l four French regiments, the colonels of which were 
Hauterive, d'Estrades, Douchant, and Coligny ; four English 
regiments commanded by Craven, Herbert, Goring, and Crom- 
well. The national Dutch regiment of Count Hoorn and nine 
regiments of horse in the rear.' During the construction of a 
bridge of boats over the Lys, ' Colonel Erskine, not having 
the patience to wait till it should be finished, passed upon the 
bridge of reeds with his regiment, and seeing some troops of 
the enemy near a fort named St. Angel, marched up to them : 
they put on the appearance of waiting an engagement, but 
upon seeing that instead of halting he still advanced against 
them, they retired. Erskine pursued them, took the fort, 
killed some, and made prisoners of the rest, whom he sent to 
the Prince. The bridge being finished, the Prince led over the 
whole army, and drew them up in order of battle.' 2 The 



their pikes and colours to salute her. Near one-half of the infantry being British 
and French, saw in Her Majesty, these their own Queen, and those, their late 
heroic monarch's daughter. After passing along the front of the lines, the Queen 
stood in a tent while the whole army passed in review.' Queen Henrietta Maria 
had brought with her the most precious jewels of the Crown, which she pledged 
or sold to obtain military stores for the King, her husband, to whose service several 
of the officers of the Brigade went. 'Le Prince d'Orange,' records Cerisier, 
' engagea plusieurs officiers et soldats a passer en Angleterre pour le secourir.' 

The Resolutions of Holland contain the following : 

' 1643, Jamtary i$th. The committee, through the Grand Pensionary, repre- 
sents the difficulties arising from the Resolution of the States of December iQth, 
1642, respecting captains and other officers of war, and also soldiers, who went 
from here to England, the committee not being able to judge who of them entered 
foreign service, otherwise than from a list sent into this Assembly by the Envoy6 
of the English Parliament. Resolution : The committee to obtain a list of absent 
officers and soldiers from the Council of State, or from His Highnesses' secretaries, 
or from the English and Scottish colonels ; the pay-orders for officers found to be 
absent not to be forwarded until it is known whether they entered foreign service 
or not, and in the first case the parties to be prosecuted. The pay-orders for 
those that are not absent, of either nation, to be forwarded as heretofore.' 

The Records of the House of Lords [1641] contain a copy of a petition to 
the King of the Scottish officers taken on by the Marquis of Hamilton for his 
Majesty's service, in which they, inter alia, asked compensation for the loss 
incurred by quitting their settled employments abroad. Hist. MS. Com., App. 
to 4th Rep. 112. 

1 The seniority of the regiments and the colonels then coincided. 

2 Memoirs of Prince Frederick Henry, ' Historical Account.' 



316 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 

Prince took some small forts, and laid siege to Sas- van- Ghent. 
His fortified lines extended from Asseneeden, where the 
English were posted, to Selsaten, where the Scots were 
stationed, and resembling the outworks of a fortified town, 
were so strong that Don Francisco de Melo, who commanded a 
powerful Spanish army, after several fruitless attacks, saw the 
city, in spite of Don Andrea de Parade's vigorous defence, 
taken in his presence after five weeks' siege. 1 

Owing to the slow movements of the Dutch Government, and 
the jealousies of the Provinces, it was late in the season of 1645 2 
before the Prince could take the field. Marching as they did 
along with the French troops, the superior discipline of his 
soldiers was conspicuous. Obliged again to give up his favourite 
object of taking Antwerp, the Prince laid siege to Hulst. 
After pushing his approaches to the counterscarp, and erecting 
three batteries to flank the place he had selected for passing 
the ditch, ' he gave orders to Colonel Kirkpatrick, who com- 
manded the guard, that an hour before break of day he should 
throw over a bridge of reeds, and make a hundred men pass 
upon it to take post at the foot of the rampart, which suc- 
ceeded so well that, an hour before daylight, the Prince coming 
to visit the works, found that " by the diligence of the colonel 
and the valour of the soldiers the bridge was already finished 
and the troops passed over." A few days after the town, 
regarded as the key of Flanders and Brabant, surrendered. 

The campaign of 1646 was ineffective, Holland and Zeeland 
being averse to the recovery of Antwerp, the commercial com- 
petition of which they feared. Indeed, ' long before the year 
1648 Prince Frederick Henry said, " There is already peace 
between the Republic and Spain."' On 14th March 1647 the 
Prince of Orange died, having, says Cerisier, c finished the roof 
of that edifice of which his father had laid the foundation, and 
his brother built up the walls.' He left the territories of the 
United Provinces substantially the same as those of the present 



1 Captain John Riddell and Captain Sir James Henderson were succeeded 
upon decease in 1644, and Capt. Thomas Livingstone in 1645. 

2 In 1645 the States sent a force of troops under four colonels, of whom 
Colonel Henderson was one, in their fleet, to assist Sweden in the war with 
Denmark. 



INTRODUCTORY 317 

kingdom of the United Netherlands, over which his descendant 
Queen Emma rules. Prince William succeeded as Stadtholder, 
but meanwhile negotiations were proceeding at Osnabruck and 
Munster, and on the 30th January 1648 the Thirty Years' 
War was concluded by the Treaty of Munster. The colonels 
of the Scots Brigade when the war ended were James Erskine, 
John Kirkpatrick, and Sir William Drummond, who had suc- 
ceeded Sir Philip Balfour on his retirement in 1646. 

The Dutch army in 1649 consisted of twelve regiments of 
cavalry in sixty-eight companies, and the two companies of the 
Prince of Orange's guard, and of thirty regiments of infantry 
in four hundred and eleven companies, of which fifteen regi- 
ments were c composes de nationaux, 5 de Fra^ois, 4 d' Ang- 
lais, 3 d'Ecossais, et 3 d'Allemands; l 

1 Cerisier. 



318 



THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 



[1621 



STATES OF WAR 



1621-1648 



1621 



Holland. Cavalry 
W m Balfour 100 men 

Infantry 

Col. Brogh . 200 
Col. Henderson 
C n Jacques Sande- 

lans . 120 
Robert Coutis 3) 
9 , Thomas Arskyn 1 
Levingston . 
Robert Schott 



2800 
2612 

1655 



C n James Lindesay 120 men 1655 
W m Orrock . 
W m Hudson . 
James Henderson 
John Hacket 
Mongo Hamelton 
David Balfour 
,,W m Schot 2 . 
3) John Murray 3 }) )3 

Donalson . 

33 Marioribankes 33 



1 This appears to be a mistake for James Erskine, who on 8th April 1617 
received a commission in place of Thomas Erskine, who had left his company. 
A Captain James Erskine, who had previously served as a captain of cuirassiers, 
had been recommended on 24th April 1610 (p. 243). 

Captain James Erskine became sergeant-major of the regiment on 8th May 
1631, lieutenant-colonel on I3th March 1636, and colonel on 2nd March 1639. 

He distinguished himself at the passage of the Lys in 1644. He commanded 
the old regiment (previously H. Balfour's and Brog's) till 1655, when he died, 
and the three regiments being formed into two, Walter Scott, formerly lieutenant- 
colonel of Drummond's regiment, became colonel of the one, John Kirkpatrick 
retaining the command of the other. 

2 William Scott, succeeded Captain Murray, deceased, on I2th March 1621, 
and was succeeded by George Lamont on 28th November 1622. 

3 John Murray succeeded David Lindsay I2th February 1620, and seems to 
have died by I2th March 1621, when Captain Murray was succeeded by William 
Scott. 

4 Thomas Marjoribanks succeeded Captain Hamilton on i6th January 1620. 
He died before 4th September 1626, when he was succeeded by James Scot. 



1621] 



STATES OF WAR 



319 



[Second State of War from 1621 to 1631] 



O Alane Coutis 150 men 
,, Archibald Dou- 



Walter Murray 2 120 
John Kennodt 
Jacques Sandelans 
John Sempil 3 
James Arskyn 
,, Patrick Murray 4 



2014 



33 

1655 



C n James Elpingston 5 120 men 1655 
James Lindsay . 
W m Orrock . 
David Colfert 6 
James Henderson 
,, John Hacquet }3 
,, Mongo Hamilton }) 
David Balfour 
George Lamont 7 



1 Sir Archibald Douglas succeeded Francis Henderson, who took over the 
'Compagnie Colonelle ' of his brother Robert, on succeeding him as colonel 
27th November 1622. Was appointed sergeant-major 3ist October 1634, lieu- 
tenant-colonel 7th July 1638, and colonel 8th March 1639. He was dead 
before 6th September 1639, when an appointment was given * by H.H. on board 
before St. Annalandt,' to John Kirkpatrick to succeed him. See petitions by 
his widow, Gertrude Walsdorf, in 1640. 

2 Walter Murray succeeded William Drummond, 3Oth Sepember 1627. 

3 John Sempill succeeded William Drummond, who then took Thomas 
Edmond's company, on 1st August 1625. 

4 Patrick Murray succeeded his captain (Sir Henry) Livingston, then de- 
ceased, on 24th November 1626. He was dead by 23rd March 1635, when 
he was succeeded by Thomas Livingstone. 

5 James Elphinstone succeeded his captain (Robert), Scott, deceased, on 25th 
January 1627. Dead, and succeeded by W. Pentland by 27th February 1632. 

6 David Colyear was the first of a family destined to be honourably connected 
with the Scots Brigade. A commission was issued on loth February 1625, for 
Davidt Collar, chamberlain to his Excellency, in the place of Captain William 
Hudson deceased. He became sergeant-major of Sir William Drummond's re- 
giment on 9th July 1649, and is described in list of 1636 and the State of War of 
1649 as David Robertson diet Colyer. He was the father of Colonel Sir Alexander 
Robertson alias Colyear, who on 24th March 1677 was served heir-general to 
his sister Joanna, daughter of Major David Colyear. (Inq. Gen. 5987) David 
Colyear married Jean, daughter of John Bruce of Airth and Margaret Elphin- 
stone, before September 1643. They had three daughters, one married to 
Thomas Dunbar of Grange, another, Martha, to Sir John Nicholson of Tillicoul- 
try, and Joanna, and one son, Alexander (see Div. iv.). It has been said that 
these Colyears were cadets of the house of Struan, who changed their name from 
Robertson to Colyear. It is certain that there was a connection with the 
Robertsons of Struan, and Sir Alexander, the first baronet (created 1677), called 
himself Robertson alias Colyear. The author of the History and Martial 
Achievements of the Robertsons of Struan> says that he did this ' for reasons,' 
but the Dutch Records show that in doing so he followed his father's example. 
Colyear is a Fife name, and families of the name held land near Kirkcaldy, 
Pitkinny, and Lochgelly. See the Scottish Antiquary ', vol. xi. pp. 60-63. 

7 George Lamont succeeded William Scott on 27th November 1622. 



320 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1621 



O John Murray * 120 men 1655 



C n Marioribankis 120 men 1655 



Jacques Balfour 2 ,, 

Wacht-ende-Quartiermeesters. 3 

Willem Drominert, Sergeant Majoor van 't regiment van Brogh 80 
Robert Mesterton Quaertier "^ van Colonel Brogh . . 50 

Officieren van Justitie 
Will m Conradi provoost van Col. Brogh .... 50 

Ministers 
Andres Hunterus, Predicant van de Schotten . . 33, s.7 d.8 

Pensioenen 
Janneken, dochter van Cap n John Nysbeth, tsjaers 100 

t'haeren lijve ..... 8, s. 6 d.8 

De weduwe Cap n Jan Balfour . : - . . 50 : 4, s.3 d.4 

Col. Balfour, op zijn lijf'sjaers . . . . 1000 

De Kinderen van Cap n Waddel, als Archibald, Jan ende Willem 

200'sjaers ...... 600 

Maria High, weduwe van C n Melvil, ten lijve van Jacques, David, 

Janneken, Tanneken ende Hester elcx 80 . . 400 

Jan ende Catharina d'Alchy Kinderen van Cap n d'Alchy, elck 

100 . . . . . . . 200 

Jan ende Janneken Prop, Kinderen van Cap n Prop, elcx de helft 206 
Jotiffrouwe Anna Kirpatric, weduwe van Cap 11 Strackan, 

t'haren lyve ....... 200 

De Kindereii van Cap n James Egger, genaemt Nicolaes/ ende 

Margrete, elck de helft ..... 125 

De Kinderen van Cap n Kilpatricx, als Jan, Maria ende Helena 

Kilpatrick ....... 200 

[Another transcriber gives the following additional names] 
Guilliaume Murray of Pickerles on the lives of Jan and Elisa- 
beth his children, each 100 .... 200 

Barbara Bruce, widow of L fc Col. Caluart, on her life, . . 200 

The children of Cap n W m Nysbeth, Arthur and Margarieta 

Nysbeth, each one half . . . 134, s. 6 d.8 



1 A James Murray succeeded Captain Home on 2nd May 1623. On nth 
March 1654, a George Lauder succeeded James Murray, having then commanded 
the company for some years. 

2 James Balfour succeeded his captain, Donaldson, on I7th March 1627, 
became sergeant-major 9th April 1639, was lieut. -colonel 1643, an d was suc- 
ceeded as captain by Sir Alexander Home on i6th November 1643. Lieu.- 
Colonel James Balfour, son, it is thought, of Colonel Sir David Balfour (see 
p. 44), married Anne, daughter of Philip Stewart, and had issue. He appears 
as lieut. -colonel of James Erskine's regiment in the State of 1649, but does not 
appear in 1655. On 22nd November 1661, Alexander Colyear was appointed 
captain of ' Col. Balfour's company ' [sic] in Scott's regiment. 

* The next entries are given in Dutch as a specimen of the original. 



1622] 



STATES OF WAR 



Mistress Anna van Duvenvoorde, widow of Col. Cunigam, on 
the lives of Mistress Margriet van Duvenvoorde, the wife of 
Cap n of Horse, Wisschardt, and Elisabeth Cunigam, each 
one half .. 

Joost Blair .. 



321 



300 
50 



Zeeland. Infantry 

men monthly pay 

O Henry Killegry 120 1655 
Connock . . 

,, Walter Bruce 



monthly pay 

C n Jacques Hacquet, genaemt 
Swart gew : wachtm r tot 
Bergen op Zoom 72 ter 
maent ... 70 
Samuel Prop, Ingenieur 25 



July 12, 1622 

Besettinge van de Garnisoenen als men te velde sal sijn 
[List of garrisons when the army is in the field] 

Gelderlandt 

Zutphen 
Roockwood 
Lincxbey 
Vlaenderen. 
Sluys 
Louvelace 
Hutton 
Butler 
Hamelton 
Ter Hoffstede 
Pottey 

Landt van't Cleve. 

Rees 

Marioribankis 
Orrock 

In de Schantz tot Reez 
David Pitcarn, nijeuwe Schotten 
George Coutes 

Graefschap van Ravensperg 

S r Henry Larrey Papenmuitz 

John Heydon Jan Waddel 2 



Militaire 
zaken, 
Portf. 32. 



Brdbandt 
Bergen op Zoom 
Walter Bruce 
Thomas Ogle 

Breda 

Gerardt Herbert 

Trochmorton 

S r William Lovelace 

Hottandt 

Geertruydenberge [then belonging 

to Holland] 

Humme 

Rotterdam 
Cor. Ogle 

Gornichem 



1 David Pitcairn received a commission on 22nd September 1621, as captain of 
a newly arrived Scottish company, enlisted for three months, he paying the cost 
of transportation and of arming. On 27th May 1628 he remonstrated in reference 
to a report on his company (p. 353). 

2 John Waddell, probably the son of an earlier Captain Waddell (see p. 54), 
had a lawsuit with the Countess of Megen in 1628 (p. 357). 

X 



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR 



[1622 



July 12, 1622 

Lyste van de Compaignien die Sijn Excellence te velde sal brengen. 
[List of the companies to take the field under His Excellency.] 

Schotten 
't regiment van den Coronnel Brogge | Regiment van den Cor. Henrysone 



De comp ie Coronnelle 
Cap n Donaldson 
Seyton 
Edmondt 
Levingston 
Arskin 
Sandilandis 
S r Pilipps Balfour 
Drommond, Serg. Maj. 
L. Cor. Alane Coutes 
Dec* 1622. 



De compaignie coronnelle 
Lieutenant Coronnel Henryson. 
Serg. Maj. Halcket 
S r David Balfour 
Cap n Bethone 
William Schot 
Cap n Henryson 
Lindesay 
Hudtson 
Robbert Schot 
Lyste van de Cavaillerie 

Nymeghen 

Sir Robbert Carrey 1 
Sir William Balfour 

1636 

Compagnien in dienst van den lande zijnde. 

Schotten 
Het Regiment van den Col. Sir 

Wil m Brogge 
De compagnie Colonelle 
L* Colonnel Sandilans 
St Maj. James Arskyn 
Maria ribankes 
Andries Caddel 2 
Cap n Brogge 3 
Jacq. Balfour 
Walter Murray 4 



Engelschen 
Het regim* van Sir Charles Morgan. 

y , den Col. Philips 

Pakenham 
Het regim fc van den Col. Sir Henry 

Herbert 
Het regim fc van den Heere Col. 

George Goring 

[The companies follow.] 



1 The Resolutions of Holland, of I3th December 1628, referring to the claims 
of the Earl of Buccleuch, state there ' also is vacant the company of horse of 
Capt. Carry, but that the English claim this company again so as to have it 
granted to an Englishman, and not to a Scotchman, to prevent confusion of the 
two nations.' 

2 Andrew Caddell succeeded Captain Seton, I3th June 1623 ; sergeant-major, 
1 3th March 1636 ; lieut. -colonel, i;th March 1639 ; was dead by I3th April 1640, 
when he was succeeded by William Lyle as captain ; taken prisoner at Calloo. 

3 Captain Brogh received commission 3rd February 1626, in place of his 
captain (Mowbray, then deceased). He was dead before nth April 1635, when 
he was succeeded by Alexander Bruce. 

4 Walter Murray, previously lieutenant of Lieut. -Colonel Halkett's company, suc- 
ceeded as captain Sergeant-Major Drummond, killed at Groll, on 29th September 
1627; appointed sergeant-major before Rammekens, I5th May 1640; Lieut-colonel 
of Scott's regiment, 27th March 1655 ; retired 1657, when he was succeeded 
by George Lauder. 



1636] STATES OF WAR 

Schotten. 
Joris Keyer [Keir] l \ Stuart 2 



Het regiment van den Col. Sir 

David Balfour 
De Compaignie Colonelle 
L* Colonnel James Henryson 
S fc Maj. Archibald Douglas 



Wil m Pentlandt 3 
Jacques Hacquet 4 
John Henrysone 5 
George Hacquet 6 
John Kirck Patrick 7 



1 George Keir, ensign of Captain Erskine's company, received a commission 
as captain of Lieut. -colonel Allan Coutts's (deceased) company on I2th May 1631 ; 
became sergeant-major of Scott's regiment 2nd April 1655, and was dead by 1st 
October, when he was succeeded by Lewis Erskine. 

2 A William Stewart received a commission on 26th June 1607, as captain 
of a company of 120 men, which he brought from Scotland. 

3 William Pentland received commission in succession to Captain Elphinstone, 
deceased, on 27th February 1632. 

4 James Halkett received commission as captain on i8th September 1629, in 
succession to Captain George Lament. He was dead by 22nd September 1638, 
when he was succeeded by David Balfour. 

6 John Henderson succeeded Captain James Lindsay on 23rd September 1629 ; 
sergeant-major of Douglas's regiment, 7th March 1639; lieut. -colonel, 22nd 
November 1639. In 1660 John Henderson received a commission as colonel of 
one of the Scottish regiments (Drummond's), which had been vacant for some 
time, and Thomas Livingstone, formerly sergeant-major of Kirkpatrick's, became 
sergeant-major. On 7th March 1662 Lewis Erskine became colonel vice John 
Henderson, deceased. 

A Sir John Henderson distinguished himself in the service of King Charles in 
the English Civil War. Baillie notes on ist January 1644: 'Henderson has 
gotten his pass from the king and is seeking it also from the Parliament for 
Holland,' and on 2nd April, ' Commissions were given [at Oxford] to Montrose 
as generall, Sir John Henderson as lieut. with the rest of that crew, to do mis- 
chief in Scotland. 3 In 1639 Sir John Henderson had been made governor of 
Dumbarton Castle. Douglas states that Sir John Henderson of Fordell (nephew 
of Sir Robert, and Sir Francis, and Sir James) served King Charles, and had a 
son George, who was killed in Holland. 

The old ballad, relating to the battle at the Bridge of Dee in 1639, says : 

' They ca'd him Colonel Henderson, 
That garred the cannons flee.' 

6 George Halkett, son of Colonel Halkett (deceased, killed at Bois-le-Duc), 
previously ensign of his father's company, succeeded Sir David Balfour as captain, 
Sir David having taken Colonel Halkett's company on nth October 1629. 
Captain Halkett was succeeded (having left his company) by James Henderson 
on 30th December 1639. 

7 John Kirkpatrick, previously lieutenant of Colonel Balfour, received a com- 
mission as captain in place of Captain Orrock, deceased, on 24th October 1631. 
He became sergeant-major, by appointment given by H.H. in the army on 
the Noortgeest, on 25th June 1638; lieut. -colonel, 7th March 1639, and colonel 



324 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1636 

James Balfour l \ Thomas Levingston 2 



on the 2 ist of October 1639. He distinguished himself at Hulst in 1645. 
appointed commander-in-chief between Bergen and Steenbergen in 1669 ; 
governor of Bois-le-Duc in 1670, and sergeant-major-general of the army in 
1672; retaining the command of his regiment from 1639, to his death in 1682. 

The Resolutions of Holland contain the following : 

' 1683. Jan 2ist. Report of committee conform their instructions of Aug. 22d 
last on Petition Johannes Constable, representing the heirs ofjohan Kirckpatrick, 
eX'Gov. of Bois-le-Duc, stating, that in 1672, when the French with 3 armies 
threatened the town unexpectedly, and it therefore being in great peril, calling 
for incessant work on the fortifications not only by the militia, but by citizens and 
inhabitants of all ages, the council of war, with consent of the local Government, 
decided to stop for 4 weeks the inning [sic, levying] of excises and imposts, as an 
inducement and encouragement ; that on Nov. 23, 1673, Gov. Kirckpatrick (who 
had only approved of this measure on account of the serious circumstances) was 
summoned by the lessees (of said excises and imposts) as a private individual for 
the am't of their losses, and that by default the council of state condemned him 
to pay; that the said Gov. K. had appealed to T.H.M., who, on report of 
the committee of Jan. 23, 1676, and on advice of H.H., had prevented the 
execution during the life of said Gov. K. ; but that now he was dead, the said 
lessees had promptly attached his property ; that on Feb. i8th, 1682, the said 
council had suspended the said execution, awaiting T.H.M.'s decision, which 
could not be taken without the co-operation of this Province, requesting there- 
fore its consent to the release of the inheritance from this attachment. Res. : That 
though Governors or Commanders of towns or places had no authority to dispose 
of the revenue, with or without the consent of a Council of War, and the said 
Gov. K. had therefore been justly sentenced ... in consideration of the great 
difficulties he had to contend with in 1672, the dangers to which the town was 
exposed, and that the said Gov. K. acted entirely in accord with the council of 
war and the local authorities, and that only he personally has been sentenced, to 
allow, in the Generality, that the am't of the said condemnation shall be 
courteously refunded to his heirs, without thereby establishing any precedent 
whatsoever. ' 

Douglas notes that Alexander Erskine, 4th Earl of Kelly, married: I. Mary, 
daughter of Colonel Kilpatrick, governor of the Bush in Holland, by whom he 
had only one daughter, Lady Anne, married to Sir Alexander Erskine of Cambo, 
Lord Lyon, and had a numerous issue. 

1 James Balfour, son of Colonel Balfour, succeeded Mungo Hamilton on 24th 
February 1633. Colonel Bartholomew Balfour had a younger son, James, a 
captain in Holland. 

2 Thomas Livingston succeeded Patrick Murray (deceased) on 23d March 
1635, became sergeant-major 6th September 1639 (Kirkpatrick's regiment) ; 
lieut. -colonel nth June 1660; was dead by igth July 1673, when he was 
succeeded by his ensign, Thomas Livingston (his son, afterwards Lord Teviot). 
Sir Thomas Livingston of Newbigging, created a baronet by Charles I. , ' obtained 
a commission,' says Douglas in his Peerage, 'in one of the Scotch regiments in 
the service of the States of Holland, where he settled, and by his valour and 
merit rose to the rank of a colonel, and had the command of a regiment of 



1636] STATES OF WAR 325 



Het regiment van den Colonnel 
James Levingston, Baron d'Amont l 
De Compagnie Colonnelle 
L fc Col. George Coutes 
S fc Major Philips Balfour 



Davidt Pitcarn 

Davidt Robbertson dit Coller 

WaltherSchot 2 

John Levingston 3 

Alexander Murray 4 



foot [sic\. He married a daughter of the famous and eminent Colonel Edmund, 
a Scotchman, and native of the town of Stirling, with whom he got a very con- 
siderable estate, and had issue, two sons: i. Sir Thomas, afterwards Viscount 
Teviot ; 2. Sir Alexander Livingston.' These both served in the Brigade. 

1 Sir James Livingston served as lieutenant in the company of his brother, 
Sir Henry Livingston, in 1618 (see letter of Magistrates of Tiel in reference to his 
debt, p. 296). 

Sir James Livingston, younger son of Alexander, ist Earl of Linlithgow, 
was appointed lieut. -colonel of Sir David Balfour's regiment in November 1629, 
and on 3Oth December 1633 appointed colonel in succession to the Earl of 
Buccleuch, deceased, thus being transferred. He was created Lord Livingston 
of Almond in 1633, and Earl of Callander in 1641. In 1640 (5th November) Sir 
Philip Balfour was appointed colonel in his place, his regiment being declared 
vacant through his absence. He was one of the generals of the army of the 
Scottish Covenanters ; led one division in the advance on Newcastle in 1640 ; 
commanded the reserve army sent into England in 1644, and the force which 
besieged Newcastle, and was lieutenant-general of the Duke of Hamilton's army 
defeated by Cromwell at Preston in 1648. He died in 1672. He was, however, 
regarded with some jealousy on account of his connection with Montrose at the 
time of 'the Cumbernauld Band.' Baillie refers to 'his inflexibility to serve 
against Montrose,' and at the time of the encampment on Dunse Law writes, 
' The place of L* Gen. was destinate for Almond, in whose wisdom and valour 
we had but too much confidence ; yet in the time of our most need the grievousness 
of his gravel, or the pretence of it, made him go to France to be cutted ; always 
when he came there, it was found he needed not incision, so he past to his charge 
in Holland, where to us he was as dead in all our dangers.' 

2 Walter Scott, previously ensign of the Earl of Buccleuch's company, 
succeeded Captain William Douglas, deceased, on 29th November 1629 ; 
sergeant-major (Sir P. Balfour's), 8th February 1641; lieut. -colonel, 1649; 
colonel, 2;th March 1655 ; retired before 1st April 1673, when he was succeeded 
by Henry Graham. 

' Colonel Walter Scott of Bal weary,' says Douglas in his Baronage, 'betook 
himself to a military life, and rose to the rank of a colonel in the army, but never 
married. Some little time before his death he sent over from Holland to Sir 
John Scott of Ancrum, Bart., the seal of the family of Balweary with a letter 
acknowledging him to be the heir male, which is still preserved.' Colonel Scott 
was thus the representative of the famous wizard, Michael Scott. 

3 John Livingston was appointed (p. 354) in the company of his father, Sir 
Henry Livingston, 1628 ; succeeded John Sempill, who had left his company, on 
I4th January 1630; became sergeant-major, and lieut. -colonel 4th December 
1640 (Sir P. Balfour's regiment). He was dead by nth May 1649, when he was 
succeeded by Walter Scott as colonel, and by Sir William Fleming as captain. 

4 Alexander Murray succeeded his captain (John Bellenden, deceased, who had, 



326 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1636 

George Lauder l \ Henry Ecklin 2 

on 2nd December 1630, succeeded Captain Kinninmond, deceased) on 8th July 
1631. He was succeeded by Everwyn Kirkpatrick on igth November 1646, 
having retired. 

1 * The ingenious Colonel George Lauder,' the soldier-poet, was a younger son 
of Lauder of Halton in Mid-Lothian, his mother being Annabella Bellenden, 
his father's second wife.' The Grange of St. Giles , by Mrs. J. Stewart Smith. He 
was laureated at Edinburgh in 1620, and survived to 1670. He was the father 
of Lieut. -Colonel Lauder, who served in the same regiment in 1672, and of 
Lieut. -General George Lauder, who succeeded to the command after Killie- 
crankie, and commanded the regiment in Marlborough's campaigns. His whole 
family served in the Brigade, and five sons fell in the service of the States. 
(Petition by General Lauder, see vol. ii.) George Lauder distinguished himself 
at Calloo and on the island of Funen in the expedition to the Baltic in 1659, 
and was presented by the King of Denmark with a gold chain and his portrait in 
diamonds. He received his commission as captain in 1634, and became Lieut. - 
Colonel of Scott's regiment in 1657. A George Lauder, possibly himself upon 
a new appointment, or a son, also received a company in 1654. 

The motto appended to many of his poetical pieces was, ' Sunt artibus arma 
decorij and his best-known poem is the elegy on the death of his friend and 
fellow-poet Drummond of Hawthornden, which contains the lines, 

' Here Damon lies, whose songs did sometimes grace 
The murmuring Esk ; may roses shade the place ! ' 

He was the author of the following : 

* A Valedictory Poem on leaving Scotland in 1622.' 

The Soldier's Wishe,' 1628. ' The Scottish Souldier,' 1629. Wight,' 1629. 
' Tears on the Death of Evander.' Hague, 1630. 

* Aretophel, or a Funeral Elegy on the death of ... Colonel . . . the 
Earl of Buccleuch,' by G. Lauder, captaine in the same regiment. Middelburgh. 

' Tweed's Teares of Joy, to Charles, Great Brittain's king ' (on the Pacification 
of Berwick, 1639). ' Caledonia's Covenant,' 1641. 

' His Dog, for a New Year's Gift, to James Erskine, colonel of a Scots 
regiment.' Breda, 1647. 

* Mars Belgicus, or ye Funeral Elegy on Henry, Prince of Orange.' Breda, 1647. 

* Damon, a Pastoral Elegy on the death of his honoured friend William Drum- 
mond, of Hawthornden.' Printed 1711. 

* Poem on the Death of King Charles I.' Delft, 1649. 

* Achilles Auriacus, or a Funeral Elegie on the Death of William, Prince of 
Orange. ' Bred a, 1 650. 

* Eubulus, or a Free and Loyal Discourse to His Sacred Majesty, by one of his 
most faithfull subjects,' 1660. 

' Hecatombe Christiana, or Christian Meditations and Disquisitions upon the 
Life and Death of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 1661, dedicated to the 
Right Honourable my very loving brother Richard Lauder, Baron of Haltoun.' 

* Breda Exultans, or a Poem on the Happy Peace with England,' 1667. 

* Good Wishes to his Highness the Prince [of Orange] on his Birthday.' 

* Epitaph on the Death of Mr. Alexander Wedderburne, Preacher of the 
Gospel in the British Church at the Bosche.' 

Mr. Wedderburne returned the compliment by writing an Epitaph for the 
colonel. 



1636] STATES OF WAR 327 

A Christmas Carol was addressed to him as ' the Heroycall L. Colonel Lauder, 
Patron of Truth,' which contains the lines, 

* Nixt Hawthorn-Damon, Halton Lysis love, 

My mind doth move.' 
Lysis being the name assumed by Lauder in his elegy on the poet. 

The following lines from his poems refer to the services of Scots in foreign 
fields. 

From the ' SCOTTISH SOLDIER.' 

' Behold two thousand in Jerusalem, 
Brave champions of the Faith, true Scotish men, 
Led by great Hugo, Philip's brother bold, 
Who then the scepter of faire France did hold. 
Behold the holy king Saint Lewys then 
Proud to lead on three thousand Scots againe 
To Palestine, whilst that brave Earl of March, 
Their captaine, by his side did statelie march ; 
Of whose assistance finding so much good, 
Our third King Alexander's help he su'd, 
And had two thousand more sent to his neede, 
Whom Atholl's Earle and Carrict's Counte did lead.' 

' This way our grandsires went, this way our sires, 
This way must hee to honour who aspires : 
By this our brethren in these latter dayes 
Have in the schooles of warre been crowned with bayes. 
Shall we who follow them degener then, 
And not be like our valiant countrymen ? 
Who when calm peace at home their minds did marre, 
Did seek employment into forraine warre, 
As Holland well can witnesse, who did find 
Their friendly help, and first did prove them kind, 
Of any neighbour nation, when opprest 
With Tyrannic she first her neck did wrest 
From Spaine's hard yoke and did her power disdaine, 
A stated freedome since to entertaine 
By force of armes, though not her owne, God knowes, 
For all her conquests to our courtsie owes 
A noble share, which she forgetting now, 
Her vile ingratitude doth baselie shew ; 
For had they not at Nuyport fought it out, 
When but a handful left, enclosed about, 
The fortune of that day had not beene good ; 
But they would seale it with their dearest blood, 
And buye the Victorie at such a rate, 
As might deserve more thank es if friendly met.' 

From ' ARETOPHEL.' 
' That dark oblivion his reward should be, 
And that his name should never more be found 
In Belgia's annals (where the deeds are drowned 
Of worthy Scots) then those Heroes are, 
Whose valour first did teach her hands to warre, 
And made her see, even in her lowest state, 
That Spaynards were but men, and could be beat.' 

2 Henry Ecklin succeeded the Earl of Buccleuch, whose lieutenant he had 
been, on I2th January 1634. 



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR 



[1643 



1643 



Voetvolck op Hollandt 


men 
James Balfour . 120 


monthly pay 
1655 


[Infantry in Holland] 


John Hindersum 


yy 


men monthly pay 


[Here follow names 




/George Goring 1 150 2014 
\Herbert . 


which are evidently 
not Scottish] 




Milord Grave . ,,\ 
Cromwel . ) 


Walter Murrai 100 
Alexander Murray 


1417 

9) 


JamesErskin 2 . 150 


Thorn. Levingston 6 


yy 


John Kilpatrick 3 


John Levingston 


yy 


Phi 's Balfour/ boven 


W m Pentlant 


yy 


sijn Comp ie op Stadt 


John Riddel 7 . 


yy 


ende Landen[in ad- 


Henri Echlin . 


yy 


dition to his Com- 


David Colyer . 


yy 


pany on S. en L.] 50 600 


W m Riddel 8 . 


yy 


William Killegrey 120 1655 


Henri Hume 9 . 


yy 


Eduart Stuart 5 


James Douglas 10 


yy 


Thomas Ogle . George Kyer . 


9) 



1 The first four names are the colonels of the four English regiments. 

2 See p. 318. 3 See p. 323. 4 See p. 232. 

5 Edward Stuart. 

6 Thomas Livingston (2.) succeeded Colonel Sandilands, whose lieutenant he 
had been, in command of his company on 25th October 1638. He was dead 
by 28th November 1644, when he was succeeded by Louis Erskine. 

7 John Riddell succeeded Colonel Archibald Douglas in command of his com- 
pany on 1 6th December 1639, and was dead by ipth February 1644, when he 
was succeeded by John Kirkpatrick. 

8 William Riddell, formerly lieutenant of Colonel Balfour's company, succeeded 
Lieut. -Colonel Henderson in command of his company on 2Oth September 1638. 
Became sergeant-major of Kirkpatrick's regiment on nth June 1660, and was 
dead by nth July 1662, when he was succeeded as major by John Kirkpatrick, 
junior, and as captain by William Lindsay. Sir William Riddell, second son of 
Sir John Riddell, first baronet, became governor of Doesburgh in Holland, and 
married Windelina van Buchan. His brothers, John and Thomas, were also 
' captains in the service of Holland ' (MS. Adv. Lib.). 

9 Henry Hume, on iQth April 1642, succeeded his brother, George Hume, 
who became a captain of horse. George Hume had, on i6th November 1637, 
succeeded James Williamson, the company being that previously commanded by 
Sir William Brog. He was dead before i6th June 1650, when he was suc- 
ceeded by John Lamy. 

10 James Douglas, formerly lieutenant of Colonel Sir David Balfour's company, 
succeeded to the command on his death, 6th December 1638. 



1 643] 



STATES OF WAR 



329 



men monthly pay 

James Henderson 1 100 1417 
David Balfour 2 . 

Jacq. Balfour 

Herbert Trogmorton 

Tractementen op Hollandt 
[Salaries paid by Holland] 

Colonnel George Goring . iii c 

William Killegre, L fc Colonnel Ixxx 

Henry Wynne, Serg. Major Ix 

Henri Hecson, Quartiermr 1 

Wolter Bellis, Provoost . xl 

Milord Grave, Colonnel . iii c 

Richard Corbet L* Colonel . Ixxx 

Thomas Hamon, Serg. Major Ix 

Josias Stephens, Quartiermr 1 

Thomas Wod, Provost . xl 

Colonnel Cromwell . . iii c 
Thomas Dolmas, Lieut* 

Colonnel . . . Ixxx 
Thomas Nortes, Sergeant Major Ix 

Beyerius Cool, Quartierm r . 1 

Gripphys Prise, Provoost . xl 

James Arskyn, Colonnel . iii c 

James Balfour, Lieut. -Col. Ixxx 

Andries Caddel, Serg^Major Ix 

John Siortes, 3 Quartiermr . 1 



Jacques Duntap, Provoost xl 

John Kilpatrick, Colonnel . iii c 

John Henderson, Lieut. -Col. Ixxx 
Thomas Levingston, Serg fc 

Major, .... Ix 

James Hunter, Quartiermr 1 

James Creynier, Provoost . xl 

Phis Balfour, Colonnel . iii c 

John Levingston, Lieut. -Col. Ixxx 
Walter Scotte, Sergeant- 

Major .... Ix 

Eduart Yonger, Quartiermr 1 
Robert Aubri Cromby, 

Provoost Ix 

Ministers 
George Clerck, Predicant 

van de Schotten [minister 

of the Scots], xxxiii, st. vi, d. viii 

Zeelant 
Voetvokk 

men monthly pay 



'John Courtney 
Amys 

Richardt Keiff 
Herri Pomerey 
Eduard Morgan 

.Charles Ketelbi 
Walter Schot 



100 1417 



1 James Henderson succeeded Captain Halkett, who had left his company on 
3Oth December 1639. Sir James Henderson, then deceased, was succeeded by 
John Kirkpatrick on 28th August 1644. It is stated in Douglas's Baronage that 
Sir James Henderson, eldest son of Sir John of Fordell (brother of the three 
colonels), was a captain in the French (sic) service, and died in 1643 without 
issue. 

2 David Balfour, formerly lieutenant of Colonel Balfour's company, received 
commission as captain, in place of James Halkett deceased, on 22nd September 
1638. He was succeeded on October 8th, 1647, by Mauritz Halkett, previously 
his lieutenant. 

3 John Schortes succeeded Capt. William Lyle, who had succeeded Lieut. - 
Colonel Caddell (deceased), on I3th April 1640, and had left his Company before 
1st July 1642. Deceased before 26th September 1644, when he was succeeded 
by Captain Henry Graham. 

4 English names. 



330 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1643 

Tractementen op Zeelant Utrecht 

Henri Herbert, Colormel, 
voor sijn persoon [for him- 
self] . . . . ^iii c 

Ferdinand Knichtley, Lieut. 

Col. Ixxx 



Voetvolck 

men monthly pay 

James Scot . 100 1417 

Knichtley . 

Gregoir . 



Corbet, . 

John Siortes, 1 

The following officers received commissions subsequent to the State 
of 1643, and prior to the conclusion of the peace in 1648. 

John Kirkpatrick, Feb. 19th, 1644, 

In succession to John Riddell, deceased. He was formerly lieutenant 
of Colonel Kirkpatrick's Life Company. 

Robert Halkett, Oct. 2&h, 1644. 

In succession to John Kirkpatrick who received the company of Sir 
James Henderson, deceased. Robert Halkett had been lieutenant of 
Sir James Henderson's Company. 
Lewis Erskine, Nov. 28th, 1645. 

In succession to Thomas Livingston, deceased. He had been previously 
Ensign of Colonel Erskine' s Company. 

Henry Graham, Nov. 28th, 1645. 

In succession to John Shiortes. He had been lieutenant of Captain 
Erskine. 

Colonel Sir William Drummond, May 19th, 1646. 
In succession to Sir Philip Balfour, retired. 

Everwyn Kirkpatrick, Nov. 20th, 1646. 
In succession to Alexander Murray, retired. 

Mauritz Halkett, Oct. 9th, 1647. 
In succession to his captain, David Balfour. 

Succession of Officers, 1621-1642 

The list which follows gives the succession of the captains of the 
different companies, arid of the field officers. It shows the officer 
commanding each company in 1621, with the date of his commission 
and those who succeeded him down to 1642, with the dates of 
appointment. 

Holland. Foot 

1606 Col. Brogh .... 200 men 2612 

f James Williamson, 2 cap n of 118 men, March 14th 1636. 

4 George Hume, Nov. 17th, 1637. 

[Henry Hume, April 23rd, 1642. 



1 The Scots and English names are frequently found together. A few of the 
English have been given as illustrations, and in particular those of the colonels 
and staff of the four regiments in service at the time. 

2 Deceased before i6th November 1687. 



I62I-42] STATES OF WAR 331 

Dec. 20th, 1603 Col. Robert Hinderson . . 200 men 2612 

(Francois Henderson, Sep. 17th, 1622. 
Col. Earl of Bucklough, received this compy Dec. 8th 1629. 
Henry Echlines, Cap n of 117 men ; Jan. 12th, 1634, hy appointment of 
His Excy, of Jan. 8th, 1634, Col. Levingston to increase his Compy 
standing on Friesland, to 198 men, with 81 from this Compy. 
1600 Allane Coutis .... 150 men 2014 

{George Kier, May 14th, 1631, of 118 men, the balance to Sandelandis. 
Dec. 20th, 1603 Fra^ois Henderson . . 150 men 2014 

/Archibald Douglas, Nov. 27th, 1622. 
\John Riddel, Dec. 29th, 1639. 
Jan. 14th, 1617 Thos. Edmondt . . . 120 1655 

(Wm. Drommont, Aug. llth, 1625. 
Walter Murray, Sep. 30th, 1627. 
After Edmondt this Compy was raised to 140 men ; 30 men in 1628 
were put under Haquet. 

April 5th, 1615 John Kennimondt . . 120 men 1655 

/John Bellenden, 1 Dec. 2nd, 1630. 
\Alex. Murray, July 9th, 1631. 

Nov. 16th, 1618 Jacques Sandelands . . 120 1655 

{Thos. Levingston, Jan. 14th, 1639. October 25th, 1638. January 8th, 1639. 

Aug. 4th, 1615 Robbert Coutis, . .120 men 1655 

{Wm. Drommond, Dec. 8th, 1621. 
John Sempel, Aug. 1st, 1625. 
John Levingston, Jan. 14th, 1630. 

April 8th, 1617 James Arskyn ... 120 1655 

Jan. 12th, 1607 H. Levingston . . . 120 1655 

/Patrick Murray, Nov. 25th, 1626. 
\Thos. Levingston, March 24th, 1635. 

Nov. 28th, 1604 Robert Schot ... 120 1655 

/James Elfingston, Jan. 26th 1627. 
\Wm. Pentelandt, Feb. 27th, 1632. 

March 31st, 1615 James Lindesay . . 120 1655 

{John Henresone, Sept 22nd, 1629. 
Nov. 23rd, 1618 William Orrock . . 120 1655 

{John Kirckpatrick, Oct. 25th, 1631. 

Nov. 24th, 1604 Wm. Hutson . . . 120 1655 

{David Colliar, Feb. llth, 1625. 
Nov. 14th, 1618 James Henderson . . 120 1655 

{Wm. Riddel, Sep. 21st, 1638. 

Nov. 28th, 1604 John Hacquet . . . 120 1655 

/David Balfour, Col., Sep. 21st, 1629. 
\James Douglas, Dec. 6th, 1638. 
1606 Mongo Hamilton . ... . 120 1655 

{James Balfour, Feb. 26th, 1633. 

1 Dead by July 8th, 1631. 



THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1621-42 

Dec. 20th, 1603 David Balfour . . .120 men 1655 

/George Halcquet, Dec. 6th, 1629. 

\James Henrisonne, Jan. 2nd, 1640. 

March 12th, 1621 Willem Schot . . . . 120 1655 

{George Lamont, Nov. 28th, 1622. 
Jacques Halcquet, Sep. 18th, 1629. 
David Balfour, Sep. 23rd, 1638. 

Oct. 9th, 1604 Andreas Donaldson . . 120 1655 

{Jacques Balfour, March 18th, 1627. 

PAY ON HOLLAND. 

1606 Col. Brogh, for his person .... 400 

f James Sandilandis, March 14th, 1636. 
\James Arskyn, March 8th, 1639. 

Allane Coutis, Lt. Col. ..... 100 

f James Sandelandis, May 9th, 1631. 
I James Arskyne, March 17th, 1636. 
1 Andries Caddel, March 8th, 1639. 
[ James Balfour, July 21st, 1640. 
April 28th, 1612 Col. Robert Henderson . . 300 

since raised to 400 
[Francois Henderson, Sep. 17th, 1622. 

John Hacquet, Dec. 28th, 1628. 
1 David Balfour, Sep. 7th, 1629. 

Archibald Douglas, March 8th, 1639. 
{ John Kirckpatrick, Oct. 21st, 1639. 
March 12th, 1618 Francis Henderson, Lt Col. . 100 

John Halquet, Oct. 31st, 1622. 

David Balfour, Dec. 28th, 1628. 

Jacques Haddon, Oct. 22nd, 1629. 

James Levingstone, Dec. 21st, 1629. 

James Henrisone, July 21st, 1634. 

Archibald Douglas, July 5th, 1638. 

John Kilpatrik, March 8th, 1639. 

.John Henrisone, Dec. 2nd, 1639. 

Hacquet, St Major . . . . 80 

f David Balfour, Sep. 5th, 1622. 

Archibald Bethon, Dec. 28th, 1628. 

Jacques Haddon, Oct. 22nd, 1629. 

Mongo Hamilton, Dec. 3rd, 1629. 

James Henrisonne, Feb. 16th, 1633. 

Archibald Douglas, Nov. 3rd, 1634. 

John Kirckpatrick, June 29th, 1638. 

John Henderson, March 8th, 1639. 

Thos. Levingstone, Dec. 2nd, 1639. 

Blaire q r m r . . . . 50 



1621-42] 



STATES OF WAR 



333 



fW m Jeremias Pentland, Nov. 5th, 1622. 
-[ Jan Roon, March 16th, 1527. 
t James Houter, Jan. 12th, 1640. 

Michiel Henderson, Provost Marshall . 
{James Kryhiers, Sep. 9th, 1628. 

Wardens and Quartermasters 
Willem Drommond, S* major Reg fc Brogh 
f James Sandilandis, Oct. 27th, 1627. 
James Arskin, May 12th, 1631. 
Andries Caddel, March 28th, 1636. 
James Balfour, April 15th, 1639. 
Walter Murray, Oct. 30th, 1640. 

Robert Mesterton, q r master of Col. Brogh 

{W m Pentlant, Oct. 22nd, 1630. 
John Siordes, March 12th, 1632. 
W m Olphinston, Oct. 17th, 1642. 

Officers of Justice 

Willem Carcadie, Prost marshal of Brogh 
/ W m Car, Oct. 15th, 1627. 
\Jacques Donlap, June 28th, 1630. 

Ministers 
Andreas Hunterus, minister of the Scots 

Guelderland. Foot 
Jan. 2nd, 1607 Philip Mouvray . 
/W m Brogen, Feb. 3rd, 1626 
\Alex. Bruce, April 12th, 1635. 

Zeeland. Foot 

1601-8 Walter Broux [Bruce ] 
/W m Douglas, June 2nd, 1627. 
\Walter Schott, Dec. 8th, 1629. 

Utrecht. Foot 
May 17th, 1606 Setton 

f Andries Caddel, Jan. 14th, 1623 [June 13th]. 
J W m Lyle, April 14th, 1640. 
I John Schortes, July 4th, 1642. 

Jan. 16th, 1620 Mario Ribanckes . 

James Schotte, Sep. 9th, 1636 [Sep. 4th]. 

Vriesland. Foot 
1614 (?) Archibald Betone . 
{Jonas Levingston [probably Col. James L. Lord 
Almond]. 



50 



together 580 
80 



120 men 
120 men 



120 men 



120 men 



120 men 



120 men 



50 



33 6 

1655 
1655 



1655 



1655 



1655 



1655 



334 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1621-42 

July 23rd, 1605, Geo. Homes . 120 men 1655 

/Jonas Murray, May 6th, 1623. 
\Geo. Lander, 1634, March llth, 1654. 

March llth, 1606, Steven Brounfielt . 120 men 1655 

{ Patrick Stuart, Feb. 1st, 1654. 

Groningen and Ommelanden. Foot 
July 8th, 1615, George Coutis . . 120 men 1655 

{ Alane Coutis, 1 April 30th, 1638 [1 637} 
Philip Balfour .... 120 men 1655 

{ June 2nd, 1621. [Appears in State of War, 2617]. 

[The italics in the above list indicate a lacuna in the original source, or an 
addition and correction made by the compiler from other information.] 



1 Allan Coutts, formerly ensign of Captain Scott, on 27th April 1638, in con- 
formity with a recommendation of the States of Groningen and Ommelanden, 
received a commission as captain of the company of the late Lieut. -Colonel 
Coutts, his father. (This was Lieut. -Colonel George Coutts.) Became sergeant- 
major in 1660, and lieut. -colonel of Louis Erskine's regiment in 1662. Appears 
as lieut. -colonel in 1674, the regiment then being commanded by Jacques de 
Fariaux, but not in 1675. 



1 62i] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 335 



II 

RESOLUTIONS, REPORTS, REQUESTS, RECOM- 
MENDATIONS, ETC. 

1621-1629. 

1621, January 26. The petition was read of Margaret Resolutions of 
Hamilton, surviving daughter of the late Captain John States - General 
Hamilton, requesting that, in consideration of the eminent 
services rendered by her late father to the country, a sum of 
money may out of grace be voted to her. And it was resolved 
to place said petition in the hands of the Council of State, to 
dispose of it. 

February 6. The petition was read of Colonels William 
Brogh and Robert Henrisonne, asking for permission to 
increase the strength of their respective companies at once to 
two hundred men ; but this was to be taken into consideration 
before being decided upon. 

April 24. In the matter of the petition of the daughter of 
Captain Hamilton, asking for money for her support, the 
prayer of the petitioner was refused. 

To the Council of State. (Feb. 22, 1621.) 

MY LORDS, . . . Having been informed by your Lord- Letters and 
ships' missive of 16th inst. of the resolution of their High f 
Mightinesses the States-General, of His Excellency the Prince, of state, 
and of your Lordships, respecting the further strengthening of 
the companies of infantry, that is to say, the companies of 
this nation to be increased, each to the number of one hundred 
and fifty ; and the French, English, and Scots, to the number 
of one hundred and twenty each. And in pursuance of your 
command, I shall henceforth not neglect to pay particular 
attention to such new enlisted soldiers and recruits, and also 



336 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1621 

to fix the day of muster about the 1st of April next. But the 
cavalry captains here design as I understood from their talk 
some days ago to be mustered on the 1st of March next, as 
they intend to have the cavalry completed at the above date. 
Yet I fear that though they may bring the men together, the 
muster will prove a failure in the matter of arms. And here- 
with drawing to a close, etc., your potent, worshipful, etc. 

(Signed) GABRIEL SEVERIJNS. 
At Grave, the 22nd February 1621. 

To the Council of State. (April 8, 1621.) 

MY LORDS, Sir William Balfour, cavalry captain in this 
town with his company in garrison, requests from us the pay- 
ment due for servants' wages during the period of the last 
eleven months: the particulars you will learn more at large 
from the document containing his request, which we enclose. 
And it is well known that he had lodged first at the house of 
Beeckman, and now in the house of the heir of the Provincial 
Secretary Kerkman, where he still abides. Moreover, since his 
household servants' expenses are not on the rolls, and the 
officers of lodging allowances have orders to pay no house 
service expenses, except in obedience to the Council's orders ; 
therefore it is our request, in case you agree with us, that you 
will please to cause this service money to be forwarded to him, 
because he has had his lodgings, his family, and his horses 
here, for the period of the eleven months aforesaid, and, with 
that end in view, to give some document or order, etc., 

BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN, AND COUNCIL 
OF THE CITY NYMEGEN. 

8th April 1621. 

To the Honourable Council of the City Nymegen. 
Captain Sir William Balfour, knight, showeth, with all 
respect, that the officers of the lodging allowances in your 
town keep from him and refuse to pay the service expenses 
due to him, i.e. for himself, his servants, and horses, during a 
period of eleven months, or from the 6th November 1618 to 
the 22nd September 1619, both included ; notwithstanding he 



1 62 1] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 337 

lodged first at the house of Engelbert Beeckman, and now 
since that always at the house of Provincial Secretary Kerck- 
man ; the said officers declaring that his service expenses have 
not been entered on the rolls. And though he had been 
absent once or twice from the musters, on necessary business 
in England, he had always had his family and horses here, and 
was always responsible for the charges of the lodging. So 
your petitioner will trust, as he likewise requests, that his 
service money, amounting to one hundred and fifty guilders, 
eight stuivers, accumulated during the said period, be paid 
him by the officers, by order of your Worships, that he may 
be able to satisfy his landlords in that respect. By doing 
so, etc. 

1621, May 11. Inquiry drawn up and taken by me, Jacob 
Schimmelpenninck van der Oeij, Commissary in Ordinary 
in the County Zutphen, regarding the three following 
Troopers. 

Under the Cavalry Captain Beaumont. 

Andrew Bell, Scotsman, about sixty-six years of age, declared 
that he served these Provinces for about forty-five years, both 
on foot and mounted ; that he served first under Captain Trell, 
Scotsman, then under Cavalry Captain Maxwel, Scotsman, at 
Bruges, in Vlanders, and under Bruijs, at Ostend ; that he was 
ensign of Captain Grim, after Grimes discharge under Colonel 
Balfour, and thereafter under Cavalry Captain Edmond. To 
this day he has served as a trooper in that company, and 
owing to old age is unable longer to bear arms. He declared 
that his passports are placed along with his clothes in certain 
boxes at Nimmeghen. 

Under Cavalry Captain Urwingh. 

Andrew Anderson, Scotsman, is lying sick at Utrecht. The 
captain declares that he is sixty years of age, and owing to 
several wounds is weak and unable to serve longer. 

To the Council of State. 
MY LORDS, We received your Lordships' missive, with the 



338 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1621 

request of Captain Areskyn, touching his service money [in 
his lodgings x ], although he was beyond the sea in Scotland 
more than four months, and that is the reason why we refused 
to pay him the said service money, and we did so in conformity 
with our missive written to us here, of date 7th August 1617 : 
whereby a statutory rule was made that the order issued at 
the instance of the town as to service should be strictly obeyed 
in all its parts ; which order contains these words, ' that those 
who are absent for a month shall enjoy no service money. 1 
Nevertheless, as such complainings occur frequently, and come 
before us, and your Lordships are also thereby importuned, 
we could wish that you would more definitely explain whether 
one ought to refuse the service money to those only who have 
been out of the country, and pay it to those who have remained 
in the Provinces ; and whether one should not pay those 
also who have been abroad, in respect that they have had wife 
aud children here, besides weapons and baggage, and then you 
must here keep up a hired house. On which waiting the 
good pleasure of your Lordships, we recommend, etc. 

BURGOMASTERS AND ALDERMEN OF THE CITY BREDA. 



To the Council of State. (March 3, 1622.) 

NOBLE, HIGH, AND MIGHTY LORDS, Showeth that Johan 
Rongardt, auditor of this garrison, claims as due to him from 
the late Captain Coutts a sum of seventy-nine guilders, nine- 
teen and three-quarter stuivers, made up from his salary 
and earned payments, and promised and pledged to him 
at our meeting in general terms that it was to be paid by 
every captain. Whereof he handed to the said captain's 
blood relations the account, to which he begs to refer, and 
wherein it is proved that the said payment 2 has stood year 
after year unpaid, which was the cause and reason why he, 
Rongardt, sought per modum arresti via ordinaria, and im- 
petrated arrest on certain moveables and clothes in the 
custody of Ensign Archibald Williams. And as we under- 
stand here an action was entered on propter preferentiam 



1 Not in Dutch. 2 Or contribution. 



1622] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 339 

between said ensign and the solicitor. And so my humble 
request is that the said Rongardt be not curtailed in his right 
that he has, but be maintained in his preference (which as 
earned wages ought in any case by law to be allotted in his 
favour), in respect that he obtained, after the death of Coutis, 
before all other creditors, said arrest, and taken by me (in 
the hearing of the widow) in sursantie l up till now. I humbly 
inform your Lordships, etc., for your more particular judgment 
and further proceeding in the way of wholesome justice in said 
preference. Your Lordships, etc. 

(Signed) ANTONIUS UTENHOVE. 
3rd March 



To the Council of State. (March 10, 1622.) 

MY LORDS, We duly received your Lordships'* missive, with 
the accompanying requests of Captain Thomas Edmond, 2 pray- 
ing that he may augment his company to the number of one 
hundred and fifty men. And although we find this a matter 
of great importance, as being likely to form a precedent, never- 
theless, at the recommendation of His Excellency, and out of 
respect for the good qualities of the said captain, we have 
decided not to object till further orders, provided that this 
Province shall be indemnified by the Commonwealth for the 
thirty men by which the said company is augmented beyond 
the State of War, wherein may it please your Lordships to 
inform us as to your intention, and therefore we send you 
again the said requests. 

BY ORDER OF THE STATES OF HOLLAND 
AND WEST VRIESLAND. 

At the Hague, 10th March 1622. 

To the Council of State. 

MY LORDS, In absence of the Governor I shall not neglect, 
in accordance with the letters of your Lordships, to make such 
arrangements for the departure of the soldiers out of this 
garrison as will, I am fully persuaded, give the householders 
laid under contribution no further cause to complain of the 

1 Sursantie not found. 2 See pp. 229 and 352. 



340 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1622 

remarks or improper notions of the same. I have also paid 
punctilious attention to your Lordships 1 missive, in which it is 
forbidden to respect or obey any passports, except those 
granted by the States- General, His Excellency the Prince of 
Orange, or Count Ernest Casimir of Nassau, Governor of 
Vriesland, and in consequence I have already caused several 
persons to be detained here, including English and Scots, as 
well as Netherlanders, who, without being provided with 
proper passports as formerly, had meant to betake themselves 
to the town of the enemy, or to the Archduke. As, for 
example, I have now under arrest here one Adrian Rendu, 
glass merchant, from Bevuren, in Picardy, who arrived here 
with two cases of Venetian glass, and having a passport from 
the Archduke authorising him to import them into Holland, 
but without having been provided previously for that pur- 
pose with a passport from your Lordships. And as said indi- 
vidual has some letters in his possession addressed to the 
Ambassaders of France and Venice residing in Holland, I 
thought it prudent to send herewith the said letters, with his 
passports, and other letters of no importance, all together 
committed here to his care. 

Humbly praying that your Lordships will be pleased to 
instruct me as to whether I shall permit the said individual 
with his glass wares to pass into Holland. 

(Signed) WALTER BRUCE. 

Bergen-op-den-Zoom, 22 November 



To the Council of State of the United Netherlands. 

Captain Thomas Edmond hereby humbly intimates that he, 
the petitioner, in pursuance of your Lordships' order and 
command, sent to Scotland to arrange for bringing over 
recruits to this country, by which the strength of his, the 
petitioners, company might be raised from seventy to one 
hundred and twenty men. Now it has come about that instead 
of fifty, eighty soldiers have been brought from Scotland, and 
that at excessively great expense to the petitioner. Therefore 
the Lords of the State of Holland, with the advice of His 
Excellency, consented to the request of the petitioner, that he 



1622] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 341 

should embody the said eighty soldiers in his company, and 
augment its strength to one hundred and fifty men, and that 
only for last summer, and said company to be employed afield. 
The situation of affairs is now thus : the commissioned Coun- 
cillors of the said Province of Holland, on the strength of the 
said recommendation, and considering that the Province of 
Holland, in her quota, would not be indemnified for the 
expenses of the thirty extra .soldiers, were pleased to write to 
your petitioner in February 1622, and command that he must 
reduce his company from one hundred and fifty to one hundred 
and twenty men. And as your petitioner, having left the 
field for the second time, supplied the whole company with 
new clothes, and in every way prepared them for the time 
when they would be in the field in active service, and it is the 
case that he owes to each soldier twenty car guilders, there- 
fore he, your petitioner, humbly prays and entreats that it 
may please you, in consideration of what has been said, to 
consent that he may keep his company at the number of one 
hundred and fifty men. 

To their High Mightinesses the States-General of the 
United Netherlands. 

Thomas Edmond, captain in garrison within the city Records of 
Heusden, hereby humbly maketh known that the petitioner, 
in pursuance of the resolution of your High Mightinesses, 
and by command of the Council of State, sent to Scot- 
land last year in order to bring over recruits, to increase 
his company from seventy to one hundred and twenty men. 
In arranging for this he spared neither trouble nor expense. 
And when, at a suitable time, the order was given to him by 
your High Mightinesses to bring them over, instead of fifty 
he found eighty able soldiers were brought over, so that thirty 
more soldiers were brought than he had instructions for, and 
he, the petitioner, had not on account of that received any 
transport money for these ; therefore he requests His Excel- 
lency the Prince, and the States of Holland, as regards the 
said thirty soldiers, whom he had caused to be brought over at 
excessively great expense, and whom your High Mightinesses 



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1622 

will undoubtedly find useful in the service of the State, that it 
may please your High Mightinesses to grant and consent that 
he, the petitioner, may keep his company up to the number of 
one hundred and fifty instead of one hundred and twenty men. 
Whereupon their High Mightinesses, with the knowledge and 
advice of His Excellency the Prince, were pleased to grant to 
him, the petitioner, and consent, that during the past summer 
his company would be reckoned as kept up to the number of 
one hundred and fifty men, and he would receive payment 
accordingly, and trusting to this he, the petitioner, spent a 
remarkably large sum of money in buying clothes for the 
eighty new soldiers brought over, as they were naked and bare, 
and in getting them into order and providing them with arms, 
in order that they might serve the country (and, without boast- 
ing, he hopes that he has maintained his company in as good 
order for the Lands 1 service as any captain could do). This 
being the case, the Commissioned Council of State of Holland, 
in accordance with the recommendation of their High Mighti- 
nesses, were next pleased to write to your petitioner, in Feb- 
ruary 1622, and order him to reduce his company from one 
hundred and fifty to the number of one hundred and twenty 
men. And the soldiers having been out in the field, owing to 
their camping out late in the year, and the continued bad 
weather, their clothes were rotted and worn out, and to such a 
degree that your petitioner, on coming into garrison, immedi- 
ately provided them again with new clothes, and thus he is 
out of pocket for each soldier more than twenty car guilders. 
Moreover, during the time the said company was encamped 
afield, he had not been able to deduct one stuiver from their 
pay. In like manner, during the great cold and continued 
frost, they had to be paid their wages in full. Therefore your 
petitioner humbly requests and prays that your High Mighti- 
nesses may, in consideration of the above statement, be pleased 
to consent to his continuing his company at the number of one 
hundred and fifty men, as it was at the reinforcement, so that 
he may in a measure be reimbursed for what he has laid out, 
and what he is in arrears to his soldiers. By doing which, etc. 
December 23. The advice of the Council of State of the 
25th of November last was read, regarding the petition of the 



1624] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 343 

widow of the late Colonel Sir Robert Henrissonne, to the effect 
that, although the council well understand that the request of 
the petitioner is of the highest importance as being likely to 
form a precedent, inasmuch as almost all the pensions of such 
widows have been voted in recompense for their late husbands' 
services, yet, as the husband of this petitioner behaved so fear- 
lessly and devotedly in the service of the country in support 
and defence of the town Bergen-op-Zoom, distinguishing him- 
self in opposing the first violent attack of the enemy, in 
which he was severely wounded and met his death, giving to 
all others so noble an example, the Council is of opinion that 
it deserves to be acknowledged by generous treatment of his 
widow and children, which will be left to the discretion of their 
High Mightinesses, and by doing this it is evident other 
captains and colonels will be stimulated to do likewise, and no 
less than the said colonel, in the service of the country. And 
as to the petitioner's further request for six months'* pay of her 
husband, it should be agreed to give her three months' pay. 

After discussion it was resolved for the present to postpone 
deciding about the pension asked for by the petitioner, but 
agreed to gratify her with three months of her husband's pay. 

1623, February 2. There was read over the advice of the 
Council of State, of date the 23rd of December last, regarding 
the petition of the surviving widow of the late Sir Robert 
Hinderson, with the resolution passed at the same time by 
their High Mightinesses. After a vote taken, it was resolved to 
request the Council of State to inquire if there are any vacancies 
through death in the State of War, whereby the petitioner 
might be l without burdening the State of War. 2 

To the Council of State. (Jan. 28, 1624.) 

MY LORDS, Since Jeims Forme, an Englishman or Scots- Requests to 
man, minister of the Holy Gospel to the regiments of one of g^ cU of 
the said nations, died here some days ago in this town, leaving 
behind many and divers debts for victuals, borrowed money, 
and articles borrowed from good people and burghers of this 
town and elsewhere ; and they not seeing any other prospect of 
getting paid, were obliged to seek it by putting in a claim on 

1 Word omitted, probably pensioned. 2 See pp. 59, 349, et seq. 



344 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1624 

his arrears of pay, regarding which claim they had been credibly 
informed, that they would very soon be paid. And we humbly 
petition your Lordships to intercede for those people, and on 
their behalf grant an order, and make a favourable provision, 
which we cannot justly refuse them ; and to this end we most 
humbly pray that your Lordships, in your goodness, may be 
pleased to make such favourable arrangement with those 
responsible in the matter, that the good people shall be paid 
out of the arrears of pay, so as not to awaken in them and 
others terrors and disgust at the soldiery, along with evil- 
speaking and disrespect towards the office of the ministry. 
Herewith, etc., BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN, AND THE 

COUNCIL, OF THE CITY OF NYMEGEN. 
Nymegen, the 28th January 1624. 

To the Council of State. (April 13, 1624.) 

MY LORDS, That Aert de Voocht and Andries Spruyt, 
chandler, burghers of this city, are both making valid claims 
on Lieu tenant- Colonel Allan Coutts, for payment of the sum 
of six hundred and twenty-seven car guilders nineteen stuivers 
for supplying bread and other chandler's wares, for behoof 
and in support of the said lieutenant's company, during the 
time it was in garrison in this town ; said claims corre- 
sponding with the respective bonds given for the goods. 
That the said burghers have as yet obtained no payment, 
notwithstanding different applications for payment made 
both to the said lieutenant-colonel and to others of his 
officers. Therefore, at the request of these our burghers, 
we could not neglect hereby humbly to petition and intreat 
your noble Mightinesses, that since we have certain and com- 
plete knowledge of the said delivery of goods, and as this 
was allowed entirely by our orders, with the view of support- 
ing the company, which was in need and unprovided with 
money, that you may be pleased so to arrange matters, that 
the said burghers be paid as they ought to be, whether out of 
the pay of the said lieutenant-colonel or from other sources. 
And trusting to this, etc., your noble Mightinesses' obedient 
BAILIFF, BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN AND COUNCIL 
OF THE TOWN BERGEN-ON-THE-ZOOM. 

Bergen-on-the-Zoom, 13th April 1624. 



1 624] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 345 

July 9. Mr. Joachimi explained some points. ... In the Resolutions 
seventh place, that the King has earnestly recommended the 
person of Colonel Henderson, as well as the widow of the late 
Colonel Hinderson. This will be considered in due time. 

August 31. Received a message written from Saint Croix 
[Holyrood] in Scotland, on behalf of the widow of the late 
Colonel Hinderson, by George Cancel, Mar. Melrose, which 
will be considered in due time. 

September 17. On the petition of Anna Kirkpatrick, widow 
of Colonel Sir Robert Henrisonne, to receive three months' of 
her husband's pay, assigned to her by their High Mightinesses, 
and for herself and her children a yearly pension; it was 
resolved to ask the advice of the Council of State about the 
pension prayed for, and to despatch the order for three 
months' pay on the date of the aforesaid resolution. 

September 28. The advice of the Council of State, dated 
the 20th instant, was read regarding the petition of the widow 
of Colonel Hinderson, to the effect that in the circumstances 
of this case they are of opinion that the petition of said widow 
to have a pension should be allowed and decided in her favour 
as an example to other captains and colonels. And besides, in 
case the resolution taken not to vote any pensions without the 
knowledge and consent of the provinces may cause any difficulty 
in this matter, that members of Council, and especially the 
deputies, should take measures to make the said provinces 
favourably disposed to the pension. After discussion it was 
resolved that the deputies should write to their principals. 

(Aug. 31) 

NOBLE LORDS, On the 30th August 1624, in pursuance Reports and 
of your noble Mightinesses' charge, I mustered the troops 
at Dodeweert, in the quarters of the Lord of Marquette, state, 
and administered the oath to the new English Company of 
Ramesay, referred to in your letter, and now in garrison at 
Dousburch. I reviewed also in the same place six old com- 
panies, the roll of which I herewith forward. Also the com- 
pany of Colonel the Earl of Oxford and Livingston, to-day 
accoutred with arms got from England ; but the officers of said 
company have kept the equipments, pikes, and muskets, in 



346 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1624 

order that they might restore again those arms belonging to 
the State, and which hitherto they had in use. Accordingly, 
his Excellency, Prince Henry, has authorised and charged me 
to take back from them all such arms, and send them to Delft. 
I considered it proper to inform you regarding this. Here- 
with, etc. JACOB CROESEN. 
At Dodaweert, the 31st August 1624. 

(April 25, 1625). 

List of sick and infirm soldiers who on this, the 25th April 
1625, are still in Utrecht, accommodated in the hospital, and 
at the public expense. They are respectively placed opposite 
their captains, thus : 

Captain Knichley . . 9 men 

Captain Tubbe . . 25 

Captain Edmond . . 22 

Captain Cromwell . . iv. 

Earl of Oxford . 16 

Lieutenant-Colonel Levingston 19 

1625. M&moire du Sieur Dudley Carleton, Amb r de sa Ma t& 

de la Grande Bretagne a Mess les Estats Generaidx. 
MESSIEURS, Le Colonel Grey et le Chevall r Ramsey, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel du Regiment de Mons r le Vicomte de Doncaster, 
avec tous leurs capitaines estants licentiez par Mons r le Comte 
de Mansfelt, avec charge de lever deux autres Regimens 
d'Escossais, desirent a cause de la quantite des officiers de 
marque, qu'ils ont avec eux, d'estre suppedites d'un des na vires 
de guerre de V.V.S.S. en Zelande. 

En quoy ie supplie V.V.S.S. de les favorir [sic], 

DUDLEY CARLETOX. 
Captaines. Captaine Willoughbie 



Ser* Maj. Prewde 
Captaine Courtney 
Sprye 
Clarke 
Corbett 
Gibson 
Killigrewe 
,, Morton 
Yorcke 
., Could well 



Clapham 

Officers 

Lieut. Norwood 
Smith 
Trefuse 
Gilpiri 
Hollett 
Griffin 
Hackluyt 

Ffarren 



1 62 5] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 347 



Lieut. Ffryer 
Watkins 
Payton 
,, Betteridge 
Richardson 
,3 Ogle 
Hamen 
Standish 
Jackson 
Betts 



Lieut. Shuborough 

Ensigne Temple 
Bradley 
Kennithorpe 
} , Ascough 
Si Bradley 
s , Abram 
Gonntrey 
Powell 
Raynsford 



Mathewes 
Points recommandez a Mess 5 les Estats. (Exhib. June 24, 1625.) 

Qu'on scache le temps quand la flotte de 20 navires sera 
preste, afin d'en faire estat en Angleterre, et apprester tout ce 
qu'y doit estre embarque icy pour Fadvancement du service. 

Puisque Mess 8 les Estats ne se contentent pas de la proposi- 
tion d'avoir certains officiers et quelques soldats hors de chaque 
Compagnie (ce qui a este par ceux qui ont faict la proposition 
juge tres utile pour le service et plus practicable icy sans 
aucun prejudice considerable), ains persister a fournir Com- 
pagnies entiers, au lieu de dix ils sont priez de prester 20 
Compagnies et permettre qu'on face tout debvoir de les rendre 
complettes, prenant sains au lieu de malades et volontaires en 
place de ceux qui sur juste raison s'excusent. 

Qu'en cas que les compagnies nominees ayent defaut d'offi- 
ciers, qu'il soit permis d'en prendre autres en leurs places. 

Qu^on face liquidation avec les Compagnies, qu'on donne 
protection aux officiers qui seront employez et a leurs femmes 
et biens durant leur absence ; et qu'on donne acte de reprendre 
les compagnies en service de TEstat a leur retour. Puisque 
Mess rs les Estats sont contents de prester une compagnie de 
carabins a Sa M. on desire du Cheval r Balfore Escossois, 1 lequel 
s'employe volontiers; et afin qu'il se puisse mettre en estat, 
que conge luy soit donne de se retirer avec sa Compagnie en 
garnison, et que quelques navires convenables soy en t ordonnez 
a prix raisonnable pour le transport de la d te Compagnie, Que 
le Capitaine Omkrys, Ingenieur, soit mande icy, et que Mess 8 
les Estats soyent contents d^employer sur leurs navires matrossess 



1 See also p. 367. 



348 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1625 

(comme leurs Deputez ont promis) pour servir selon les occa- 
sions a Tartillerie. 

Que prompte resolution soit prise afin de mettre le tout 
aussy tost en execution. 

[On the demand of the King, a certain number of English 
and Scots troops in the Netherlands passed for some time into 
the service of the King.] 

June 20. Sur la nouvelle proposition du S r Dudley Carleton, 
chevalier Ambassadeur du Roy de la Grande Bretagne, ensemble 
du General Cecil et du chevalier S* Leger faite en Tassemblee 
des S rs Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies, a este accorde 
qu'au lieu des dix cornp 68 presentees par' lesd 8 S rs Estats, et du 
choix des cincq musquettaires de chaque comp e demandez par 
les d ts S rs Carleton, Cecil et S* Leger, il sera permis aux officiers 
mis sur la liste icy attachee et signee par leur Greffier, a scavoir 
aux sept capitaines, dix huit Lieutenants, et six enseignes, de 
se rendre pour Tespace de trois mois de paie, suivant Fordre 
du pays, au service et solde de Sa d te Maj 6 de la Grande 
Bretaigne, entendans leurs Seigneuries, que cependant les places 
des d s officiers leur demeureront, et qu'ils ne prendront aucuns 
soldats avec eux. 

Comme aussi qu^il sera permis a une compagnie carabins de 
s'emploier au service et solde de sa d e Ma t< , reservans toutesfois 
a ulterieure deliberation, si ce sera la Comp i6 du Capitaine 
Balfour ou une autre. 

Consentans en outre que les d ts officiers s^embarquent dans les 
vaisseaux de vingt, qui seront les premiers prests pour aller a 
Pleimouth. 

Quant a Tachapt de deux mille Corselets, puisque les Maga- 
sins selon Topinion de leurs Seig ies en sont garnis, elles sont 
contantes que Tachapt s^en face, Comme aussi que les d ts S ra 
Carleton, Cecil et S 1 Leger facent emporter les dix pieces de 
fonte, appellees dragues par eux achaptees. Mais pour le 
prest de six autres, puis qu'elles appartiennent a Mons r le 
Prince d'Orange, leurs Seig ries n'en peuvent disposer. 

Ainsi fait en Tassemblee des d 8 S rs Estats Generaux a la 
Haye, le xx de Juin 1625. 

S. v. HAEHSOLTE, FR> 



1626} 



RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 



349 



Annexa. (Exhib. June 21, 1625) 
Dese lyste is geaccordeert 



Capptaines 
O Sprye 

Gibson 

Killiegrewe 

Morton 

Willoughbie 

Yorke 

Clappam 

L fc Bhuborough 
Ensign Temple 
Carleton 
Abram 
Countrey 
Howell 
Kaynsford 



Officers 

Norwood 

Prefase 

Gilpin 

Orifkin 1 

Hakluywe 

Warren 



,, 

Ffryer 



Watkins 

Sibsporpe 

Betteridge 

Kirgardhome 

gle 

Hamen 

Standish 

Gackhome 

Betts 

Mathewes 



1626, January 30. After discussion on the petition of Resolutions 
Mrs. Anna Kirpatrick, widow of the late Colonel Sir Robert 
Henrisonne, in consideration of the fact that her husband 
aforesaid stood out devotedly in face of the enemy at Bergen- 
op-Zoom in the service of the Land, the sum of three hundred 
guilders annually, during the whole of her life, is voted to 
the said widow. 

May 19. The resolution of January 30th last, taken on the 
petition of the widow of Colonel Sir Robert Henrisonne for a 
pension, having been received, it was resolved that, instead of 
three hundred guilders voted to her then, a pension of five 
hundred guilders annually for life, commencing on this date, 
be assigned to her, as now it is hereby assigned. 

May 22. In regard to the petition of the widow of Colonel 
Hindersonne, that the pension of five hundred guilders per 
annum, voted to her on the 19th instant, shall be settled on 
her children, and shall commence from the date of her hus- 
band's death, it was resolved to ask for the advice of the 
Council of State. 



1 Ariskin or Erskine ? 



350 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1626 

June 5. The advice of the Council of State, in regard to 
the widow of Colonel Henderson, of date the 30th of May last, 
was read, to the effect that the pension of five hundred guilders 
per annum voted to said widow is purely gratuitous and a 
favour, and ought thus to continue for her lifetime only, but 
that its commencement should be allowed to date from the 
time of her husband's death. After discussion and considera- 
tion of the fact that the said widow has already before this 
drawn twelve hundred guilders, the aforesaid resolution of 19th 
May last was adhered to, and accordingly it was resolved that 
said pension shall continue during the lifetime of the said 
widow only, and commence on the 19th of May last. 

Recommendation of Rev. George Clerk. 

Sept. 25, 1626. 

MY LORDS, Dominus Georgius Clerus, a minister of God's 
Word, with churches and congregations of the English and 
Scottish nations at Bergen-op-Zoom, has intimated and 
declared to us that he intends to address himself to your 
Lordships to make a request to you, not only for subsidy and 
augmentation of his yearly stipend ; but at the same time to 
complain about some English captains, here in garrison, to the 
effect, that they withhold from him, [and] refuse to pay and 
supply him monthly with such sums as they ought and are 
bound to pay to him ; and that he is not so well used nor paid 
by them as the ministers in other towns and places, where 
men of the same nation are in garrison, and also seeing that 
his predecessors, in whose place he was appointed, had been 
recompensed differently, and consequently he being (under 
correction) of no inferior condition ought to be treated the same; 
and with that end in view he has requested from us writings 
and letters of recommendation dealing with the matter. And 
in addition, taking into consideration that during his residence 
here we have never hitherto had any other rumour or report 
but that he has conducted and comported himself as an 
honourable young man, and that he has done nothing out of 
keeping with his ministerial office, but always conducted him- 
self in a way becoming a minister of God's Word, and as he 
ought to do. Therefore we most obediently pray and entreat 



1627] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 351 

that it may be your Lordships' good pleasure to dispose 
favourably of the request and remonstrance of the said Dom. 
Georgij, that thereby he may obtain contentment and some 
satisfaction. And also hoping that our recommendation may 
bear some fruit in his favour. Herewith, etc., 

BAILIFF, BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN, AND COUNCIL OF THE 
CITY BERGEN-ON-THE-ZOOM AFORESAID. 

At Bergen-on-Zoom, 25th September 1626. 

Feb. 6, 1627. 

MY LORDS, We have received your Lordship's missive, 
with the petition of Captain James Lindsay and some annexed 
documents. Since your Lordships have not thought proper to 
dispose of the prayer of the petition without previously 
obtaining our advice, therefore in accordance with your request 
we have seen and examined the said petition and annexed 
documents ; and having well and ripely weighed the contents 
thereof, and having found the same to be genuine, it appears 
to us (subject to the decision of your Lordships), that said 
request by the said Captain Lindsay, in that respect, and for 
other reasons and considerations, may well be agreed to (as far 
as your Lordships are concerned), and he may now consequently 
be allowed, after previous legal proclamation, to solemnise a 
legal marriage with Miss Ysabelle Moubray. And returning 
herewith the said petition and annexed papers to your Lord- 
ships, etc. Your Lordships 1 good friends, 

THE PRESIDENT AND COUNCILLORS OF THE HIGH 
COUNCIL OF HOLLAND, ZEALAND AND FRIESLAND. 

At the Hague, 6th February 1627. 

Feb. 22, 1627. 

NOBLE LORDS, We informed your Lordships before this 
that certain captains of the new English companies, who 
have been here in garrison, decidedly refuse to pay Dominus 
Georgius Clerus, minister of God's Word to the people of the 
English and Scottish nations here, his monthly stipend for his 
services, telling your Lordships this in order that he might be 
accommodated with his pay. And since nothing as yet has 
come of it, no payment having been made to him. And 



352 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1627 

because (as affirmed by the said captains in an abusive manner 
without ground or reasons) that they have not been rightly 
served by the said Dominus Georgio Clero. Nevertheless we have 
ample knowledge, and are fully convinced, that the said Clerus 
comported himself in his services and conversation as becomes 
a servant of God's Word, and as he ought to do ; and we have 
never heard a word to the contrary, so that nothing else can 
be surmised, except that their evil reports arise from hostility to 
his person, and serve as a pretext for not paying him ; although 
the said officers had been in the habit of paying for two or 
three months. Therefore we felt ourselves a second time com- 
pelled earnestly to beseech your Lordships, for the sake of 
religion, that the complaint of the said Dominus Clerus be put 
an end to, and the arrears of his stipend paid in full ; whereby 
great favour and kindness will be shown to the said Clerus. 
And trusting to this, etc., 

BAILIFF, BURGOMASTERS, ALDERMEN AND THE COUNCIL 
OF THE CITY OF BERGEN-ON-THE-ZOOM. 

May 11. The request of Captain Mongo Hamilton 1 that 
the pension of one hundred guilders, settled on the life of his 
wife, Hester Sideniske, may be settled on the life of Elizabeth 
van Duinen, was refused. 

The request of the said Hamilton to enter the service of 
the King of Denmark, and for that purpose to have leave of 
absence, was also refused. 

May 21. The request of Captain Mongo Hamilton to enter 
the service of the King of Denmark, while retaining his post 
here, was refused, as being contrary to the regulations of the 
Land. 

June 4. A letter received from the King of Great Britain, 
written on behalf of Captain Mongo Hamilton, to the effect that 
he may be permitted to enter the service of the King of Den- 
mark, as sergeant-major of a Scottish regiment, which also 
Mr. Buchneer earnestly recommended, even though pay should 
not be given him during his absence. But it was resolved not to 
consider the matter, in accordance with the fixed and inviolable 
resolution against this formerly taken regarding absent officers. 

1 See p. 70. 



1628] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 353 

June 16. The advice of the Council of State is to be asked 
in regard to the request of Margaret Davidson, widow of Cap- 
tain Andrew Donalson, to have an appointment for her son. 

July 10. Resolved to ask the advice of the Council of State 
in regard to Mrs. Johanna Turck, widow of the late Captain 
Henry Levigston 1 [sic\ requesting that her three sons may 
receive appointments, each on monthly pay, in the company 
of their late father or some other. 

July 23. As the Council of State advised that the request 
of the widow of Levingston, made on the 10th instant, to have 
her three sons appointed to a company, would be a matter of 
importance as a precedent, their honours refused it. 



Report from before Groll. 

Augt. 2nd, 1627. 

NOBLE MIGHTY LORDS, . . . Those within kept up a hot Bequests to 

CouncJ" 
State. 



musketry fire both night and day, but did little damage. Counc11 of 



Yesterday Drummond, 2 sergeant-major of Colonel Brog, was 
shot in the head, and mortally wounded. . . . Your Hon. 
Mightinesses obedient, (S.) R. HUYGHENS p. de Roovere. 
The army before Groll, on this the 2nd of August 1627. 

To the Hon. etc. Lords Councillors of the States of 
these Provinces. (May 27, 1628.) 

MY LORDS, As I understand from your missive, that you Requests sent 
have learned that my company is neither properly armed nor 
my soldiers well clothed, let it serve for answer, that the com- 
plaint is too general, and made without a vestige of truth in 
it; and that my company is as well provided with weapons 
and men as any private company in these Provinces, which 
may be said without boasting, as will appear from ocular 
demonstration at the review. Then in regard to the clothing 
of the soldiers, I cannot answer as to that part of the com- 
plaint, as they draw their full pay, and have nothing to com- 
plain of in my conduct towards them. But it is no wonder 
that the clothes of my soldiers are not so good as it is desirable 

1 See p. 69. 2 See p. 230. 



354 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1628 

they should be, seeing they have dwelt so long in such an in- 
convenient, difficult, and objectionable locality, the inconveni- 
ence and misery of which are sufficiently known, out of which 
were they once removed, and led to another place more suit- 
able to those of my nation, the said soldiers would be as well 
provided with clothing as those of any other company. I have 
thus far done as much as I could for my company. Here- 
with, etc. Your Hon. Mightinesses 1 obedient servant, 

(Signed) PITCAIRN. 
At Rees, 7th May 1628. 

June T %, 1628. 

MY LORDS, I duly received your missive of the 3rd June, in 
which your Lordships are pleased to commission me to sell to 
the highest bidder the horses of the two servants, belonging 
to the company of the Cavalry Captain Carrie, and also the 
one discovered by me, in the company of Cavalry Captain 
Edmond, at the last muster held by me on the 23rd May. 

I received later another missive from your Lordships of the 
16th inst., from which I learn that Cavalry Captain Edmond 
had been summoned before you, and excused himself by saying 
that it is difficult to procure troopers in these times, par- 
ticularly among the carabineers, and that they must employ 
all kinds of artifice in order to promote the public service ; or, 
that they must receive men under the pretext that they are 
taking them into their own private service, in order in that 
manner to get them into the company. Whereupon your 
Lordships were pleased to order me to write you my advice 
as to this. Let me add therefore for your information, with 
all submission, that in present circumstances it is really difficult 
to obtain horsemen, both in the case of the cuirassiers and in 
that of the arquebusiers ; nevertheless, not to such an extent 
that it is needful to resort to such practices (as they know 
too well) as are alleged by the Cavalry Captain Edmond. 
However, I believe, yea also find, that such things do happen 
to some, who are either their relations or servants, who have 
served them well in private, but are without means to mount 
themselves. They provide them with horses and weapons, 
and manage to get paid in the course of time, so that they 



1 628] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 355 

have every opportunity for said artifices in the case of such 
troopers or servants. Edmond's quartermaster likewise de- 
clared to me that he intends to act in that way ; also Jan 
van Maurick, corporal under Captain Carrie, intends to proceed 
in a similar manner, as the servant is his nephew. Indeed, 
your Lordships, in your great wisdom, may well conclude that 
much fraud can be committed under this cloak. As to myself, 
I judged the said servants from their own words, because they 
declared that the horses belonged not to them but to their 
masters. Now as to why I did not retain the servant of the 
quartermaster with the horse, according to your written in- 
struction, referred to in my former letter, I did not, because 
as soon as I ordered the servant to give up the horse he bolted, 
and hid himself among the people, and still gives the camp a 
wide berth. Your Lordships were also pleased to order me 
to retain the horse on which the quartermaster's servant was 
mounted if not already sold. Well, I sold both it and the 
other two horses in one lot a day previously for the sum of 
thirty pounds Flemish, from which must be deducted the ex- 
penses of the horses' livery, and also the livery master's wages 
for the one with a tumour on the neck, for the quartermaster's 
horse was not thought much of, as it had strangles badly, and 
he had himself tried to sell it before then. 

This is the substance of what I have to inform your Lord- 
ships regarding these matters; therefore I humbly pray you 
to direct me how to employ the money received. I am often 
requested by certain of the magistracy here, and also by others, 
to recommend the business of the said cavalry most favourably 
to your Lordships, in order that favour may be bestowed 
on them. Also this example has produced panic enough 
among the cavalry. But as such a recommendation does 
not come well from me, I at once leave such matters to the wise 
judgment and good discretion, etc. Your Hon. Mightinesses 
servant, (signed) CHRISTIAEN TER SPYCKEN. 

At Nymegen, the ^ June 1628. 



June 12. There was read over the resolution taken last Resolutions of 
Saturday with reference to the disbanding of the four Scottish 



356 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1628 

regiments 1 which came from Staden under General Morgan, and 
it was also mentioned that Secretary Gunter has requested 
that these regiments shall be still retained for a period of three 
weeks, he being satisfied that the payment for their main- 
tenance and service during this time would be reckoned as 
a deduction from the amount of succour promised to His 
Majesty the King of Denmark. After discussion it was re- 
solved and agreed to to have the said regiments disbanded 
at the place where they are in garrison by a Commissary of 
Muster; and considering that the disbanding cannot be pro- 
perly carried out unless their claims were first satisfied and 
their maintenance and services since the day when they came 
into garrison till the day of their being disbanded were paid, 
the said Commissary shall be given letters patent to Philippo 
Calandrini at Amsterdam, summoning him to pay for the said 
maintenance ; and in case the said Calandrini should refuse, 
the said Commissary shall, notwithstanding, in the last resort, 
betake himself to Harderwyck, Elburgh, and Hattum, these 
being the towns where the said Scots are in garrison, and 
request the magistrates of these towns to advance the money 
for the said support and services, promising that the Receiver 
Doubleth shall speedily refund to them the money, or give 
them bills of security ; and for this purpose he is also to be 
furnished with letters to the several magistrates aforesaid. 

October 17. The petition of Johanna Turck, widow of the 
knight Sir Henry Leveston, 2 to have her three sons John, 
James, and Alexander Leveston appointed to the company 
of their late father, now commanded by Patrick Murray. It 
was, after discussion, resolved to refer to the Council of State 
for their advice. 

November 24. The advice of the Council of State, adopted 
on the 31st of October last, in regard to the petition of the 
widow of the late Captain Henry Leveston, that her three 
little sons may be appointed to the company of their late 



1 These regiments had apparently been serving in Denmark. Transfers from 
the service of one power to another were not uncommon, and there are other 
allusions to troops intended for service on the Baltic or in Germany passing, 
through the Low Countries and even being temporarily in Dutch pay. 

2 See pp. 69 and 353. 



1628] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 357 

father, was read, giving the same advice : that, owing to the 
danger of its serving as a precedent, the petition cannot be 
considered. After discussion, however, their Lordships resolved 
hereby to authorise the Council of State to give John Leveston, 
the petitioner's eldest son, an appointment in the company of 
Patrick Murray. 

December 6. The President communicated to their High 
Mightinesses a letter from Johan de Kesseler, written at Brussels 
on November 25th last, and addressed to Gerrardt van Berckel, 
Mayor of Rotterdam, regarding the proceedings instituted 
and carried on before the Court of Brabant, sitting at The 
Hague, by John Waddel, a captain in the service of their High 
Mightinesses, against the Countess of Megen, as possessing his 
mortgage bonds, and as mother and guardian of her son, Albert 
de Croy, being a minor, future Count of Megen, residing at 
Brussels, and summoned by edict. After discussion, it was 
resolved to place this letter, with the additional documents, 
in the hands of the Court of Brabant, to examine and give 
advice about them as soon as possible, as they know that 
there is periculum in mora. 

December 9. Received a missive from the Supreme and 
other Courts of Brabant, written in The Hague on the 8th 
instant, containing a reply to the missive of their High Mighti- 
nesses of the 6th instant, and advice in regard to a letter of 
Johan de Kesseler, Lord of Marquette, written to Gerard van 
Berckel, Mayor of Rotterdam, concerning the proceedings of 
Captain John Waddel, instituted and continued before them, 
against the Countess of Megen, as possessing the mortgage 
bonds of the said Waddel, and as mother and guardian of her 
son, Albert de Croy, being a minor, Count of Megen, residing 
at Brussels. After discussion, it was resolved to let justice 
have and take its course. 



358 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1626 



III 

RESOLUTIONS, RELATING TO CAPTAIN 
WILLIAM DOUGLAS 

1626-1629 

1626, December 21. A petition having been presented by a 
Scottish nobleman named William Douglas, 1 in which he asks 
for a patent for guns, with which one trooper will be able 
to shoot as many times as six do now. Also for a pike, 
which can be used to do the work both of a musketeer and a 
pikeman ; and for some other inventions. It is resolved that 
Controller van der Mylen shall examine the said inventions ; 
and if they are good and something new, that a patent for 
them is to be given. 

December 28. Controller van der Mylen having reported that 
William Douglas has no samples of the articles invented here, 
but that he requests to have trustworthy persons indicated to 



1 Captain William Douglas succeeded Sir Walter Bruce in command of his 
company on ist June 1627. He was dead before 2Qth November 1629, when he 
was succeeded by Walter Scott. 

Sir Thomas Urquhart in his Eskubalauron thus refers probably to this 
Captain Douglas : * A great many other worthy colonels, amongst which I 
will only commemorate one, named Colonel Douglas, who to the States of 
Holland was often times serviceable in discharging the office and duty of general 
engineer ; whereof they are now so sensible, that to have him alive again, and of 
that vigour and freshness in body and spirit, wherewith he was endowed on the 
day he was killed on, they would give thrice his weight in gold, and well they 
might, for some few weeks before the fight in which he was slain, he presented to 
them twelve articles and heads of such wonderful feats for the use of the wars 
both by sea and land to be performed by him, flowing from the remotest springs 
of mathematical search and those of natural philosophy that none of this age 
saw.' 

In the opinion of the Knight of Cromarty, Douglas was only surpassed by 
Archimedes, and only equalled * in this age of the Scottish nation ' by Napier of 
Merchiston and the 'Admirable Crichton.' 



1627] CAPTAIN WILLIAM DOUGLAS 359 

him, by whom he can have them manufactured at his own cost, 
the said Van der Mylen was authorised to provide him with 
some trustworthy workmen. 

1627, January 30. With reference to the remonstrance pre- 
sented by William Douglas, complaining that he cannot obtain 
workmen to his satisfaction, and requesting that his inventions 
may be examined ; it was resolved that the request be placed 
in the hands of the Council of State, in order to hear the 
opinions of officers conversant with such matters, and to dis- 
pose of the business. 

March 2. The advice of the Council of State was read, 
dated the 27th February last, with regard to the petition of 
William Douglas, a Scottish nobleman, and in accordance with 
this advice it was resolved that a patent be given him for the 
period of twenty years, to the effect that no one is to be 
allowed in this country to imitate, sell, or trade in his newly 
invented contrivances, fifteen in number, on penalty of for- 
feiture of such articles, and in addition, a fine of one thousand 
guilders, to be applied in the way usual in such cases, always 
provided that said contrivances are new inventions, never 
before used in these Lands, and that they shall be brought 
into working order within a year from this date. And, inas- 
much as the said inventor is asking a grant, in the first place 
for the invention of a new kind of gun, with which one soldier, 
infantry or cavalry, can fire as many shots as six soldiers with 
ordinary guns, there was allowed a premium of five thousand 
guilders ; and in the second place, the invention of a pike, with 
which a soldier can do the work not only of a pikeman, but 
also of a musketeer, a like premium of five thousand guilders. 
For the third invention of a foot-carriage [?] by means of 
which one soldier can take the place or do the work of a hun- 
dred musketeers a premium of twenty thousand guilders. 
And for the fourth invention a horse-carriage, by means of 
which, with the assistance of one person and two horses, the 
work of two hundred cuirassiers can be performed a life 
premium of twenty thousand guilders. And inasmuch also as 
the said inventor has requested a monthly pay of five hundred 
guilders till his inventions are completed, and seeing a part of 
the army is to be armed with the aforesaid new weapons, it 



360 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1627 

was resolved that he be provided with maintenance, at the said 
monthly pay. It was after discussion thereanent agreed and 
resolved, in accordance with the aforesaid advice, that the 
inventor must manufacture his contrivances at his own cost, 
and thereafter should they answer to his representations of 
them, he is to be complimented in the manner he requests ; he 
being allowed three months for making proof of them. And 
should they be approved of and completed to the satisfaction 
of their High Mightinesses, his pay shall commence and be 
paid from that time, it being also understood that he shall not 
communicate his inventions to any one other than the King of 
Great Britain, from whom he declares he has already received 
a patent. 

April 8. William Douglas having offered to produce an 
invention, by which at any time three shots can be fired with 
artillery with as much facility as one shot is now, on condition 
of his receiving for it a premium of five thousand guilders, 
it was resolved to obtain the advice of the Council of State 
about it. 

April 13. The Council of State advises, with reference to 
the petition presented by William Douglas on the 8th inst., 
that if his intention to fire three shots with a cannon as 
quickly as one shot is now fired be found practicable and 
serviceable for the country, the prize of five thousand guilders 
shall be granted to him. But it was not found advisable to 
enter into this matter, and it was only agreed to grant him a 
patent. 

April 21. At the request of William Douglas to have com- 
missioners to examine his work, Messrs, van Noortwyck and 
Vosberg were appointed such. 

April 24*. Messrs. Van Noortwyck and Vosberg, having 
seen yesterday the trial made by William Douglas of the quick- 
firing of the cannon, namely, three shots against one, reported 
that he fired five shots in the time in which with other guns 
only two were fired. Whereupon it was resolved that the said 
Douglas should make another trial in presence of His Ex- 
cellency and commissioners from the Council of State; and 
this done, that then the Council of State should inquire and 
advise what advantage could be obtained from the said inven- 



1627} CAPTAIN WILLIAM DOUGLAS 361 

tion for the country, and what ought to be done with regard 
to the inventor. 

May 17. The advice of the Council of State was read, of 
date the 14th inst., with reference to the business of William 
Douglas, to the effect that he had made another trial of his 
quick-firing in presence of His Excellency and a member of 
the Council, and that he be allowed to make yet another trial, 
at the country's expense, of having two cannons cast, the one 
joined to the other, according to his plan. That they should 
also give him leave to make an instrument, as his design is, for 
using this quick-firing method on ships. And that, these 
inventions being proved and found good, recompense be given 
to him according to the promise made. After discussion 
thereanent, it was resolved to authorise the Council of State 
to dispose of the matter as they may think advantageous for 
the country. 

1628, January 22. With reference to the request of Cap- 
tain Douglas to be paid, according to the resolution of March 
2nd, 1627, for the new muskets invented by him, it is resolved 
that the Council of State shall attend to this, 

February 16. Regarding the complaint of Captain Douglas 
that the contract which the Council of State made with him is 
not kept, it is agreed to look up former resolutions, and that 
in the meantime Mr. Walta shall speak to the Council of 
State about the keeping of the said contract. 

March 18. Messrs. Nobel or Schagen, Walta, and SchafFer 
were appointed commissioners to confer with His Excellency 
about the case of Captain Douglas; and the said Douglas 
shall be permitted to hand in a statement of the sums due to 
him, to be placed in the hands of the Council of State, to be 
disposed of by them in a proper manner. 

April 8. The resolution referring to the report on the 
business of Captain Douglas was inserted in the private or 
secret register. 

Extracts from the Register of the Secret Resolutions of the 

States-General. 

April 8. Messrs. Nobel, Walta, and SchafFer, commissioned 
on March 18th last to discuss with His Excellency the case of 



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1628 

Captain Douglas, reported that he is willing to undertake to 
sink the enemy's ships in ' Het Scheurtge, 1 and also to set the 
others on fire, for the premium offered in their High Mighti- 
nesses 1 proclamation issued for the destruction of the several 
ships, and such compensation as their High Mightinesses and 
His Excellency, in consideration of his skill and expenses 
(which he will bear himself) shall consider reasonable; pro- 
vided that the expenses be first refunded to him which he had 
to incur in exhibiting his other inventions, in making the 
models, and otherwise, and that the five hundred guilders per 
month be also paid him which were promised to him by resolu- 
tion of the Council of State, and approved of by their High 
Mightinesses, and this without prejudice to the pay he draws 
as captain, and also that said pay continue during the time 
the aforesaid projects are being carried out. After discussion 
thereanent, the above-mentioned gentlemen are authorised to 
take action in the matter, with the advice of His Excellency. 

April 24. Messrs. Walta and SchafFer, who were commis- 
sioned along with Mr. Nobel to conclude the business with 
Captain Douglas, reported that, in addition to the conditions 
contained in the above resolution of April 8th, he requests 
letters-patent for himself and his two brothers for a period of 
twenty-three years, to the effect that nobody at sea shall 
imitate his inventions. And in case their High Mightinesses 
should desire at any time to use the weapons invented by him, 
that the premium appointed in that case shall be granted him. 
To which their High Mightinesses consented ; the aforesaid 
gentlemen being once more requested to see the matter put 
through, with advice of His Excellency. As he also requests 
to be allowed to export some of his manufactured weapons to 
other potentates, it is resolved to take the advice of the 
Council of State on that point. 

April 26. Messrs. Nobel, Walta, and Schaffer, having 
reported about the agreement made with Captain Douglas, it 
was approved, and the Council of State was instructed to 
despatch an order for twelve thousand guilders, in settlement 
of his past expenses, according to the said agreement, inserted 
here, as follows : 



1 628] CAPTAIN WILLIAM DOUGLAS 363 

Memorandum of the Agreement or Contract made on behalf 
of their High Mightinesses with Captain William Douglas, 
April Z5th, 1628. 

As to the remonstrance presented by Captain William 
Douglas to their High Mightinesses with reference to the 
sinking, burning, and destruction of the enemy's vessels in 
the roads of ' Het Scheurken ' and the harbour of Dunkirk, 
and elsewhere, their High Mightinesses commissioned Messrs. 
Nobel, Waltha, and Schaffer, with the advice and consent of 
the Prince of Orange, to make a provisional contract with the 
said Douglas, and to report about it to their High Mighti- 
nesses. After they had taken action accordingly, and pre- 
sented a report to their High Mightinesses and my lord the 
Prince of Orange, on April 24th last, the above-mentioned 
commissioners were again requested by their High Mighti- 
nesses and my lord the Prince of Orange, and fully authorised, 
as principals, to contract, conclude, and settle with Captain 
Douglas. 

Accordingly the said commissioners contracted and agreed 
with Captain Douglas as follows : 

In the first place, the said Captain Douglas hereby under- 
takes and promises that he, with his two brothers, at their own 
expense, risk, and trouble, shall sink, destroy, or burn the 
ships (which carry guns and are in the enemy's service) in 
' Het Scheurtgen,' and in the harbour of Dunkirk, and else- 
where (as their High Mightinesses may determine). On the 
sole condition that the country shall contribute for the pur- 
pose a man-of-war, with two or three sloops, to convey the 
said Douglas to the place or its neighbourhood, so as to put 
his appliances into action, and, after having done this, to 
allow him to return in the same man-of-war, and nothing 
more. For which service aforesaid Captain Douglas, at the 
express command of their High Mightinesses and my lord the 
Prince of Orange, is promised by the said commissioners, and 
they do hereby promise to pay, at the office of the Receiver- 
General Doublet, for every ship of the kind above described, 
as follows : 

For a ship over 100 tons, . . . 30,000 guilders. 
70 tons, . . . 20,000 



364 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1628 

For a ship over 50 tons to 70 tons, . 15,000 guilders. 
30 tons, v . . 10,000 

20 tons, . . . 8,000 
For a yacht below 20 tons, and provided 

with at least four small guns, . . 4,000 
For a frigate which can be propelled by 

twelve oars on each side, . . . 8,000 
For a ship's boat or long boat with eight 

thwarts or sixteen oars, . . . 2,000 
For a ship's boat or long boat with six 

thwarts, ...... 1,200 

For a ship's boat or long boat with four 

thwarts, . . .... 600 

And, besides, the said Captain Douglas shall have as his own, 
and retain as his undisputed property, all ships, yachts, sloops, 
cannon, anchors, cables, merchandise, and all other things, 
without exception, which he can save from the enemy's ships 
(which he, in the manner aforesaid, may sink, destroy, or 
burn). It is also agreed that the said Captain Douglas, in 
addition to the aforesaid premium, shall now immediately be 
indemnified and paid in ready money for the expenses incurred 
by him and the trouble expended by him on his former inven- 
tions, on the cannon made, the pikes, muskets, and other 
things, of which the models are and will remain in the posses- 
sion of the country, in full satisfaction of the statement handed 
in by him, the total sum being twelve thousand guilders. 

And when he has effected all the above on the enemy's ships, 
the aforesaid Receiver-General shall, in addition to the said 
sum of twelve thousand guilders, settle with and pay him the 
sum of eight thousand guilders, which were promised him for 
his former invention of cannon and muskets, according to the 
Act of the Council of State, and the resolution of their High 
Mightinesses of March 2nd, 1627. And as the said Captain 
Douglas will put into action and carry out against the enemy's 
ships all the things above mentioned at his own expense and 
risk, except for a man-of-war with two or three (ship's) boats, 
as was said before, while, on the other hand, all and sundry, 
by proclamations of their High Mightinesses, were granted 



1628] CAPTAIN WILLIAM DOUGLAS 365 

leave to win the aforesaid premiums with the country's ships, 
arms, and men, at the country's expense, therefore it had to 
be taken into consideration what extra premium he ought to 
have and enjoy as a recompense. And this is to be so much 
as my lord the Prince of Orange shall adjudge and award, in 
whose hands the whole matter has been placed and now 
remains. And if this contract be completely and effectually 
carried out, the said Captain Douglas shall, in addition to 
what has been specified before, Deceive from the Receiver- 
General, for life irrevocably, a pension of five hundred guilders 
per month, payable monthly. Lastly, the said Captain 
Douglas has further been promised, in case his former inven- 
tion (which as yet has not been approved of practical value) 
be afterwards at any time employed or used in this country, 
that in that case their High Mightinesses shall allow him for 
it the conditions, premium, and payment in the Act of March 
2nd, 1627 ; and that the said Douglas, with his two brothers, 
shall be granted for all the aforesaid inventions letters-patent 
for a period of twenty -three years, in debita forma. 

April 29. The Council of State having intimated, with 
reference to the application of Captain Douglas, that they do 
not know what weapons and to what potentate he wishes to 
send them ; it was resolved that a designation of the weapons, 
delivered to-day by him be handed over to the Council of 
State, that they may take action in the matter. 

July 3. The petition of Douglas was read requesting that 
their High Mightinesses would provide him, at reasonable 
wages to be paid by the petitioner, with some trusty workmen 
to help in the manufacture of his proposed contrivances. After 
discussion thereanent, it was resolved to send the petitioner's 
request, along with a letter to Mr. Nobel, at present in Rot- 
terdam, enjoining and desiring him with the co-operation of the 
magistrate of that town, to provide the petitioner, according 
to his request, with some trusty workmen. 

September 6. The remonstrance was read of Captain 
William Douglas, asking for a warship and some ship boats 
with two hundred pounds of gunpowder to be used in his 
intended enterprise. Secondly, for a mandate, by which the 
captains, sailors, and soldiers serving on the men-of-war on the 



366 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1628 

coast of Flanders shall be ordered to obey him in whatever 
may be done for the benefit of the country. Thirdly, for pay- 
ment of the money granted him by the last contract. Fourthly, 
for an authentic copy of the said contract. After discussion 
thereanent, it was resolved to remit these points to the Council 
of State for advice. 

September 7. The petition of Captain William Douglas, 
presented yesterday to their High Mightinesses, being brought 
up again for consideration, it was resolved and decided, after 
discussion, that an order for the sum of twelve thousand 
guilders on the Receiver- General Doubleth be sent him ; the 
Council of State is also hereby requested to send to the said 
Douglas meanwhile, in part payment of the aforesaid sum, 
two hundred pounds of gunpowder from the country's magazine, 
that letters of introduction be granted him to His Excellency 
as soon as he shall be ready to carry into action his intended 
exploit, in order that three ships' 1 boats and as many soldiers 
and sailors be placed at his disposal as he may require for 
manning and managing the said vessels, as well as a man-of- 
war in which he has leave to retire. 

And, as regards the required copy of the contract between 
their High Mightinesses and him, drawn up and concluded on 
April 25th last, which is set down in their book of secret 
resolutions, there are found to be difficulties in the way of 
granting it, till he shall have carried out his exploit. 

September 15. Mr. van Noortwyck brings to the notice of 
the meeting that on the 7th inst., at the request of Captain 
William Douglas, it was resolved that an order should be de- 
spatched to him on Receiver- General Doubleth, for the sum of 
twelve thousand guilders, in terms of the contract made with 
him on April 25th last, and entered in the secret registers, but 
that it has since been found that a similar order had been de- 
spatched to him before on the same grounds. After discussion 
thereanent, it was resolved that the second order of twelve 
thousand guilders, if it has been despatched, shall be recalled, 
and if it has not yet been issued, that directions be given that 
it be not despatched. 

October 2. With regard to the petition of William Douglas 
to receive payment of a certain order for the amount of twelve 



1 62Q] CAPTAIN WILLIAM DOUGLAS 367 

thousand guilders granted and allowed him as payment for 
several new inventions, of which the models are preserved by 
the country, it was resolved that the Receiver- General be 
spoken to about it, in order that the petitioner may obtain 
half of it provisionally. 

1629, January 24. The petition was read of William 
Douglas, intimating that, in accordance with their High 
Mightinesses 1 resolution, he has exhibited to His Excellency 
and the Council of State the weapons and contrivances invented 
by him, contained in the first contract ; and further, that he 
is prepared to execute what is contained in the second with 
reference to the contrivances for use at sea for burning and 
sinking ships ; and requesting, accordingly, that some resolu- 
tion may be taken either to accept the invented weapons and 
maintain the conditions, or at least that their High Mighti- 
nesses by a downright negative should declare that they do not 
wish to be importuned any longer on the subject, and that, 
accordingly, he shall be permitted, without prejudicing his 
contract or the patent contained in it, to communicate his con- 
trivances to all monarchs, states, or free cities, which are not 
declared enemies of this State. After discussion thereanent, it 
is resolved to place the petition in the hands of the Council of 
State, for advice about it. 

February 6. The advice of the Council of State was read, 
of date the 2nd inst., about the inventions of Captain Douglas, 
to the effect that they have communicated several times with 
His Excellency about them, and that they themselves also 
have seen some experiments, which their honours have found to 
be of such a nature that they cannot but say that Douglas is an 
ingenious man, and the inventions very pretty, and some of 
them may be found useful on some occasion or other, but, not- 
withstanding their honours do not consider that they are of 
such importance that because of them there should be any 
change introduced into the present good arrangements for the 
use of ordinary weapons in this country, as the soldiers through 
length of time and practice have now become very skilled in 
handling them. And accordingly their honours would advise 
that, if the said Captain Douglas is inclined to show his said 
inventions to some other princes or republics, that he be per- 



368 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1629 

mitted to do so ; but not to such as are enemies of this State. 
But as regards his marine inventions to destroy the enemy's 
ships, that he be encouraged to put them into action, the sooner 
the better. After discussion thereanent, their High Mighti- 
nesses conformed to the advice, and further resolved that the 
said Douglas should make a trial, as soon as possible, of his 
inventions for destroying ships, on a ship, which shall be 
brought to Schevelinge [Scheveningen ?] or thereabout, a little 
out at sea. 

February 16. At the request of William Douglas, after 
foregoing discussion, Messrs. Bar and Eysinga are requested 
and commissioned to hear the particulars about the communi- 
cation of his inventions to other princes and states ; also about 
making a trial of his marine inventions on a ship at sea near 
Schevelinge. 



1 627] SERVICES OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR 369 



IV 

FURTHER EXTRACTS RELATING TO THE SERVICES 
AND CLAIMS OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR. 1 

1627-1634. 

LETTERS FROM THE KING TO THE STATES. 

Levy of Cavalry. Furlough for Balfour. 

HAUTS ET PUISSANS SEIGNEURS NOZ BONS AMIS ET ALLIEZ, Diplomatic 
Nous trouvans pousse par les occurences de noz affaires a faire 
quelques levees de cavallerie et provisions d'armes. Nous avons 
fait choix de la Personne du Chevalier Balfore, pour Tenvoyer 
de par dela a cet effet, et Vous avons bien voulu prier de le 
favoriser et donner toute assistance, a ce qu'il puisse d'aultant 
plus librement et promptem* faire les dites levees et provisions 
et les transporter avec plus de seurete. L^asseurance que 
Nous avons en vostre bonne affection envers Nous, Nous fait 
esperer que Vous Nous en rendrez cette nouvelle preuve, et 
qu'en suitte il vous plaira, comme Nous Vous en prions tres 
affectueusem*, de continuer le dit Sieur Balfore, un des premiers 
gentilshorhes de nostre chambre privee, en la charge et solde 
qu'il a soubs vous, et de vouloir estimer que son absence et 
le service qu'il Nous rendra, moyennant la grace de Dieu, sera 
comme si c'estoit pour le service de vostre Estat. 

En cette confiance Nous demeurons, Hauts et puissans 
Seigneurs, Vostre tres affectionne Amy, CHARLES R. 

De nostre palais de Westmestre, le 2 me de febvrier 1627. 

1627, March 27. A letter received from Mr. Joachimi, 
dated the 6th instant, to the effect that the king requests 
permission for Captain Balfour to raise a company of har- 

1 See supra, pp. 69, 199, 215, and 250. 

a . 



370 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1627 

quebusiers, formed of people not in any service, and to 
bring them to England. This will be communicated to His 
Excellency. 

tf 

March 30. It having been reported that His Excellency 
approved of a reply being sent to the letter of Mr. Joachimi, 
received on the 27th inst., to the effect that the company of 
cavalry of Captain Monioye would be placed at the disposal 
of the King of Great Britain ; but as the officers have received 
orders to be with their companies on April 1st, that therefore 
the permission requested for Captain Balfour to raise a com- 
pany of harquebusiers and go with it to England must be 
refused. Their High Mightinesses agreed to this, and decided 
to reply to Mr. Joachimi in these terms, with instructions to 
announce their consent as regards Captain Monioye, and their 
refusal as regards Captain Balfour ; and to direct Monioye to 
hasten his departure, as his month commenced on the 20th 
inst., and at its expiry their High Mightinesses will not pay 
him any longer, being of opinion that the current month 
ought also to be charged to the king, as Monioye is pre- 
paring himself during it for His Majesty's services. He must 
also provide the ships required for his transport, as the ex- 
penses of it will not be borne by their High Mightinesses. 



The King asks furlough for William Balfour. 

HAUTS ET PUISSAXS SEIGNEURS, NOZ BONS AMIS ET ALLIEZ. 
Nous ne faisons point difficulte de vous communiquer le besoin 
que nous avons de quelqu'un de noz subiets qui sont a vostre 
solde, lors que les occasions de noz affaires le requierent, et 
ayant pour le present suiet d'employer nostre feal et bien ame 
Guillaume Balfore en un service qui nous importe et auquel 
son experience, capacite et debuoir envers Nous, rend le choix 
que Nous faisons de sa personne fort considerable. Nous vous 
avons voulu instamment prier de luy donner licence de se 
rendre aupres de Nous, pour Nous en servir pour quelque 
temps en cet employ. Esperant aussi qu'il Vous plaira, comme 
Nous Vous en prions affectueusement de luy continuer son en- 
tretenement aupres de Vous, sans que son absence Luy puisse 
prejudicier, ou qu'il luy en soit rien rabbattu, Vous asseurans 



1 628] SERVICES OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR 371 

que Nous le recognoistrons en toutes les occasions qui s*en 
presenteront. 

Sur ce Nous demeurons, Hauts et puissans Seigneurs, Vostre 
bien bon Amy, CHARLES R. 

De nostre Cour a Bagshott, ce 20 me (TAoust 1627. 



October 6. The Ambassador also presented a missive written Resolutions 

of States 
General. 



by the king on the 20th of last August, in which His Majesty of states * 



asks for leave of absence for Captain Balfour, in order that he 
may employ him while he retains his post and salary in this 
country. No resolution was come to thereanent as yet. 

October 14. After discussion regarding the letter of the King 
of Great Britain, presented on the 6th instant by Ambassador 
Carleton, Baron d'Imbercourt, and the recommendation added 
to it by the said Ambassador, that Captain Balfour may be 
permitted to take service under His Majesty while retaining 
his command and pay in this country, it was agreed that, 
though their High Mightinesses are desirous of pleasing the 
king as much as possible, yet they are debarred from entering 
into this question, as they cannot infringe the resolution, which 
had to be taken for very great and pregnant reasons, concerning 
the defence of the country. 

1628, March 2. A letter received from the King of Great 
Britain, written at Westminster on the 2nd of last month of 
February, and presented by Captain Balfour, in which His 
Majesty requests their High Mightinesses to lend their support 
to the said captain in raising some troopers and providing 
them with arms, which the said captain has orders to do in 
this country, and that he at the same time may retain his 
commission and pay during the time he shall be absent in 
the service of His Majesty. After discussion on this matter, it 
was decided that, as this country can expect nothing else than 
that the King of Spain with his armies, assisted by the entire 
force of the Papal League, will seek to attack this country, as 
already a large portion of the said league has descended upon 
the frontiers of Friesland, Overyssel, and Stad en Landen and 
arrived in East Friesland, in these circumstances their High 
Mightinesses are themselves forced to make a new levy of a 
large body of soldiers for their defence ; that the constitution 



372 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1628 

of the country does not allow of consent being given for any 
foreign levies in the country, so as not to rob it of soldiers 
most necessary to it ; further, that by such levies the cavalry 
of this country would be demoralised and spoiled, as experi- 
ence has taught, far too repeatedly, at other times. And as 
regards the continuation of the said captain in the service of 
this country during the time of his absence, it is found that 
the affairs of the country having required them to take a formal 
and stringent resolution regarding absent officers, the same 
cannot be changed. But should His Majesty desire to employ 
Captain Balfour in his service, their High Mightinesses will 
not prevent him, but his place will have to be filled by another 
capable officer, as is done in other cases of absent officers, in 
order that his company may be commanded in a proper way. 

March 8. It having been announced that Captain Balfour 
and N. Dolbier had left to make their levy of cavalry for the 
King of England in foreign countries, and were to make their 
headquarters at Emden, it was resolved to inform the provinces 
of Friesland and Stad en Landen, also to call the attention of 
the Stadtholder, Duke Ernest Cassimir of Nassau, to this, 
that they may give orders that no troopers are to pass through 
their provinces to Emden, and to summon the said Captain 
Balfour to come here and declare if he wishes to continue in 
the service of this country or not, in order that in case of his 
departure, suitable arrangements may be made about his com- 
pany. 

March 10. Captain Balfour being present was informed 
that he would have to declare if he wished to remain with his 
company or not, asked for a delay till next Monday, and this 
was granted him. 

March 13. Captain Balfour being present declared that it 
is not his intention to retire from their High Mightinesses"* 
service, but only requests leave for three or four months to go 
to the King [of England] and find out His Majesty's intention, 
whether he wishes to keep him or permit him to remain here. 
This matter will also be considered to-morrow. 



1 628] SERVICES OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR 373 

Request of W m Balfour to the States. (Exhibit. March 14, 1 628.) 

MES SIGNEURS, Touchant vostre iuste resolution e le question Diplomatic 
si ie veus quiter ma compagnie en vostre service, ie vous supplie 
de prandre en bonne part ceste remonstrance. Primirement ie 
vous assure, que ceste une de me plus grande desires de servire 
c^este estate toute ma vie et suis bien marri d'entendre qla 
charge qu^il a plu a sa Maiestie de la grande Britagne me doner 
vous desplet, mes Signers ie vous prie de croer que ie n^ay pas 
recerche ceste employment, mais puis que le Roy m'a com- 
mande pour son service pour une temps ie nTassure qu*il trovera 
estrange que ma compagnie me serot oste, a cose qu'il nVa 
done ordre de contibruer a son service pour une peu de temps, 
e a cose que ie ne desire en fason quelconque, que mon parti- 
culir sera cose d'aucune malentendue entre T Roy e ceste estate, 
come estant subiect dTune e serviture dTautre, ie vous sup- 
plie tres humblement de me vouloir conceder conge pour trois 
ou quatre mois selon vostre resolution, tente pour doner 
quelque satisfaction a sa Ma 6 que de ne perdre point si 
abruptement une fidele serviture a PEstat, en lequele temps ie 
pouray savoir la resolution de sa Ma 6 pour me retinnier aupres 
de lui ou de me lesser returnir icy a ma charge en vostre ser- 
vice, en la quelle fay continue, y 'espere sens reproche, ces 
vint e cinque annes passes le flure e^melior partie de mon age, 
ce que ie represente en toute humilite a vos considerations, 
comme ausi le bone service de mon peere, de mon uncle, et de 
plusiurs de mes amis et de mon nome, qui ont este prodigues 
de leur sange et leurs vies en vostre service. J'espere ausi 
qu*il pleyra a vos Sing . . . d'admitter en vostre consideration 
les grandes pretensions et decompts qu* Tavoy quite sur le 
reception de ma compagnie de cavallerie passe dix annes, les 
quelles considerations (ie suis confident) seront bastentes 
pour emouyer vos Sig. a consentier et favoriser mes iustes 
demendes. 

[On the margin is written] : Ha. Ho. Mo. slaende aff het 
versoeck in desen gedaen, geven den Suppl. noch den tijt tot 
morgen omme ronde verclaringe te doen off hij in dienst van 
den lande wil continueren off niet, 'twelck men* liever soude 
sien. Act. den 14 Martij 1628. 



374 



THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR 



[1628 



Resolutions 
of States- 
General. 



March 17. A memorial was read, presented by Captain 
Balfour, in which he declares that as he must obey his king in 
the matter of the levy of cavalry, he places himself and his 
company in the hands of their High Mightinesses, hoping that 
they will take into consideration his services, rendered both in 
and out of this country, and the services of his predecessors, 
and the large claims which he abandoned to the advantage of 
this country, and that all these will induce their High Mighti- 
nesses not to deprive him of his company without recompence. 
After discussion on this matter, it was resolved to inform the 
said captain that their High Mightinesses would prefer that 
he should continue in the service of this country, but that 
they do not wish now to prevent him from entering the ser- 
vice of His Majesty, thanking him for his services rendered 
to this country, and promising him that if he should have 
occasion hereafter to return, his good qualities and the services 
rendered by him would be taken into very earnest and favour- 
able consideration. It was also decided that his Excellency 
be consulted as to whether the said company might be given 
to the of Earl Backlough, so as thereby to have the pay of two 
thousand guilders discontinued. 



Diplomatic 
Correspond- 



Request of W m Balfour. (Exhib. March 27.) 

Aux hautes et puissentes Signeurs Mes sig 8 les estats 
generaulx de provinces unies de paysbas. 

MES sic 8 , Puisque v. ss. ne trouve pas bon de me donner 
conge pour trois moi, au fin de procurer liberte de mon Roy 
de returner ici a ma charge, apres m'avoir aquite de ces com- 
mandements, il me faut obtemperer en cela, et en toute autre 
chose, a vostre bonne plesir et deliberation. Et puis que le 
necessite d'obeyer mon Roy me contreint de proceder en cette 
leve, lequelle pouroit contribuer quelque iour au service de 
ceste estat, il faut que ie submet, et moy et ma compagnie 
a vos sages considerations, le quelles y'espeer que vos Sig s auront 
en mon endroict, tant pour le longes annes de mon service, 
en le queles ie ay tousiours contribue pour le bien et honeur d" 
ceste estate tant ici au pays que de hors, autant que persone 
de ma qualite comme pourrient temoinger vos Ambassadors, 



1628] SERVICES OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR 375 

de temps en temps envoyes en Angletere, comme ausi ie feray 
encore paroitre en toutes ocasions pour vostre service, ausi 
Tespere que vos considerations seront favorables en mon 
endroit, au regard de bonnes servicis de mes prediseseurs, et 
me grandes pretentions renonces en faveur de Testate argu- 
ments pour emouoyer vos Sig s de ne me traiter si rudement 
que de m'oster ma Compagnie sans aucune compensation, ayant 
tousiours ete comme ie seray a jamais. Mes Sig 8 , de vos Sig 8 
les plus humble servitur W. BALFOUR. 

March 27. As Captain Balfour has resigned [the command Resolutions 
of] his company it was resolved to inform the Lords of [the 
Provinces of] Holland about it, in order that they may proceed 
to the nomination of another suitable person in his room. 

July 12. A communication was made to their High 
Mightinesses of a missive written by Mr. Balfour to his Ex- 
cellency on June 6th last, informing him that owing to the 
report circulated about the calamity said to have befallen the 
Duke of Buckingham in England, the merchants had refused 
to pay the bills of exchange for the support of the twelve 
thousand troopers levied for service under the King of England, 
and that the States of Groningen had made said troopers 
remove from their province, and requesting his Excellency to 
propose some plans for the maintenance of said troops, or else 
that he, along with all or a portion of them, be taken into the 
service of their High Mightinesses. After discussion, it was 
resolved that the President and Mr. Schaffer should confer 
with his Excellency on the subject. 

July 23. Mr. Schaffer having announced to their High 
Mightinesses that the States of Stad en Landen intend to 
cause the one thousand troopers raised by Colonel Balfour for 
service under the King of Great Britain to remove from their 
province, fearing they may not be properly paid, and noticing 
that their High Mightinesses do not wish to take said troopers 
into their service, it was resolved, after discussion, to com- 
municate with his Excellency about this matter, and Messrs. 
Noortwyck and Schaffer were requested and commissioned to 
do so. 

July 24. A proposal was made by the President on the 



376 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1628 

part of the Agent Carleton, respecting the retention of the 
cavalry of His Majesty, the King of Great Britain, raised by 
Balfour. It was requested by Mr. Schaffer that their High 
Mightinesses should consent to the quartering of said cavalry 
of the King of Great Britain, and that steps be taken and 
orders issued, as was done when the infantry, which came from 
Staden to Overyssel, were brought down and put into quarters ; 
so as to treat the various provinces on an equal footing. After 
discussion, it was resolved hereby to request and commission 
Messrs. Feyt and Schaffer to summon the Agent Carleton before 
them and to ascertain from him if he could give their High 
Mightinesses any guarantee for the maintenance and payment 
of the above-mentioned troopers, in order that this point being 
cleared up, further action may be taken in the matter. 

October 3. The President announced to their High Mighti- 
nesses that Captain Balfour has begged his Excellency very 
earnestly that their High Mightinesses be induced to take into 
their service a section of the cavalry raised by him, which His 
Majesty of Great Britain intends to disband, or that at least 
his company be accepted. After discussion it was resolved and 
decided that this matter cannot be entered into. 

October 13. Ex-Captain Balfour appeared before the meet- 
ing, and at first verbally and thereafter in writing requested, 
that in consideration of the good and faithful services of his 
father, his uncle, and himself, rendered in succession from time 
to time to the country, he shall receive the pay of a captain 
till such time as their High Mightinesses may decide to employ 
him in their service. After discussion, it was resolved to place 
his written petition in the hands of the Council of State for 
advice. 

October %5. The advice of the Council of State, of date the 
17th inst., was read, with regard to the relation given by Sir 
William Balfour on the 13th instant, at first verbally and 
thereafter in writing, about the old good services which his 
father, his uncles, he himself, and others of his family have 
rendered to the country, together with some old documents 
produced by him, putting it to the judgment of their High 
Mightinesses whether these do not warrant the continuation to 
him of his captain's pay ; their advice being that he be 



1634] SERVICES OF SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR 377 

honoured with a gold chain, worth one thousand guilders, 
more or less, and that his Excellency promise to keep him in 
mind when occasion serves. After discussion, it was resolved 
and decided that this matter be entrusted to the above-men- 
tioned Council of State to be disposed of. 

1634, April 28. After discussion, it was resolved unani- 
mously by all the provinces present, that the life-pension 
hitherto paid to Sir William Balfour, amounting in all to six 
hundred guilders, according to the pension-letter dated April 
16th, 1615, be transferred, as hereby it is transferred, one half, 
amounting to three hundred guilders annually, on the life of 
Cornelia van Weede, aged about eighteen years, and the other 
half, on the life of Wilhelmina van Weede, aged about sixteen 
years ; and on the death of either of the aforesaid daughters, 
the three hundred guilders settled solely on the life of the 
deceased will cease to be paid and will revert to the country. 1 



1 This pension had in 1615 been settled on the life of Sir William Balfour's 
son, William Balfour (p. 255). Sir William's surviving son was named Charles, 
but two others, Alexander and William, were dead before 1659 and are both 
said to have served in Holland (see p. 70). 

Sir William Balfour married : 

(1) Helen, daughter of Archibald, Lord Napier. 

(2) Isabella, d. 1661, by whom he left : 

i. Alex. Balfour, col. (?) in Dutch Army, m. El. Buenel. 

ii. Wm. Balfour, served in Low Countries, d. before 1659. 

iii. Chas. Balfour, m. 1665 Cicely, dau. of Sir R. Byron, att. 1689, 
who left one son, Wm. Chas. Balfour, also att. by Irish Parliament 
1689, and d. unmarried in 1739, leaving estate, name, and arms 
to his nephew Harry Townley, son of Lucy Balfour and Blayney 
Townley. 

iv. Emilia Balfour, m. Alex. 4th Earl of Moray. 

v. Isabella Balfour, m. 1649 John, 3rd Lord Balfour of Burleigh. 

vi. Susanna Balfour, m. Hugh Hamilton, Lord Glenawley. 
(Note communicated by Mr. B. T. Balfour of Townley Hall.) 



378 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1623 



EXTRACTS RELATING TO THE CLAIMS AND 

SERVICES OF THE EARL OF BUCCLEUCH. 

1623-1635.1 

Resolutions 1623, Januar 28. Ayant este rapporte en Tassemblee de 
General 8 Messeig 8 les Estats gnlx des Provinces Unies du pays has, par 
le S r President la serieuse recommandation que de la part du 
Roy de la Grande Bretagne le S r Carleton son Ambassademv 
luy a ce matin faict, affin que par Iceulx Seig rs Estats finale- 
ment seroit resolu sur Peffectuation de ce qu'est traicte avec le 
Seigneur Conte de Bachlouch, par escript. Et sur le tout 
meurem* delibere, que les d s Seig* 8 Estats, requiz le d* S r 
President de vouloir referer et declarer pour responce au d* 
S r Ambas r de leur part, Qu'ilz sont tres-inclins pour faire 
avoir aud. S r Conte contentement de ce qu*a este contracte 
avec luy et quilz n'oublieront nulle occasion qui a cest effect 
se pourroit offrir, et que mesmes ilz tacheront s'il est poissible 
de entammer quelque traicte avec le Colonnel Brogh a son 
retour, quant il reviendra d'Angleterre, et qu^ilz y contribue- 
ront tout ce que sera poissible. 

January 31. Mr. Broersma reported that he communicated 
to his Excellency the resolution passed by their High Mighti- 
nesses in regard to the recommendation of Mr. Carleton, on 

1 Upon the death of Colonel Sir R. Henderson at Bergen-op-Zoom in 1622, 
Prince Maurice gave the colonelcy to his brother, Sir Francis, who had served as 
lieut. -colonel. * Sir Francis Henderson is a man well deserving the preferment,' 
wrote Sir D. Carleton to the Duke of Buckingham, ' but much wrong is done to 
my Lord of Bucklugh, who had a formal Act of the States for the next regiment 
should fall of the Scottish nation in their service ' (August 25, 1622. St. P. 
Holland.) See papers relating to the claims of Lord Buccleuch and the Earl 
of Buccleuch, pp. 256-269, and especially the Act Expectative, p. 268. Also, 
for a recapitulation of the transactions, the Report of the Council of State in 
1635, infra, pp. 391-395- 



1 623] CLAIMS OF EARL OF BUCCLEUCH 379 

the part of the King of Great Britain, with reference to the 
case of the Earl of Bachlouch, and that his Excellency de- 
clared to him respecting it that he had doubts about the said 
resolution, on account of the return of Colonel Brog. And 
accordingly it was resolved to keep on offering the most 
plausible reasons for delay, and to tell Mr. Carleton by word 
of mouth that since the said Colonel Brog has returned and is 
advanced in years, that measures are to be taken to deal with 
him as considerately as possible. 

[February 9, March 15, 21, April 21, May 13, petitions of 
D. Carleton for satisfaction for Buccleuch. The States defer 
decision, and ask the advice of the Council of State.] 

June 2. There was brought up the advice of the Council of 
State, drawn up in the presence of his Excellency on the 27th 
ultimo, regarding the case of the Earl of Bachlouch, to the 
effect that ' the Council is of the same opinion as his Excel- 
lency, namely, that, considering the great want and deficiency 
at present of ready money, and that it is not usual to allow 
interest on such accounts, the said earl be granted a pension 
of twelve hundred guilders, to be drawn yearly, as interest for 
the sum claimed, until in course of time he shall be provided 
by their High Mightinesses with a regiment, or other worthy 
position. Otherwise their High Mightinesses' former resolu- 
tions are to remain unmodified and entire ' ; but no steps were 
taken to carry out the above. 

June 12. . . . Their High Mightinesses, by advice of the 
Council of State, confirmed, and do hereby grant a pension of 
twelve hundred guilders yearly [to the Earl of Buccleuch], till 
an opportunity shall occur for the said earl to be provided 
with a colonelcy of the Scots regiments. 

June 28. A despatch was read from Mr. Jan Clercke on 
behalf of the Earl of Bachlouch, to the effect that he, having 
seen their High Mightinesses 1 resolution about the arrears of 
the said earl, has to say that from a sense of duty, with full 
knowledge of his general's opinion and resolution, he absolutely 
refuses to accept said resolution, with everything recorded 
therein : firstly, because their High Mightinesses estimate his 
arrears at only eighteen thousand four hundred guilders, which 
differs greatly from his general's account, much more being 



380 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1623 

due to him ; secondly, because their High Mightinesses offer 
him twelve hundred guilders per annum as interest on his 
arrears, till their High Mightinesses"* resolution shall take 
effect. Lastly, that the said earl can in no circumstances 
accept an ' Expectative [Act]. 1 

July 8. It was resolved to send to Ambassador Caron a 
copy of the resolution taken regarding the claims of the Earl 
of Bachlouch, and to write to the said Caron to do all he can 
to induce and recommend the said earl to accept and be 
satisfied with it. 

September 12. It was resolved to write to the Commis- 
sioners of their High Mightinesses, and to his Excellency, 
that ' as the report is current here that Colonel Brog is dead, 
and that it is true, or likely will be, they must see that no 
arrangements are made about the disposal of his post, both on 
account of the transactions with the Earl of Bachlouch, and 
because measures must be taken to decrease the high pay of 
the colonels.' 

1624, July 9. Mr. Joachimi gave some information on a 
few points, and requested a resolution of their High Mighti- 
nesses concerning them. And first, with reference to the East 
India Company. . . . Secondly, that the Marquis of Hamilton 
very earnestly recommends that the Earl of Bachlouch receive 
satisfaction of his claims. This matter to be taken into due 
consideration at the first opportunity. 

1625, October 29. Mr. Carleton, Ambassador of the King 
of Great Britain, appeared before the meeting, bringing up 
four different points for consideration. First, regarding the 
Earl of Baclough \sic\ requesting satisfaction for him, and pre- 
senting for the same purpose a missive from the king, dated 
May 12th last, in which the said case is earnestly recommended. 

October 30. There were read the previous resolutions taken 
in the case of the Earl of Bachlough, in whose favour the 
King of Great Britain is writing, and Mr. Carleton, His 
Majesty ^s Ambassador, is saying all he can. After discussion, 
it was resolved that the said resolutions, with the proposal of 
the said Ambassador made yesterday about the same matter, 
be placed in the hands of the Council of State for advice, 

November 29. It was also reported that the Duke of Buck- 



1625] CLAIMS OF EARL OF BUCCLEUCH 381 

ingham, and other Ambassadors of England, after holding a 
conference yesterday with their High Mightinesses 1 Commis- 
sioners, recommended to them the case of the Earl of Baclough, 
also that of Colonel Veer, in order the latter may have pro- 
motion granted him, and an increase of pay. It was resolved 
thereanent to refer to former resolutions. 

December 9. The advice was read of the Council of State, 
drawn up on November 28th last, in which said Council refers 
to their former advice of May 28th, 1623, regarding the Earl of 
Backlough, in which said Council recommended that a pension 
of twelve hundred guilders yearly be granted for his claims 
(broadly estimated at the sum of eighteen thousand four 
hundred guilders), until he shall be provided with a regiment 
or some other honourable position ; to which advice the Council 
still adheres. After discussion thereanent, their High Mighti- 
nesses found it better to finish the matter once for all, and see 
if they could come to terms. Messrs, van Noortwyck and 
Beaumont were appointed a committee for the purpose. 

December 13. The Ambassadors of England having urged 
that a resolution be come to in the cases of the Earl of Back- 
lough and Colonel Veer, it was resolved that both by their 
High Mightinesses and by his Excellency an Expectative [Act] 
be given to the said earl of the first regiment, or of the first 
company of cavalry of the Scotch nation which may fall vacant, 
and that the State of War be examined to ascertain whether 
there cannot be found on it so many ' expired salaries ' that a 
pension of two thousand guilders a year, or so much less as 
their High Mightinesses may determine, may be given him till 
that time. 

December 16. The Commissioners of their High Mighti- 
nesses reported that they, according to the wish of the meeting, 
informed the Ambassadors of the King of Great Britain yester- 
day that their High Mightinesses, having again by their 
recommendation discussed the case of the Earl of Backlough, 
resolved that by them, and also by his Excellency, an Expec- 
tative Act be granted to said earl of the first company of 
cavalry, or some other important command, which may fall 
vacant among the Scots, and that, till that time, a pension of 
two thousand guilders be granted him. 



382 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1625 

December 23. The resolution of the 16th instant was com- 
municated to his Excellency about the case of the Earl of 
Backlough, and he was informed that the solicitor of the earl 
was not satisfied therewith, and desired no other Act than he 
received before, and that his Excellency might see good to 
abide by said resolution. Decision on this matter was post- 
poned. 

1627, March 27. Also that the Earl of Backlough demands 
from their High Mightinesses and from his Excellency a new 
Act to have the first Scots regiment which shall fall vacant in 
the field or otherwise, and to receive in the meantime, from 
the year 1625, the pension of two thousand guilders yearly. 
Former resolutions about the matter are to be referred to. 

LETTER FROM THE KING. 

Recommendatwnfor the Earl of Backlough. (Rec. June 3, 1 627. ) 
Diplomatic HAUTS ET PuissANTS SEIGNEURS, Le grand desir et affection 

ence. i ue demonstre avoir nostre cher cousin le comte de Buccleuche 

de suivre Texemple de feu son Pere en se donnant a vostre 
service, Nous invite a vous renouveller la recommandation qui 
vous a cy-devant este faite de nostre part en sa faveur, par la 
bouche de nostre trescher cousin le Due de Buckingham, a 
ceque, pour luy donner moyen de ce faire, vous le vouliez 
pourvoir et luy donner brevet ou asseurance de la premiere 
charge de colonnel qui viendra a vacquer, ou que vous voudrez 
adjouster par nouvelle levee a ceux qui vous servent desja de 
la nation Escossoise. Et en attendant qu^il vous plaise luy 
donner et faire valoir la pension de deux cens livres sterling, 
dont vous feites offre pour luy aud. Due nfe cousin, lors qu^il 
vous requit de cest affaire. Etce, tant en consideration des 
bons et fideles services que led. feu Comte de Buccleuche son 
Pere a si longuement rendus a vostre estat qu'en faveur de 
ceste bonne et pareille affection qui porte le courage de ce 
jeune seigneur au service de vostre cause ; com me aussy de la 
requisition affectueuse que nous vous en faisons pour Tamour 
de luy. A quoy nous promettans que vous defererez ce que 
nous esperons de vous, nous prierons Dieu, Hauts et Puis- 
sants Seigneurs, qu'il vous ait tousjours en sa s te garde. 
Vostre bien bon Amy, CHARLES R. 

A nostre Palais de Westmestre, le 31 de Decembre 1626. 



1 627] CLAIMS OF EARL OF BUCCLEUCH 383 

The Duke of Buckingham recommends the Earl ofBaclough. 

(Exhib. July 3, 1627.) 

MESSEIGNEURS, Les merites du feu Baron de Buccleugh 
peuvent assez sans mon entremise pour induire V. S. a departir 
vostre faveur a son filz le Comte de Buccleugh, n'estant moins 
affectionne a vostre service que feu son pere. Toutes fois 
Tamitie que je luy porte et Testime que je fay de ses merites, 
me font prendre la hardiesse de ramontevoir a V. S. la promesse 
qu'il vous pleut me faire en son endroict du premier Regiment 
de la nation Escossoise qui viendroit a vacquer au service de 
V. S., ou bien du premier qui se leveroit de nouveau, et en 
attendant telle occasion de luy donner une pension annuelle de 
deux cent livres sterlins, dont a mon retour par deca Je rendi 
compte a sa Ma 6 suivant la charge qu'elle m'avoit donnee en 
cest endroict. Et maintenant Je supplie V. S. de luy confirmer 
par vostre acte ou brevet la dicte promesse, par ou vous 
obligerez le d fc comte d'employer sa vie et fortune au service 
de V. S. et moy d'estre toute ma vie. Messeig rs , de V. S. tres 
humble serviteur, BUCKINGHAM. 

De Londres, le 30 e Janvier 1630. 1 

July 3. A missive was received from the King of Great Resolutions 
Britain, and another from the Duke of Buckingham, both 
\vritten in recommendation of granting the Earl of Backlough 
an Act Expectative of the first Scots regiment, and meanwhile 
two thousand guilders yearly. No resolution was taken with 
reference to the above. 

July 12. A petition was read from Ambassador Carleton, 
in which he requested that the Act promised to the Earl of 
Backlouch on December 26th, 1625, may be despatched, and 
that there be inserted in it the minute of resolution of July 6th, 
1620, viz., that no withdrawal or repeal of the said Act may 
take place. His Excellency's advice is to be asked with refer- 
ence to this. 

July 27. A despatch of 18th instant was received from the 
Army Commissioners, giving similar advice, and that his 
Excellency might well allow an Act Expectative to be granted 

1 Sic in MS. But Buckingham was assassinated in 1628, the letter produced 
in 1627, and the colonelcy granted in 1629. 



384 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1627 

to the Earl of Backlough, if only it be made to refer to a 
company of cavalry, or some other important command among 
the Scots, and be not extended to a regiment. It was resolved 
thereanent to despatch such an Act and hand it over to Mr. 
Carleton. 

August 5. It was resolved that the pension of two thousand 
guilders yearly to the Earl of Backlouch shall commence from 
July 5th last, this being the date of the Act Expectative granted 
to the Earl of Backlouch. 

August 21. With reference to the request of Ambassador 
Carleton that the pension of two thousand guilders yearly to 
the Earl of Backlouch shall commence on December 16th, 1625, 
it was resolved to adhere to the resolution of the 5th instant 
with reference thereto, namely, that as on December 16th, 1625, 
the offer which was made was not accepted, the said pension 
shall not begin on any other day than July 20th last. 

September 2. . . . That they (i.e. the commissioners of 
the Army in the field) wish to speak to his Excellency in 
favour of Backlouch obtaining the company of cavalry of 
Monjoye, in case his Excellency wishes to dispose of it, so as 
to relieve the country of the pension of two thousand guilders. 

1628, November 20. The petition was read of the Earl of 
Bachlough, requesting that he, in virtue of the Act Expecta- 
tive granted him by their High Mightinesses, be provided 
with the first vacant colonelcy, and consequently be preferred 
to all others, on condition that in that case the pension shall 
cease which on July 20th, 1627, was increased from twelve 
hundred to two thousand guilders. After discussion there- 
anent, it was resolved and decided that the President com- 
municate this petition to his Excellency, and inform him 
that their High Mightinesses are willing to grant the peti- 
tioner's request, so as to give effect to their public promise, 
and relieve the country from a yearly pension. 

November 21. The President reported that he represented to 
his Excellency that their High Mightinesses are willing to allow 
the Earl of "Backlough the benefit of his Act Expectative, in 
order to relieve the government of their promise, and the country 
of the payment of the yearly pension, amounting to the sum of 
two thousand guilders, and that his Excellency considered it very 



1628] CLAIMS OF EARL OF BUCCLEUCH 385 

reasonable, and that it should be attended to as soon as a 
vacancy occurs in a Scottish company of horse ; inasmuch as the 
aforesaid Act speaks of some such or other honourable post, 
which may be understood as one of less importance. 

After discussion thereanent, and the letter of the Council of 
State having been taken into account, it was resolved and 
decided that the first colonelcy of a Scottish regiment which 
may fall vacant be not presented to any one without previous 
notice to, and the consent of their High Mightinesses ; and that 
with this end in view, this resolution be announced to His 
Excellency and the aforesaid Council of State. 

November 25. After reading and examining the proposal of 
Agent Carleton and the resolutions, acts, and promises of their 
High Mightinesses presented by him along with it, in order to 
establish the claim of the Earl of Bachlough to have the 
colonelcy of the late Sir Francis Henderson conferred upon 
him, it was resolved, after foregoing discussion, hereby to 
request and commission Count van Culenborch, W. van Be- 
veren, etc., to present these documents to his Excellency, to 
get his opinion about them, and bring in a report about the 
whole. 

Proposal to divide the Two Regiments of Scotsmen 
into Three. 

December 1. The case of the Earl of Baclouch being Resolutiong 
brought up again for discussion, with regard to his claims to the of states- 
colonelcy of the Scots regiment of the late Sir Francis Hender- General * 
son, founded on several acts and resolutions of their High 
Mightinesses, referred to by Agent Carleton in his proposition 
of the 24th November last, and thereafter handed in. It was 
resolved, after foregoing discussion, to place the said proposi- 
tion with the papers referred to in the hands of the Council of 
State for examination and advice, and to request the said 
Council to consider if it would not be advisable and advan- 
tageous for the country to divide the two Scots regiments in 
their High Mightinesses 1 service into three regiments, and to 
furnish them with two other colonels and other officers required 
besides Colonel Brogh. 



386 



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR 



[1628 



Advice of the Council of State. (Dec. 7, 1628.) 

HIGH MIGHTINESSES, We have seen your High Mightinesses 1 
resolution of the 1st instant, and find that two points in it 
have to be considered : the first, the pretensions of the Earl of 
Bachlough to the colonelcy of the Scots regiment of the late 
Sir Francis Henderson; the other, whether it would not be 
advisable and beneficial for the country to divide the two 
Scots regiments in your High Mightinesses 1 service into three 
regiments, and to furnish them with two other colonels, besides 
Colonel Brogh and other officers required therefor. 

Whereupon, in order to advise your High Mightinesses we 
have, as far as concerns the first point, read all the accompany- 
ing documents which were presented to your High Mighti- 
nesses on behalf of the Earl of Backlough. And having taken 
into consideration the various acts of promise given in connec- 
tion with it, we cannot see, in view of them, how on this 
occasion he can again be honourably passed over ; seeing, too, 
that this is the same regiment which aforetime his own father 
brought over to serve this country, and since before everything 
else the advantage of the country ought to be considered, 
which is the more in favour of his case, inasmuch as by his 
promotion the country will be relieved of the payment of [the 
sum of] two thousand guilders yearly, which hitherto, owing 
to want of money, has not been paid, and we cannot see how 
it is to be paid in future. 

Regarding the other point, whether a third regiment can be 
formed with advantage to the country from the two Scots 
regiments, as thereby the country must be burdened with new 
payments and officers, we could give no other opinion (under 
correction) than that it cannot be done at this time with 
advantage to the country owing to lack of money. But if 
your High Mightinesses should find it advisable and convenient 
to enter into this matter, we think that the pay of the new 
officers could be found, and less burden laid on the country, if 
the regiments should be decreased by so many soldiers as the 
said payments, regulated after the new standard, amount to, 
which can be done by a decrease of sixty -three soldiers. And as 
we see daily that the colonels leaving this country remain for 
years absent from duty, and yet draw the country's pay, to 
the manifest detriment of the country, we deem it necessary 



1 628] CLAIMS OF EARL OF BUCCLEUCH 387 

that your High Mightinesses should be pleased to take into 
consideration whether it would not be beneficial to make a firm 
resolution that colonels, as well as lieut.-colonels and captains, 
are not to remain away beyond a certain fixed time without 
losing their pay. H. VAN DER CAPELLEN, Pres. 

By order of the Council of State of the United Netherlands, 

M. HUYGENS. 

At the Hague, Dec. 7th, 1628. 



December 12. There was read the advice of the Council of Resolutions 

of States 
General 



State, of date the 7th instant, with reference to their High of states ' 
Mightinesses 1 resolution of the 1st instant, and consisting of two 
parts : the first as to the claims of the Earl of Backlouch to 
the colonelcy of the Scots regiment of the late Sir Francis 
Henderson; and the other, as to whether it would not be 
advisable and advantageous for the country to divide the two 
regiments in their High Mightinesses 1 service into three 
regiments, and furnish them with two other colonels besides 
Colonel Brogh, and with other officers required for them. The 
advice as regards the first point was to the effect, that they 
have read all the documents presented to their High Mighti- 
nesses on behalf of the said earl, and have considered the many 
various acts of promise made to him regarding it, and would 
submit as their opinion that in consideration thereof he cannot 
honourably be passed by again on this occasion, seeing too 
that this is the same regiment which his own father brought 
over in former days to serve the country, and that, further- 
more, before everything else the advantage the country may 
reap should be attended to ; which makes his case the stronger, 
inasmuch as by his promotion the country will be relieved of 
the payment of two thousand guilders yearly, which hitherto 
has not been paid owing to want of money, and can with 
difficulty be paid. 

As regards the second point, inasmuch as thereby the 
country will be burdened with new salaries and officers, the 
said Council are unable to come to any other decision than 
that it cannot be done at this time with advantage to 
the country owing to scarcity of money; but if their High 
Mightinesses should find it advisable to take this step, the 



388 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1628 

Council's opinion is, that the pay of the new officers could be 
found with less burden on the country if the regiments were 
diminished by as many men as said payments regulated by 
new standard will amount to, which could be done by a decrease 
of sixty-three soldiers. They would also like it to be con- 
sidered whether it would not be beneficial to take a decided 
resolution that colonels, as well as lieutenant-colonels and 
captains, are not to remain absent beyond a certain fixed time 
without losing their pay. After discussion thereanent in the 
presence of his Excellency, the business was adjourned. 

December 15. There was read over the advice of the Council 
of State of the 7th instant regarding the two Scots regiments 
in their High Mightinesses' service about dividing them into 
three regiments. After foregoing discussion, the division was 
agreed to, and it was resolved that besides Colonel Brogh, 
two other colonels and other officers required for the two 
regiments be appointed, on condition that the two colonels be 
each paid three hundred pounds per month, and that the officers 
to be newly appointed be placed on the revised State of War ; 
and that the Council of State shall promptly effect the reduction 
of each company by two men, in order that the increased number 
of payments to colonels and officers may be found out of the 
pay of the men dispensed with. Further, it was also resolved 
that the colonels, lieut.-colonels, and captains must be in this 
country during the summer, and that during the winter the said 
colonels may be absent by permission six months, and the 
lieut.-colonels and captains, likewise by permission, three 
months, on penalty of forfeiting their respective pay for the 
time beyond the above during which they remain absent from 
the country. That notification of this is to be made to all 
absent colonels, lieut.-colonels, and captains by the said 
Council of State, after consulting with his Excellency. The 
deputies of the Province of Holland and of Stadt en Landen 
declared that they could not agree to the above-mentioned 
division, as they had no instructions about it from their 
principals. 

(Rec. Augt 20, 1629.) 

HAUTS ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS, Depuis que je re^eu vostre 
resolution le 4 de feurier selon le vieux stile touchant le 



1632] CLAIMS OF EARL OF BUCCLEUCH 389 

regiment qui m'est ordonne par vos Seigneuriers, je m'adressay 
i neon tin. de expedier mes affaires en ces quartiers icy, et 
m'apprester en toute diligence de me rendre par de la pour 
attendre vostre service, auquel je tacheray de nVemployer aussy 
fidelement qu'aucun que ce soit, et pour cest effect me trou- 
veray en Holland au mois ensuivant, ou je recevray les com- 
mandements de vos seigneuries. Et ainsy laissant les 
particular* tes a Penseigne Scot, j'abstiens de vous importuner 
plus a present, et vous baisant tres humblement les mains, je 
demeure de vos Seigneureries tres humble et tres affectionne 
serviteur, BUCCLEUCHE. 

D'Edimbourg, le 6 de Mars 1629. 

1629, November '.29. Mr. Beaumont informed the meeting Resolutions 
that the Earl of Backlough requests that their High Mighti- 
nesses provide him with his commission as colonel of a regiment 
of Scots, this having been conferred on him by their High 
Mightinesses 1 * former resolution, and that he be admitted to 
take his oath of allegiance to the country. Secondly, that the 
commencement of his pay and wages as colonel date from the 
death of Colonel Francis Henderson, who died here in the 
Hague, seeing that to him, Backlough, was specially promised 
by Act of their High Mightinesses the first Scots regiment 
which should fall vacant. After discussion thereanent, it was 
resolved that a commission be despatched to the said earl by 
their High Mightinesses, and thereupon he is to take the proper 
oath, and that his pay and wages as colonel shall commence 
on the date of the Act granted by His Excellency for the said 
colonelcy. 

December 19. The petition was read of the Earl of Back- 
lough, requesting for the reasons stated therein that his pay as 
colonel shall commence on the day on which the regiment was 
formed for him. After discussion thereanent, it was resolved, 
in accordance with their High Mightinesses 1 resolution of 
Nov. 29th last, that the petitioner's pay as colonel is to com- 
mence on the date of the Act granted by His Excellency for 
the said colonelcy. 

1632, May 25. There was also received from the King of 
Great Britain a missive, written at Whitehall on April 10th 



390 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1632 

last, containing a request that their High Mightinesses would 
excuse the Earl of Backlough for being unable to discharge his 
duties as colonel in the next campaign. After discussion there- 
anent, no decision was taken. 

HAUTS ET PUISSANTS SEIGNEURS, Nos BON ALLIEZ, Entendans 
que vous prenez en mauvaise part la longue absence de nostre 
Cousin le Comte de Buccleuth, et supposez qu'il y a de sa faute, 
Nous n'avons pu pour vous en esclaircir et fair voir son inocence, 
que vous faire entendre qu'a la verite c'est nous mesmes qui 
Tavons si long temps retarde et garde prez de nous pour 
quelques affaires qui ne pouvoient aucunement souffrir son 
esloignement. Nous vous prions de ne vouloir permettre (au 
moins en nostre egard) que son absence luy porte aucun preju- 
dice ni en sa charge ni en son entretenement. Et vou